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Unity and Diversity in the Carolingian Church

  • Rosamond McKitterick (a1)

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With their steady series of conquests during the eighth century, adding Alemannia, Frisia, Aquitaine, the Lombard kingdom in northern Italy, Septimania, Bavaria, Saxony, and Brittany to the Frankish heartlands in Gaul, the Carolingians created what Ganshof regarded as an unwieldy empire. Was the Carolingian Church unwieldy too? Recent work, notably that of Janet Nelson, has underlined not only the political ideologies that helped to hold the Frankish realms together, but also the practical institutions and actions of individuals in government and administration. Can the same be done for the Church? Despite the extraordinary diversity of the Carolingian world and its ecclesiastical traditions, can it be described as a unity? What sense of a ‘Frankish Church’ or of ‘Frankish ecclesiastical institutions’ can be detected in the sources?

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1 Ganshof, F. L., Frankish Institutions under Charlemagne, trans. Bryce and Mary Lyon (New York, 1968).

2 For example, Nelson, Janet L., Politics and Ritual in the Early Middle Ages (London, 1986); Charles the Bald (London, 1992); ‘Literacy in Carolingian government’, in Rosamond McKitterick, ed., The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe (Cambridge, 1990), pp. 258-96; and ‘Kingship and empire in the Carolingian world’, in Rosamond McKitterick, ed., Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 52-87.

3 A clear statement of the issues is to be found in Vlasto, A. P., The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom (Cambridge, 1970), but the important discussions of the detail are A. Dostál, ‘The origins of the Slavonic liturgy’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 19 (1965), pp. 67-88, and an assessment of Dostál’s paper in light of the subsequent two decades’ investigations in Dostál’s Festschrift by Henrik Birnbaum: ‘On the eastern and western components of the earliest Slavic liturgy: the evidence of the Euchologium Sinaiticum and related texts’, in T. G. Winner, ed., Essays in the Area of Slavic Languages, Linguistics, and Byzantology: A Festchrift in Honor of Antonin Dostál on the Occasion of his Seventy-Fifth Birthday, Byzantine Studies/Études Byzantines, 8, 11, 12 (1981, 1984-5), pp. 25-44. See also Ihor Ševčenko, ‘Report on the Glagolitic fragments (of the Euchologium Sinaiticum?) discovered on Sinai in 1975 and some thoughts on the models for the make up of the earliest Glagolitic manuscripts’, in Ihor Ševčenko, Byzantium and the Slavs in Letters and Culture (Cambridge, Mass., 1991), pp. 617-50.

4 See Shepard, Jonathan, ‘Slavs and Bulgare’, in McKitterick, Rosamond, ed., The New Cambridge Medieval History, 11: 700-900 (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 22848 . I am very grateful to Jonathan Shepard for his guidance on the Moravian mission.

5 I also hope to provide a wider context for the important contributions to the subject of the liturgy in the early Middle Ages made by Yitzhak Hen and Catherine Cubitt, above, pp. 19-30 and 45-57.

