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“Kennst du das Land?” The Uncertainty of Galicia in the Age of Metternich and Fredro

  • Larry Wolff

Abstract

During the Napoleonic wars the future existence of Habsburg Galicia was regarded as uncertain, and in the period following the Congress of Vienna the identity of the province was likewise unclear. The eighteenth-century creation of Galicia gave way to the nineteenth-century attempt to create Galicians and to discover a non-national provincial meaning of “Galicia,“ capable of reconciling and transcending national, religious, and linguistic differences. In this article Larry Wolff juxtaposes the political perspective of Metternich and the literary perspective of dramatist Aleksander Fredro in order to analyze the imperial and provincial dynamics of the idea of Galicia, with fürther attention to the public sphere of newspapers and journals, and the cultural perspectives of Galicians like Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (the son of the great composer) and Józef Maksymilian Ossoliński (founder of the Ossolineum library in Lviv). This article traces the evolving cultural meanings of Galicia up until 1835, the year of the death of Habsburg Emperor Franz and the year that Fredro was denounced by a Polish critic as a “non-national” writer. Especially in Fredro's celebrated comedies, it is possible to discern the submerged ideological tensions of empire and province that shaped Galician identity in the early nineteenth century.

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This article is dedicated to the memory of WiktorWeintraub (1908-1988) in his centennial year. He was my professor when I was a college undergraduate, and it was his extraordinary teaching and guidance that inspired my own fascination with Polish culture.

Ach, to może ostatni! patrzcie, patrzcie, mlodzi, Może ostatni, co tak poloneza wodzi!

1. Metternich, Klemens Wenzel von, Ménoires, documents, et ecrits divers, ed. Metternich, Richard de, part 1 (1773-1815) (Paris, 1880), 2:420-21.

2. Metternich, Ménoires, part 1 (1773-1815), 2:432-33, 436-37; Maner, Hans-Christian, Galizien: Eine Grenzregion im Kalkül der Donaumonarchie im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert (Munich, 2007), 5861.

3. Metternich, Mémoires, part 1 (1773-1815), 2:418-20; Wolff, Larry, “Inventing Galicia: Messianic Josephinism and die Recasting of Partitioned Poland,Slavic Review, vol. 63, no. 4 (Winter 2004): 818-40.

4. Brubaker, Rogers, Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge, Eng., 1996), 12, 18-19; Gellner, Ernest, Nations and Nationalism (Ithaca, 1983), 4849 ; Skutki dziet Woltera, przez Gallicyana (1792), 3, copy conserved in Jagiellonian Library, Kraków; Wolff, “Inventing Galicia,” 833-34.

5. Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (1983; London, 1991), 53.

6. Said, Edward, Culture and Imperialism (1993; New York, 1994), xi, 12.

7. Clewing, Konrad, Staatlichkeit und nationale Identitätsbildung: Dalmatien in Vormärz und Revolution (Munich, 2001); King, Jeremy, Budweisers into Czechs and Germans: A Local History of Bohemian Politics, 1848-1948 (Princeton, 2002); Stauter-Halsted, Keely, The Nation in the Village: The Genesis of Peasant National Identity in Austrian Poland, 1848-1914 (Ithaca, 2001).

8. Hobsbawm, Eric, “Introduction: Inventing Traditions,” in Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terence, eds., The Invention of Tradition (1983; Cambridge, Eng., 2006), 114.

9. Łojek, Jerzy, Myśliński, Jerzy, and Władyka, Wiesław, Dzieje prasy polskiej (Warsaw, 1988), 40 ; Władysław Zawadzki, Literature w Galicji (Lwów, 1878), 42-43.

10. Gazeta Lxuowska, 7 and 11 February 1812.

11. Gazeta Lwowska, 3 March 1812.

12. Fredro, Aleksander, Sans queue ni tête, trans. Wilder, Elisabeth Destrée-Van (Montricher, Switzerland, 1992), 10 and 82 ; Fredro, Aleksander, Trzypo trzy, in Proza, vol. 8, part 1 (Warsaw, 1968), 71 and 123 ; see also Rymkiewicz, jarosław, Aleksander Fredro jest w złym humorze (Warsaw, 1977).

13. Fredro, Sans queue ni tête, 105; Fredro, Trzy po trzy, 139-40.

14. Walter Hummel, W. A. Mozarts Söhne (Kassel, 1956), 61-62 (letters ofF. X. W. Mozart, 19 November and 15 December 1808); Mieczysław Oriowicz, Ilustrowany Pnewodnikpo Galicyi (Lviv, 1914), 98.

15. Hummel, Mozarts Söhne, 63 (letter from F. X. W. Mozart, 22 January 1809).

16. Ibid., 64 (letter from Konstanze Mozart, 29 July 1809).

17. Ibid., 66 (letter from F. X. W. Mozart, 8 February 1810).

18. Wolff, Larry, Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment (Stanford, 1994); see also Wolff, , Venice and the Slavs: TheDiscovery ofDalmatia in the Age of Enlightenment (Stanford, 2001).

19. Hummel, Mozarts Söhne, 66 (letter from F. X. W. Mozart, 8 February 1810).

20. “Die Einsamkeit,” from The Other Mozart: Franz Xaver Mozart, The Songs, recording by Barbara Bonney and Malcolm Martineau, B0005505-02 (Decca, 2005).

21. Hummel, Mozarts Söhne, 68 (letter from F. X. W. Mozart, 22 November 1810).

22. Ibid., 68-72 (letters from F. X. W. Mozart, 20 February 1811, 22 June 1811, 22 August 1812); see also 280-81.

23. Ibid., 74 (letter from F. X. W. Mozart, 6 September 1816).

24. Ibid., 316-17; Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Sohn, 12 Polonaisen für Klavier, ed. Joachim Draheim (Heidelberg, 1980).

25. Hummel, Mozarts Söhne, 75-76.

26. Fredro, Ladies and Hussars, in Fredro, The Major Comedies of Alexander Fredro, ed. and trans. Harold B. Segel (Princeton, 1969), 123-24.

27. Ibid., 184.

28. Haas, Arthur, Metternich: Reorganization and Nationality, 1813-1818: A Story of Foresight and Frustration in the Rebuilding of the Austrian Empire (Wiesbaden, 1963), 167 (“Vortrag des Fürsten Metternich an Kaiser Franz über die Situation in Galizien,” 18 April 1815).

29. Ibid., 167-68.

30. Ibid., 168-69.

31. Grodziski, Stanisław, Historia ustroju spoleczno-politycznego Galicji 1772-1848 (Wroclaw, 1971), 149-50; Maner, Galizien, 61-67.

32. [Franz Kratter], Briefe über den itzigen Zustand von Galizien, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1786; reprint, Berlin, 1990), 1:88-89.

33. Kozik, Jan, The Ukrainian National Movement in Galicia, 1815-1849, trans. Gorski, Andrew and Orton, Lawrence (Edmonton, 1986), 32.

34. Ibid., 54-58; Stanisław Stẹpień, “Borderland City: Przemyśł and the Ruthenian National Awakening in Galicia,” in Christopher Hann and Paul Robert Magocsi, eds., Galicia: A Multicultured Land (Toronto, 2005), 55-60.

35. Władysława Jabłońska, ed., Korespondencja Józefa Maksymiliana Ossolińskiego (Wroclaw, 1975), 188 (letter from Kaiser Franz, 23 February 1809); Władysława Jabłońska, Jozef Maksymilian Ossoliński: Szkic biograficzny (Wroclaw, 1967), 66-67.

36. Jabloriska, ed., Korespondencja Józefa Maksymiliana Ossolinskiego, 220-23 (letter from Ossoliriski, 19 November 1815).

37. Ibid., 253-54 (letter from Ossoliński, 30 August 1817).

38. Ibid., 264 (letter from Joseph Mauss, 29 December 1817).

39. Ibid., 264-66.

40. Ibid., 267.

41. Pamiẹtnik Galicyjski, vol. 1 (July, August, September 1821) (Lviv, 1821): 3-4.

42. Besser, Willibald Swibert, Primitivae Floriae Galiciae Austriacae Utriusque, pts. 1 and 2 (Vienna, 1809); copy conserved in Czartoryski Library, Kraków.

43. Jaszowski, Stanisław, “Karpaty,Pamietnik Galicyjski, vol. 1 (July, August, September 1821): 140

44. “Ulomki do historyi ludu zydowskiego w Europie,” Pamietnik Galicyjski, vol. 2 (October, November, December 1821): 175-76.

45. [Kratter], Briefe über den itzigen Zustand von Galizien, 2:54 and 59; Stanisław Grodziski, “The Jewish Question in Galicia: The Reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, 1772-1790,” in Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, \o\. 12, Focusing on Galicia: Jews, Poles, and Ukrainians, 1772-1918, eds. Israel Bartal and Antony Polonsky (London, 1999), 61-72; Wolff, “Inventing Galicia,” 824-28.

46. Israel Bartal and Antony Polonsky, “Introduction: The Jews ofGalicia under the Habsburgs,” in Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, vol. 12, Focusing on Galicia, 12-13; Stanisławski, Michael, A Murder in Lemberg: Politics, Religion, and Violence in Modern Jewish History (Princeton, 2007), 1617 ; Magocsi, Paul Robert, Galicia: A Historical Survey and Bibliographic Guide (Toronto, 1983), 230.

47. Fredro, Sans queue ni tête, 202; Fredro, Trzypo trzy, 210.

48. Fredro, Husband and Wife, in Fredro, Major Comedies, 75.

49. Metternich, Mémoires, documents, et écrits divers, ed. Richard de Metternich, part 2 (1816-1848) (Paris, 1881), 4:15 (letter of 25 September 1823).

50. Ibid., 4:16 and 19 (letters of 28 September, 17 October 1823).

51. Ibid., 4:16-17 (letter of 29 September 1823).

52. Ibid., 4:19 (letter of 17 October 1823).

53. Ibid., 4:20-21 (letter of 21 October 1823).

54. Wolff, Inventing Eastern Europe, 356-61.

55. Metternich, Mémoires, part 2 (1816-1848), 4:23 (letter of 30 October 1823).

56. Gazeta Lwowska, 11 March 1825.

57. Jabłońska, ed., Korespondencja Józefa Maksymiliana Ossolińskiego, 474 (letter from Ossoliński, 6 March 1826).

58. Fredro, , Korespondencja, ed. Czajkowska, Krystyna, Pisma Wszystkie (Warsaw, 1976), 14:7273 (letter from Fredro, undated).

59. Ibid., 77 (letter from Fredro, 2 January 1832).

60. Mickiewicz, Adam, “Do przyjaciól Galicyjskich,Pisma filomackie, pisma politycme: Zlat 1832-1834 (Warsaw, 2000), 316-17.

61. Zeńczak, Anna, “Piotr Michaiowski: Sa vie, son oeuvre,” in Piotr Michaiowski: Peintures et dessins (Paris, 2004), 1019 ; Ostrowski, Jan, “Pomiedzy Paryzem i galicyjską prowincją,” in Piotr Michaiowski 1800-1855 (Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie, 2000), 15—31.

62. Fredro, The Life Annuity, in Fredro, Major Comedies, 353 and 367; “Dozywocie,“ Pisma Wszystkie, ed. Stanistaw Pigoń (Warsaw, 1956), 6:212 and 237.

63. Goszczyński, Seweryn, “Nowa epoka poezyi polskiej,” in Wasilewski, Zygmunt, ed., Dzieła zbiorowe, vol. 3, Podróze i rozprawy literackie (Lviv, 1911), 229.

“Kennst du das Land?” The Uncertainty of Galicia in the Age of Metternich and Fredro

  • Larry Wolff

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