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Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Adaptation of the Indicators of Abuse (IOA) Screen

  • Carmen Touza (a1), Rosario Martínez-Arias (a2) and Carmen Prado (a3)


The objectives of this study were to replicate the analyses conducted by the creators of the Indicators of Abuse (IOA) Screen with a Spanish sample group and compare the results, to present new validity evidences, to analyze which items were more relevant in the detection of situations of risk of abuse, and to establish a cut-off point to interpret the obtained scores. The IOA was used by 46 professionals from social services teams who assessed the situation of 231 elderly individuals and their main caregivers. The obtained results advocated towards unidimensionality of the scale. It showed a high level of internal consistency (α = .94). The Confidence Interval of 99% for the alpha coefficient was between .92 and .95. The ordinal alpha coefficient reached the value of .98. The total score of the scale showed adequate temporal stability (r = .91; p ≤ .001; N = 163). Statistically significant differences (t-test) in the mean scores of most of the items were found between cases of adequate treatment and cases of risk of abuse. The scale classified correctly 93% of all cases. The best balance between sensitivity and specificity was found at the cut-off point given by score 16 (Sensitivity = 0.94, Specificity = 0.85). The results appear to confirm the validity evidence of the instrument when used with a Spanish population. However, it is necessary to conduct further research and confirm the results with wider, more representative sample groups.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding concerning this article should be addressed to Carmen Touza. Universitat de les Illes Balears. Departament de Pedagogia i Didàctiques Específiques. Cra. Valldemossa Km 7.5, Edificio Guillem Cifre de Colonya, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Baleares (Spain). Telephone: +34–971172492. E-mail:


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Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Adaptation of the Indicators of Abuse (IOA) Screen

  • Carmen Touza (a1), Rosario Martínez-Arias (a2) and Carmen Prado (a3)


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