6 MGH Cap, I, no. 22, c. 60, p. 57; translation by P. D. King, Charlemagne. Translated Sources (Kendal, 1986), p. 214.

7 Ibid., c. 78, p. 60; trans. King, p. 218.

8 Ibid., c. 82, p. 61; trans. King, p. 219.

9 Ibid., c. 81, p. 61; trans. King, pp. 218-19.

10 Ibid., c. 80, p. 61; trans. King (I have modified it slightly), p. 218.

11 MCH Cap, I, no. 33 (02), c. 40, p. 98.

12 McKittcrick, R., The Frankish Church and the Carolingian Reforms, 789-895 (London, 1977).

13 MCH Cone, II. 1, no. 1, c. 7, p. 4; no. 2 c. 1 p. 7; no. 11, p. 60, lines 19-20.

14 Ludwig Traube, Textgeschichte der Regula Sancii Benedicti, Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philo.-philol.-, und hist.- Klasse, 25 (Munich, 1910), and Theodemari abbatis Casinensis epistula ad Karolum regem, ed. Kassius Hallinger and Maria Wegener, Corpus consuetudinum monasticarum, 1 (Siegburg, 1963), pp. 157-75. Compare Jean Neufville, ‘L’authenticité de l‘Epistula ad regem karolum de monasterio sancti Benedicti directa et a Paulo dictata’. Studia monastica, 13 (1971), pp. 295-310, and Josef Semmler, ‘Benediktinisches Mönchtum in Bayern im späten 8. und frühen 9. Jahrhundert’, in Eberhard Zwink, ed., Salzburg Diskussionen. Friihes Mottchtum in Salzburg (Salzburg, 1983), pp. 199-218.

15 For example, Synod of Mainz 813, MGM Conc, 11. 1, preface, pp. 259-60; Josef Semmler, ‘Zur Überlicferung den monastischen Gesetzgebung Ludwigs des Frommen’, Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mitlelalters, 16 (1960), pp. 309–88; ‘Studien zum Supplex Libellus und zur anianischen Reform in Fulda’, Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte, 69 (1958), pp. 268-98; and ‘Corvey und Herford in derbenediktinischen Reformbewegung des 9. Jhts’, Frühmittelalterliche Studien, 4 (1970), pp. 289-319. For grants by Louis the Pious to St Amand and Landevennec on acceptance of the Rule of Benedict, see M. Bouquet, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France, 24 vols (Paris, 1869-80), 6, pp. 530-1, 513-14; compare Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751–987 (London, 1983), pp. 109-24.

16 Wilhelm Koehler, Karolingische Miniaturen, II, Die Hofschule Karls des Grossen (Berlin, 1958). For a discussion of these attempts in the context of royal patronage sec Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Royal patronage of culture in the Frankish kingdoms under the Carolingians: motives and consequences’, in Committenti e produzione artistico-letteraria nell’alto medioevo occidentale, Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo, 39 (Spoleto, 1992), pp. 93-129, reprinted in McKitterick, Frankish Kings and Culture in the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot, 1995), ch. VII.

17 Fischer, Bonifatius, ‘Bibeltext und Bibelreform unter Karl dem Grossen’ in Bischoff, B., ed., Karl der Grosse. Lebenswerk und Nachleben II: Das Geistige Leben (Düsseldorf, 1965), pp. 156216 , and ‘Bibelausgaben des frühen Mittelalters’, La Bibbia nell’alto Medioevo, Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo, 10 (Spoleto, 1963), pp. 519-600.

18 Dahlhaus-Berg, E., Nova antiquitas et antiqua novitas. Typologische Exegese und isidorianisches Geschichlsbild bei Theodulf von Orleans (Cologne, 1973).

19 Fischer, ‘Bibeltext’.

20 In, for example, the De litteris colendis and the Admonitio generalis: MGH Cap, I, no. 29, p. 79 and no. 22, c. 72, p. 60.

21 McKitterick, Rosamond, ‘Carolingian Bible production: the Tours anomaly’, in Gameson, R., ed., The Early Medieval Bible. Its Production, Decoration and Use, Cambridge Studies in Palaeography and Codicology, 2 (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 6379.

22 MCH Cap, I, no. 30, pp. 80-1, trans. King, p. 208.

23 Reginald Grégoire, Les Homéliaires du Moyen Age, Rerum ecclesiasticarum documenta, Series maior, Fontes VI (Rome, 1956) and Homéliaires liturgiques médiévaux. Analyse des manuscrits. Biblioteca di studi medievali (Spoleto, 1980); Henri Barré, Les Homéliaires Carolingiens de l’école d’Auxerre, Studi e Testi, 225 (Vatican City, 1962); for discussion see McKitterick, Frankish Church, pp. 80-114.

24 Milton McC. .atch, Preaching and Theology in Anglo-Saxon England: Aelfric and Wulfstan (Toronto, 1977) and James E. Cross, Cambridge Pembroke College MS 25, King’s College, London Medieval Studies, 1 (London, 1987).

