Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Poverty and Physical Stature: Evidence on the Standard of Living of London Boys 1770–1870

  • Roderick Floud (a1) and Kenneth W. Wachter (a2)

Extract

To many historians, and to most of their students, the question of the impact of the Industrial Revolution upon the poor of Britain has become confused, an arcane debate of ever greater statistical complexity. This is a pity, for “the most sustained single controversy in British economic history” still has, and should have, the capacity to excite and rouse the imagination, as it did for those who began, in the first half of the nineteenth century, the Condition of England debate (Mathias, 1975: vii; Taylor, 1975: xi). For Friedrich Engels, Edwin Chadwick, John Stuart Mill, or Lord Shaftesbury, and for many who as government inspectors or members of local statistical societies provided the evidence, the condition of the working classes was something tangible, to be seen in the streets of Manchester or London, demonstrated in the faces and bodies of the artisans and laborers who walked those streets and worked in the workshops and factories. The moral outrage felt by Engels, Chadwick, Shaftesbury, Barnardo, and many others in the nineteenth century came from the sight not only of squalid living conditions but of the malnourished bodies of the poor themselves.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Berridge, V., and Edwards, G. (1981) Opium and the People. London: St. Martin’s.
Cleveland, W. (1979) “Robust locally weighted regression and smoothing scatterplots.” J. of the Amer. Stat. Assn. 74: 829836.
Eveleth, P. B., and Tanner, J. M. (1976) Worldwide Variation in Human Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Flinn, M. W. [ed.] (1965) Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain by Edwin Chadwick. London: Edinburgh Univ. Press.
Fogel, R. W., Engerman, S. L., Floud, R., Steckel, R. H., Trussell, T. J., Wachter, K. W., Sokoloff, K., Villaflor, G., Margo, R. A., and Friedman, G. (1982) “Changes in American and British suture since the mid-eighteenth century: a preliminary report on the usefulness of data on height for the analysis of secular trends in nutrition, labor productivity, and labor welfare.” NBER Working Paper 890.
Frisancho, A. R., and Baker, P. T. (1970) “Altitude and growth.” Amer. J. of Physical Anthropology 32: 279292.
George, M. D. (1925) London Life in the Eighteenth Century. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers (1904) Report of the Inter-departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration. London: xxxii.
Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers (1840) Reports from the Assistant Commissioners on Handloom Weavers. London: xxiii.
Great Britain, Parliamentary Papers (1833) Second Report of the Royal Commission on the Employment of Children in Factories. London: xxi.
Hanway, J. (1757) Letter from a Member of the Marine Society. London.
Joiner, G. H. (n.d.a) “The business of charity.” Georgia Southern College, (unpublished)
Joiner, G. H. (n.d.b) “The pea-jacket of charity: John Fielding, the London Police, and the origins of the British Marine Society.” Georgia Southern College, (unpublished)
Landauer, T. K. (1973) “Infantile vaccination and the secular change in stature.” Ethos 1: 499503.
Landauer, T. K. and Whiting, J.W.M. (1981) “Correlates and consequences of human stress in infancy,” in Munroe, R. H., Munroe, R. L., and Whiting, B. B. (eds.) Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development. New York: Garland.
Marine Society (1792) Regulations for Admission to the Society. London.
Marine Society (1756—) Manuscript Minutes, deposited at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London.
Marx, K. (1867, 1961) Capital (Moore, S. and Aveling, E., trans.). Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing.
Mathias, P. (1975) “Preface,” in Taylor, A. J., The Standard of Living in Britain in the Industrial Revolution. London: Metheun.
Owen, D. (1964) English Philanthropy. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
Quetelet, A. (1842) A Treatise on Man. London.
Quetelet, A. (1838) Correspondence Mathematique et Physique, series l,ii,l. Paris.
Tanner, J. M. (1981) A History of the Study of Human Growth. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Tanner, J. M., Whitehouse, R., and Takaishi, M. (1966) “Standards from birth to maturity for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity; British children 1965.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 41: 454471, 613635.
Taylor, A. J. (1975) The Standard of Living in Britain in the Industrial Revolution. London: Methuen.
Tucker, R. S. (1936) “Real wages of artisans in London, 1729–1935.” J. of the Amer. Stat. Assn. 31.
Villerme, L. R. (1829) “Mémoire sur la taille de l’homme en France.” Annales d’hygiene publique 1: 551559.
Wachter, K. W. (1981) “Graphical estimation of military heights.” Historical Methods 14: 3142.
Wachter, K. W. and Floud, R. (1982) “Heights Among London’s poor 1770–1873.” Working Paper 5, Program in Population Research, University of California, Berkeley.
Wachter, K. W., and Trussell, J. (1982) “Estimating historical heights.” J. of the Amer. Stat. Assn. 77 (June): 279303.
Wark, M. L. and Malcolm, L. A. (1969) “Growth and development of the Lumi child of the Sepik district of New Guinea.” Medical J. of Australia 2: 129136.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed