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Development and Validation of the Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes (EAEE)

  • Amparo Oliver (a1) and Laura Galiana (a1)


During the last few years, entrepreneurship has gained an important role in many economic and social policies, with the consequent growth of entrepreneurial research in many social areas. However, in the Spanish psychometric context, there is not an updated scale including recent contributions to entrepreneurship attitudes literature. The aim of this study is to present and validate a new scale named Escala de Actitudes Emprendedoras para Estudiantes-EAEE, (Entrepreneurial Attitudes Scale for Students, EASS), in two samples of high school and university Spanish students. Data comes from a cross-sectional survey of 524 high school and undergraduate students, from Valencia (Spain). Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were estimated, together with reliability and validity evidence of the scale. Results offered evidence of the adequate psychometric properties of the EASS. The CFAs showed overall and analytical adequate fit indexes (χ 2 (120) = 163.19 (p < .01), GFI = .906, CFI = .959, SRMR = .044, RMSEA = .040 [CI .022-.054]); reliability indices of the entrepreneurial attitudes were appropriate for most of the entrepreneurial attitudes (α were between .63 and .87 for the different dimensions); and external evidence relating entrepreneurial dimensions to personality traits was similar to in previous studies. The scale could be a useful instrument both for previous diagnosis and effectiveness assessment of programs on entrepreneurship promotion.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Amparo Oliver. Department of Methodology. Universitat de València, Facultat de Psicologia, Av. Blasco Ibañez, 21, 46010 València, Spain. Phone: 0034–963864468. Fax: 0034–963864699. E-mail:


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