25 Raymund Kottje, Die Bussbücher Halitgars von Cambrai und des Hrabanus Maurus, Beiträge zur Gcschichte und Quellenkunde des Mittelalters, 8 (Berlin, 1980); idem, ‘Erfassung und Untersuchung der frühmittelalterlíchen kontinentalen Bussbücher. Probleme und Aufgaben einen Forschungspro-jektes an der Universität Bonn’, Studi Medievali, 26 (1985), pp. 941-50; Rob Meens, Het tripartite boeteboek. Overlevering en betekenis van vroegmiddeleeuwse biechtvoorschriften (Hilversum, 1994); Ludger Körntgen, Studien zu den Quellen der frühmittelalterlichen Buβbücher, Quellen und Forschungen zum Recht im Mittelalter, 7 (Sigmaringen, 1993); Franz KerfF, Der Quadripartitus. Ein Handbuch der karolingischen Kirchenreform, Quellen und Forschungen zum Recht im Mittelalter, 1 (Sigmaringen, 1982); Günter Hägele, Das Paenitentiale Valliccllianum I. Ein oberitalienischer Zweig der frühmittelalterlíchen kontinentalen Buβbücher, Quellen und Forschungen zum Recht im Mittelalter, 3 (Sigmaringen, 1984).

26 MCH Cap, I, no. 22, preface, p.p53; trans. King, p. 210.

27 Hartzheim, J., ed. Collectio-Dionysio-Hadriana, Concilia Germania, 1 (Cologne, 1759), pp. 1315 ; on the seventy-one manuscripts of the Dionysio-Hadriana known in 1870, mostly of ninth- and tenth-century date, see Maassen, Friedrich, Geschichte der Quellen und der Literatur des canonischen Rechts im Abendlande bis zum Ausgange des Mittelalters (Graz, 1980), pp. 4414 ; H. Wurm, Studien und Text zur Dekretalsammlung des Dionysius Exiguus, Kanonistische Studien und Texte, 16 (Bonn, 1939, reprinted Amsterdam, 1964); Fournier, P. and Le Bras, G., Histoire des collections canoniques en occident. Depuis les Fausses Decretales jusqu’au Decret de Gratien, 21 vols (Paris, 1931), 1, pp. 367 ; H. Mordek, Kirchenrecht und Reform im Frankenreich (Berlin, 1975); Raymund Kottje, ‘Einheit und Vielfalt des kirchlichen Lebens in der Karolingerzeit’, Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte, 76 (1965), pp. 323–42; Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Knowledge of canon law in the Frankish kingdoms before 789; the manuscript evidence’, JThs, ns 36 (1985), pp. 97-117, reprinted in Rosamond McKitterick, Books, Scribes and Learning in the Frankish Kingdoms, 6th-9th Centuries (Aldershot, 1994), ch. II.

28 The standard guide to the medieval liturgy, with full bibliographical details, is Cyrille Vogel, Medieval Liturgy. An Introductcon to the Sources, translated and revised posthumously by William Storey and Niels Rasmussen (Washington DC, 1986). It is an updated version of Vogel’s Introduction aux sources de l’histoire du culte chrétien au moyen âge (Spoleto, 1981). For an inventory of the manuscripts see Klaus Gamber, Codices liturgici latini antiquiores, 2nd edn (Fribourg, 1968). See also the invaluable exposition by Eric Palazzo, Le Moyen Age des origines au Xllle siècle. Histoire des livres liturgiques (Paris, 1993), which forms an admirable complement to Vogel’s handbook, and McKitterick, Frankish Church, pp. 113-54. On the Ordines, the best edition is M. Andrieu, Les ‘Ordines Romani’ du haut moyen âge, Spicilegium sacrum Lovaniense, 11, 23, 24, 28, 29 (Louvain, 1931–61). See also A.-G. Martimort, Les ‘Ordines’, les ordinaires et les cérémoniaux. Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, fase. 56 (Turnhout, 1991).

29 Moreton, Bernard, The Eighth-Century Gelasian Sacramentary: a Study in Tradition (Oxford, 1976); ‘The liber secundus of the eighth-century Gelasian sacramentaries: a reassessment’, in E. A. Livingstone, ed., Studia Patristica, XIII, Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur, 116 (Berlin, 1975), pp. 382-6. Later examples of the eighth-century Gelasian are Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, MS C43, made 1020–30, and the so-called Missal of Monza, Monza, Biblioteca capitolare, codex F1–101 from Bergamo, s. IX/X.

30 Benedict of Aniane, Hucusque preface to his Supplement to the Hadrianum, which he regards as ‘obviously the work of the blessed pope Gregory’ and refers users to the Gregorian sacramentary if they do not like what he has added in the supplement: R. Amiet, ‘Le prologue Hucusque et la table des Capitula du Supplément d’Alcuin’, Scriptorium, 7 (1953), pp. 177-209, but see the revised edition in Jean Deshusses, he sacramentaire grégorien: ses principales formes d’aprés les plus anciens manuscrits, 3 vols, Spicilegium Friburgense, 16, 24, 28 (Fribourg, 1971, 1979, 1982), 1. For the translation, see Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, pp. 87-8.

31 See Pope Hadrian to Charlemagne, Codex Carolinus, Ep. 89, MGH Epistolae merov. et karol. aevi, 1 (Hanover, 1892) p. 626; Deshusses, Le sacramentare grégorien and Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, pp. 78-92.

32 On the implications of this and other Roman books brought to Francia see Donald Bullough, ‘Roman books and Carolingian renovatio’, SCH, 14 (1977), pp. 23-50, reprinted in Donald Bullough, Carolingian Renewal. Sources and Heritage (Manchester, 1991), pp. 1-38.

33 Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, p. 82.

34 Wilhelm Koehler and Florentine Mütherich, Karolingische Miniaturen IV. Die Hofschule Lothars. Einzelhandschriften aus Lothringen (Berlin, 1982), and see also Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Carolingian uncial: a context for the Lothar Psalter’, The British Library Journal, 16 (1990), pp. 1–15, reprinted in McKitterick, Books, Scribes and Learning, ch. 6.

35 Deshusses, J., ‘Chronologic des grands sacramentaires de Saint-Amand’, RB, 87 (1977), pp. 2307 , and McKitterick, Rosamond, ‘Carolingian book production: some problems’, The Library, 12 (1990), pp. 133 , reprinted in McKitterick, Books, Scribes and Learning, ch. XII.

36 On the earlier St Amand usage exported to Salzburg see below, p. 79. A further factor in the promotion of the Gregorian type of sacramentary represented by the Hadrianum may have been its association with a pope, and with not only Gregory but Hadrian as well. As Ann Freeman has demonstrated, Hadrian was held in particular respect by the Carolingians: ‘The end of Carolingian orthodoxy’. Viator, 16 (1985), pp. 65-108.

37 For example, Florus the Deacon, De expositione missae, PL, 119, cols 16-72; Ratramnus of Corbie, De corpore et sanguine domini, PL, 121, cols 103-71, and J. N. Bakhuizen van den Brink, ed., Ratramnus De corpore et sanguine domini. Texte original et notice bibliographique (Amsterdam and London, 1974). Amalarius of Metz, ed. J. Hanssens, Amalarii episcopi opera liturgica omnia, 3 vols, Studi e Testi, 138, 139, 140 (Rome, 1948-50), however, is not representative, and needs to be set against all the other major and minor commentaries from the Carolingian period, many of them scattered throughout the Patrologia Latina.

38 Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, pp. 291-355; see also Palazzo, Le Moyen Age, pp. 163-72, and A.-G. Martimort, Les Lectures liturgiques et leurs livres, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, fasc. 64 (Turnhout, 1992).

39 For example, Amiet, Robert, ed., The Freising Benedictionals, Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. lat. 6430, Henry Bradshaw Society, 88 (London, 1974).

40 For exposition, interpretation and bibliography see Susan Rankin, ‘Carolingian music’, in McKitterick, R. ed., Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation (Cambridge, 1994), pp. 275316 ; see also M. Huglo, Les Livres de chant liturgiques, Typologie des sources du moyen âge occidental, fasc. 52 (Turnhout, 1988).

