Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Phytic acid-phosphorus and other nutritionally important mineral nutrient elements in grains of wild-type and low phytic acid (lpa1–1) rice

  • John N.A. Lott (a1), Jessica C. Liu (a1), Irene Ockenden (a1), Michael Truax (a1) and John N.A. Lott (a1)...

Abstract

Mineral nutrient stores in cereal grains are mainly phytate, a salt of the phosphorus-rich compound phytic acid. Quantitative measures of total phosphorus, phytic acid-phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese and zinc were obtained for whole grains, embryos and rest-of-grain portions of cv. Kaybonnet rice (wild type) (Oryza sativa L.) and a low phytic acid (lpa1–1) mutant strain with a 45% reduction in phytic acid. P, K and Mg were present in higher amounts than Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn in both grain types. Whole-grain amounts of total P, Ca, Mn and phytic acid-phosphorus were lower in whole lpa1–1 grains than in wild-type grains; K, Mg and Fe amounts were similar, and Zn was higher. Embryos, which comprise 3.5% or less of grain dry weight, were comparatively rich in all measured elements. The lpa1–1 mutation influenced the phytic acid content of the embryo more than that of the aleurone layer. Aleurone-layer cells of wild-type grains had many phosphorus-rich globoids 2μm or larger in diameter, whereas lpa1–1 grains contained more of the smaller globoids. The reduction in globoid size was consistent with the reduction in phytate. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of both aleurone-layer cells and sections of globoids in aleurone-layer cells revealed that P, K and Mg were the main mineral nutrient elements present in both grain types; traces of Ca, Mn, Fe or Zn were present. Starchy endosperm cells contained virtually no P, K or Mg, whereas scutellum cells were rich in these elements.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Fax: +1 905 525–6066, Email: lott@mcmaster.ca

