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The Loleva Oral and Written Language Test: Psychometric Properties

  • Manuel Peralbo (a1), María Ángeles Mayor (a2), Begoña Zubiauz (a2), Alicia Risso (a1), María Luz Fernández-Amado (a3) and Alejandro Tuñas (a4)...


LolEva, a computerized test for ages 3 to 8 years old, identifies issues in the development of skills that can lead to reading acquisition difficulties. Its structure captures two distinct areas: Phonological Awareness (PA, seven subtests: rhyme, identification-addition-omission of syllable and phoneme at the beginning and end of a word), and Initial Reading Competence (IRC, six subtests: reading uppercase and lowercase letters, simple words, complex words, and pseudowords, and word segmentation). With results collected in a sample of 341 children with the target ages and attending public or private schools, the alpha coefficient was .94 for PA, and .92 for IRC. Factor analysis indicated three factors are present (performance on PA and IRC, and word reading times), together explaining 75% of variance, providing evidence to support the construct validity of the test. On the other hand, analysis of variance showed significant differences for year-in-school variable for PA subscale, F(4, 336) = 191.385, p < .001, η2 p = .695, 1–β = 1.0, as well as for IRC subscale, both in number of correct answers, which increased as schooling progressed: F(4, 336) = 197.897, p < .001, η2 p = .702, 1–β = 1.0, and task completion time, which decreased as education progressed: F(4, 335) = 47.048, p < .001, η2 p = .360, 1–β = 1.0. Also, PA repeated measures analysis revealed that was easier Identification than Addition and Omission , F(2, 672) = 31.639, p < .001, η2 p = .086, 1–β = 1.0, syllable-related tasks than phoneme-related task, F(1, 336) = 229.000, p < .001, η2 p = .405, 1–β = 1.0, and syllable or phoneme at the end of the word than at the beginning, F(1, 336) = 59.201, p < .001, η2 p = .150, 1–β = 1.0. Moreover, all items were examined and indexes of difficulty and discrimination were obtained.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Alicia Risso. Departamento de Psicología. Campus de Elviña, s/n. Universidad de A Coruña. 15071. A Coruña (Spain). Phone: +34–981167000. E-mail:


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