41 This is particularly evident once one explores the musical repertory: see Richard L. Crocker and David Hiley, eds, The Early Middld Ages to 1300, The New Oxford History of Music, 1 (Oxford, 1990), especially Kenneth Levy, ‘Latin chant outside the Roman tradition’, pp. 69-110.

42 Saxony would also serve as a useful area to examine, in that Christianity and ecclesiastical organization were introduced there primarily by the Franks. A study of the ecclesiastical development of Saxony from the later eighth to the tenth centuries is in preparation.

43 See Gottfried Mayr, ‘Frühes Christentum in Baiern’, and Wilfried Hartmann and Heinz Dopsch, ‘Bistümer, Synoden und Metropolitanverfassung’, in Hermann Dannheimer and Heinz Dopsch, eds, Die Bajuwaren von Severin bis Tassilo 488-788 (Salzburg, 1988), pp. 281-6, 318-26; K. Reindel, ‘Die Bistumsorganisation im Alpen-Donau-Raum in der Spätantike und im Frühmittelalter’, Mitteituttgen des Instiluis Für Österreichische Geschichtsforschuttg, 72 (1964), pp. 277-310 and F. Prinz, Frühes Mönchtum im Frankenreich, 2nd edn (Darmstadt, 1985).

44 Liber Pontificalis, ed. L. Duchesne (Paris, 1886), section 179, p. 398; see the discussion by T.F.X. Noble, The Republic of St Peter. The Birth of the Papal State 680-825 (Philadelphia, 1984), pp. 26-7.

45 Levison, Wilhelm, England and the Continent in the Eighth Century (Oxford, 1946), pp. 7880 and Wood, Ian, The Merovingian Kingdoms, 450-751 (London, 1993), pp. 4049.

46 Baesecke, G., Der deutsche Abrogans und die Anfange des deutschen Schrifttums (Halle, 1930).

47 Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS Clm 6224, and E. A. Lowe, Codices Latini Antiquiores 1-9 + Supplement (Oxford, 1935-1971) [hereafter CLA], 9, p. 1249, and see Bernhard Bischoff, Die südostdeutschen Schreibschulen und Bibtiotheken in der Karolingerzeit: 1, Die Bayrischen Diözesen, 3rd edn (Wiesbaden, 1974), 2, Die vorwiegend Österreichischen Diözesen (Wiesbaden, 1980), at 1, pp. 59 and 135.

48 Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS Clm 6298, CLA, 9, p. 1264, and Bischoff, Die südostdeut schen Schreibschulen, 1, pp. 59 and 141.

49 Bischoff, Die s࿏dostdeutschen Schreibschulen, 1 and 2.

50 Maassen, Geschichte der Quellen und der Literatur, pp. 476–86.

51 See A. Schnargel, ‘Die kanonistische Sammlung der Handschrift von Freising’, in Schicchi, J., ed., Wissenschaftliche Festgabe zum zwōlfhundertjährigen Jubiläum des heiligen Korbinian (Munich, 1924), pp. 12646 , who noted the separate nature of the so-called Gelasian Decretum, but did not comment on the production of the manuscript as a whole. His remarks are confined to the Collectio Frisingensis; Fournier and Le Bras, Histoire des collections canoniques, 1, p. 25

52 McKitterick, Rosamond, The Carolinians and the Written Word (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 2024.

53 Sec the discussion by Semmler, Josef, ‘Zu den bayrisch-westfränkischen Beziehungen’, Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte, 29 (1966), pp. 37285.

54 Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MSS Clm 6242 and 6355.

55 At neighbouring Tegernsee the Homiliary attributed to Alanus (Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS Clm 18092) was copied.

56 Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS Clm 6264a, Bamberg Staatliche Bibliothck, MS B.I.3, and a fragment in Linz, Studienbibliothek, MS 612: Bischoff, Die südostdeulschen Schreibschulen, 1, pp. 107-8.

57 McKitterick, Frankish Church, p. 39.

58 Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS Clm 14517.

59 Munich. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS Clm 14008.

60 Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS Clm 14368.