References

Hide All
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). (1990) AOAC official methods of analysis (15th edition). Arlington VA, AOAC International, pp. 56, 800801.
Batten, G., Marr, K., Williams, R. and Farrell, T. (2000) Mineral concentrations in Australian and overseas brown rice genotypes. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 31, 23932400.
Bechtel, D.B. and Pomeranz, Y. (1977) Ultrastructure of the mature ungerminated rice (Oryza sativa) caryopsis. The caryopsis coat and the aleurone cells. American Journal of Botany 64, 966973.
Cosgrove, D.J. (1966) The chemistry and biochemistry of inositol polyphosphates. Review of Pure and Applied Chemistry 16, 209224.
Dikeman, E., Bechtel, D.B. and Pomeranz, Y. (1981) Distribution of elements in the rice kernel determined by x-ray analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cereal Chemistry 58, 148152.
Ellis, R. and Morris, E.R. (1983) Improved ion-exchange phytate method. Cereal Chemistry 60, 121124.
Gorsuch, T.T. (1970) The destruction of organic matter. Oxford, Pergamon Press.
IUPAC-IUB (1968) The nomenclature of cyclitols. European Journal of Biochemistry 5, 112.
Juliano, B.O. (1980) Properties of the rice caryopsis. pp. 403438in Luh, B.H. (Ed.) Rice: Production and utilization. Westport, Connecticut, AVI Publishing Company.
Larson, S.R., Rutger, J.N., Young, K.A. and Raboy, V. (2000) Isolation and genetic mapping of a non-lethal rice (Oryza sativa L.) low phytic acid 1 mutation. Crop Science 40, 13971405.
Loewus, F.A. (1990) Structure and occurrence of inositols in plants. pp. 111in Morré, D.J., Boss, W.F. and Loewus, F.A. (Eds) Inositol metabolism in plants. New York, Wiley-Liss.
Lott, J.N.A. (1984) Accumulation of seed reserves of phosphorus and other minerals. pp. 139166in Murray, D.R. (Ed.) Seed physiology, Vol. I. Sydney, Academic Press.
Lott, J.N.A., Goodchild, D.J. and Craig, S. (1984) Studies of mineral reserves in pea (Pisum sativum) cotyledons using low-water-content procedures. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 11, 459469.
Lott, J.N.A., Ockenden, I., Raboy, V. and Batten, G.D. (2002) A global estimate of phytic acid and phosphorus in crop grains, seeds and fruits. pp. 724in Reddy, N.R. and Sathe, S.K. (Eds) Food phytates. Boca Raton, CRC Press.
Marr, K.M., Batten, G.D. and Lewin, L.G. (1999) The effect of nitrogen fertiliser on yield, nitrogen and mineral elements in Australian brown rice. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 39, 873880.
Ockenden, I., Falk, D.E. and Lott, J.N.A. (1997) Stability of phytate in barley and beans during storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45, 16731677.
Ockenden, I., West, M., Domingues, J. and Lott, J.N.A. (2001) Changes in the element composition of globoids and whole embryos in developing seeds of Cucurbita maxima. Seed Science Research 11, 3544.
O'Dell, B.L. de, Boland, A.R. and Koirtyohann, S.R. (1972) Distribution of phytate and nutritionally important elements among the morphological components of cereal grains. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 20, 718721.
Ogawa, M., Tanaka, K. and Kasai, Z. (1977) Note on the phytin-containing particles isolated from rice scutellum. Cereal Chemistry 54, 10291034.
Organ, M.G., Greenwood, J.S. and Bewley, J.D. (1988) Phytin is synthesized in the cotyledons of germinated castor-bean seeds in response to exogenously supplied phosphate. Planta 174, 513517.
Raboy, V. (2000) Low-phytic-acid grains. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 21, 423427.
Raboy, V. and Dickinson, D.B. (1984) Effect of phosphorus and zinc nutrition on soybean seed phytic acid and zinc. Plant Physiology 75, 10941098.
Raboy, V., Gerbasi, P.F., Young, K.A., Stoneberg, S.D., Pickett, S.G., Bauman, A.T., Murthy, P.P.N., Sheridan, W.F. and Ertl, D.S. (2000) Origin and seed phenotype of maize low phytic acid 1–1 and low phytic acid 2–1. Plant Physiology 124, 355368.
Raboy, V., Young, K.A., Dorsch, J.A. and Cook, A. (2001) Genetics and breeding of seed phosphorus and phytic acid. Journal of Plant Physiology 158, 489497.
Reid, D.A., Lott, J.N.A., Attree, S.M. and Fowke, L.C. (1999) Mineral nutrition in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seeds and somatic embryos. I. Phosphorus, phytic acid, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc. Plant Science 141, 1118.
Roberts, E.H. and Roberts, D.L. (1972) Moisture content of seeds. pp. 424429in Roberts, E.H. (Ed.) Viability of seeds. Syracuse, New York, Syracuse University Press.
Saleque, M.A., Abedin, M.J., Ahmed, Z.U., Hasan, M. and Panaullah, G.M. (2001) Influences of phosphorus deficiency on the uptake of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and zinc in lowland rice varieties. Journal of Plant Nutrition 24, 16211632.
Sathe, S.K. and Reddy, N.R. (2002) Introduction. pp. 15in Reddy, N.R. and Sathe, S.K. (Eds) Food phytates. Boca Raton, CRC Press.
Skilnyk, H.R. and Lott, J.N.A. (1992) Mineral analyses of storage reserves of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita andreana pollen. Canadian Journal of Botany 70, 491495.
Sugiura, S.H., Raboy, V., Young, K.A., Dong, F.M. and Hardy, R.W. (1999) Availability of phosphorus and trace elements in low-phytate varieties of barley and corn for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 170, 285296.
Tanaka, K., Ogawa, M. and Kasai, Z. (1977) The rice scutellum II. A comparison of scutellar and aleurone electron-dense particles by transmission electron microscopy including energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Cereal Chemistry 54, 684689.
Thompson, L.U. (1993) Potential health benefits and problems associated with antinutrients in foods. Food Research International 26, 131149.
Wada, T. and Lott, J.N.A. (1997) Light and electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis studies of globoids in protein bodies of embryo tissues and the aleurone layer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains. Canadian Journal of Botany 75, 11371147.
Watson, C.A. and Dikeman, E. (1977) Structure of the rice grain shown by scanning electron microscopy. Cereal Chemistry 54, 120130.
Zar, J.H. (1984) Biostatistical analysis (2nd edition). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Prentice-Hall.
Zhou, J.R., Fordyce, E.J., Raboy, V., Dickinson, D.B., Wong, M.-S., Burns, R.A. and Erdman, J.W. (1992) Reduction of phytic acid in soybean products improves zinc bioavailability in rats. Journal of Nutrition 122, 24662473

Keywords

Phytic acid-phosphorus and other nutritionally important mineral nutrient elements in grains of wild-type and low phytic acid (lpa1–1) rice

  • John N.A. Lott (a1), Jessica C. Liu (a1), Irene Ockenden (a1), Michael Truax (a1) and John N.A. Lott (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed