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Computer Speech-Based Remediation for Reading Disabilities: The Size of Spelling-to-Sound Unit in a Transparent Orthography

  • Juan E. Jiménez (a1), Isabel Hernández-Valle (a1), Gustavo Ramírez (a1), Mª del Rosario Ortiz (a1), Mercedes Rodrigo (a1), Adelina Estévez (a1), Isabel O'Shanahan (a1), Eduardo García (a2) and María de la Luz Trabaue (a1)...

Abstract

This study was designed to assess the effects of four reading-training procedures for children with reading disabilities (RD) in a transparent orthography, with the aim of examining the effects of different spelling-to-sound units in computer speech-based reading. We selected a sample of 83 Spanish children aged between 7 years 1 month and 10 years 6 months (M = 105.2, SD = 7.8) whose pseudoword reading performance was below the 25th percentile and IQ > 90. The participants were randomly assigned to five groups: (a) the whole-word training group (WW) (n = 17), (b) the syllable training group (S)(n = 16), (c) the onset-rime training group (OR) (n = 17), (d) the phoneme training group (P) (n = 15), and (e) the untrained control group (n = 18). Children were pre- and post-tested in word recognition, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, and orthographic and phonological tasks. The results indicate that experimental groups who participated in the phoneme and syllable conditions improved their word recognition in comparison with the control group. In addition, dyslexics who participated in the phoneme, syllable, and onset-rime conditions made a greater number of requests during computer-based word reading under conditions that required extensive phonological computation (low frequency words and long words). Reading time, however, was greater for long words in the phoneme group during computer-based reading. These results suggest the importance of training phonological processes in improving word decoding in children with dyslexia who learn in a consistent orthography.

Esta investigación fue diseñada para evaluar los efectos de la instrucción asistida a través de ordenador en los procesos fonológicos y de lectura en niños con dificultades de aprendizaje en la lectura (DAL) en una ortografía transparente. Para ello se manipularon diferentes tipos de unidades lingüísticas con objeto de analizar con cuál de ellas se consiguen mejores resultados. Se seleccionó una muestra de 83 niños españoles de edades comprendidas entre los 7 años y 1 mes y 10 años y 6 meses (edad M = 105.2; DT = 7.8) que presentaban una puntuación en lectura de pseudopalabras por debajo del percentil 25 y un cociente intelectual mayor que 90. Los sujetos fueron distribuidos al azar en cinco grupos diferentes: (a) instrucción basada en reconocimiento de palabras (WW) (n = 17), (b) instrucción basada en reconocimiento de sílabas (S) (n = 16), (c) instrucción basada en reconocimiento de principio-rima (OR) (n = 17), (d) instrucción basada en reconocimiento de fonemas (P) (n =15), y (e) ningún tipo de instrucción (n = 18). Se administraron distintas tareas, antes y después de finalizado el periodo de instrucción, para evaluar los efectos de la instrucción sobre la descodificación, comprensión lectora, conciencia fonológica, y procesamiento ortográfico. Los niños con DAL que participaron en la instrucción basada en el reconocimiento de fonemas y en la instrucción basada en reconocimiento de sílabas mejoraron la descodificación en comparación al grupo control. Además, los niños con DAL que participaron en las condiciones de fonema, sílaba y principio-rima solicitaron un mayor número de ayudas durante el periodo de instrucción en aquellas condiciones donde la demanda de procesamiento fonológico era mayor (v. gr., palabras de baja frecuencia y palabras largas). Sin embargo, se registraron tiempos de lectura mayores, durante el periodo de instrucción, para las palabras largas en la condición de entrenamiento basada en fonemas. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el entrenamiento en procesos fonológicos mejora la descodificación de las palabras en niños con DAL en una ortografía transparente.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Juan E. Jiménez, Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, Universidad de La Laguna, Campus de Guajara, 38200 Islas Canarias, España. Phone 34-(9)22-317545 fax 34(9)22-317461. E-mail: ejimenez@ull.es

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Keywords

Computer Speech-Based Remediation for Reading Disabilities: The Size of Spelling-to-Sound Unit in a Transparent Orthography

  • Juan E. Jiménez (a1), Isabel Hernández-Valle (a1), Gustavo Ramírez (a1), Mª del Rosario Ortiz (a1), Mercedes Rodrigo (a1), Adelina Estévez (a1), Isabel O'Shanahan (a1), Eduardo García (a2) and María de la Luz Trabaue (a1)...

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