61 Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, MS Clm 14429 (palimpsested) (CLA, 9, p. 1298), and Berlin, Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, MS Lat. fol. 877+ Regensburg, Gräflich Walderdorffsche Bibliothek, MS (sn) + Regensberg, Bischöflichen Zentralbibliothek, MS Cim. 1 (CLA, 9, p. 1052). Klaus Gamber, ‘Liturgiebücher der Regensburger Kirche aus der Agilolfinger und Karolingerzeit’, Scriptorium, 30 (1976), pp. 3–25 and compare Bischoff, Die südostdeutschen Schreibschulen, 1, pp. 183-4, 243 and 2, p. 235.

62 CLA, VIII, 1052 and Klaus Gamber, ed., Das Bonifatius Sakramentar und weitere frühe Liturgiebücher aus Regensburg mit vollständigen Faksimile des erhaltenen Blätter, Textus patristici et liturgici, 12 (Regensburg, 1975).

63 A. Dold and L. Eizenhofer, Das Prager Sakramentar, 1 (Beuron, 1944) and 2 (Beuron, 1949) and CLA, X, 1563.

64 Gamber, ‘Liturgiebücher’, but compare Bischoff, Die südostdeutschen Schreibschulen, 2, pp. 258-61, who thinks the evidence pointing to both Bavarian and north Italian influence is insufficiently conclusive for a precise location.

65 Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, pp. 90-1, and notes 221, 232 and 233.

66 Bischoff, Die südostdeutschen Schreibschulen 1 and 2.

67 On the early development of Salzburg in the Agilolfing and early Carolingian period under Rupert, Virgil and Arno, see Zwink, Salzburg Diskussionen.

68 Sieghild Rehle, Sacramerttarium Gelasianum mixtum von St Amand, Textus patristici et liturgici, 10 (Regensburg, 1973); idem, Sacramentum Amonis, Die Fragmente der Salzburger Exemplars, Textus patristici et liturgici, 8 (Regensburg, 1970). See also M. B. Parkes, The Medieval Manuscripts of Keble College, Oxford (Oxford, 1979), p. 335 and plate 174, and Bischoff, Die südostdeutschen Schreibschulen, 2, pp. 101, 127.

69 On St Amand’s later ninth-century liturgical preferences see above, p. 70.

70 See above, p.69, on the Sacramentary of Trent, and Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, pp. 97-102.

71 On the costs of book production in the ninth century see McKitterick, Carolingians and the Written Word, pp. 135-64.

72 Vogel, Medieval Liturgy, p. 92.

73 Compare, for example, the Capitulary of Herstal, MGH Cap 1, no. 20, cc. 1, 3 and 4, p. 47; the Synod of Frankfurt, c. 53, MGH Cap I, no. 28, p. 78; or the General capitulary for the missi of 802, cc. 10 and c. 13, MGH Cap I, no. 33, p. 93.

74 McKitterick, Frankish Church, pp. 132-3.

75 Space precludes discussion of these aspects of the topic here but I hope to develop them elsewhere.

76 MGH Cap I, no. 22, c. 80, p. 61.

77 Karl Morrison, ‘“Know thyself”: music in the Carolingian Renaissance’, in Committenti e produzione artistico-letteraria nell’alto medioevo occidentale. Settimane di Studio del Centro Italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo, 39 (Spoleto, 1992), pp. 369-479, at p. 380.

78 Hucbald of St Amand, De harmonica institutione, ed. Martin Gerbere, Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica, 1 (Hildesheim, 1963), pp. 104, 105, 107 and 111, trans. Warren Babb, Hucbald, Guido and John on Music. Three musical treatises (New Haven, Conn., and London, 1978). For example: section 107a/3, ‘Consonance is the calculated and concordant blending of two sounds, which will come about only when two simultaneous sounds from different sources combine into a single musical whole (modulatio), as happens when a man’s and a boy’s voices sound at once (pariter) and indeed in what is usually called making organum (organizatio)’: trans. Babb, pp. 19 and 25.

79 Hucbald, De harmonica institutione, section 111a/7, trans. Babb, p. 25.

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