Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cyclitol galactosides in low-raffinose, low-stachyose soybean embryos after feeding d-chiro-inositol, myo-inositol or d-pinitol

  • Ralph L. Obendorf (a1), Elizabeth M. Sensenig (a1), Erin M. Byrt (a1), Anna B. Owczarczyk (a1), Minori Ohashi (a1) and Steven R. Schnebly (a2)...

Abstract

Sucrose, raffinose and stachyose accumulate as stored soluble carbohydrates in embryos during soybean [Glycine max L. (Merrill)] seed development and maturation. Raffinose and stachyose in soybean feed products are not digested by humans, chickens or pigs, resulting in flatulence and reduced nutritional value. Soybean lines selected for low raffinose and low stachyose (LRS) or low raffinose, low stachyose and low phytin (LRSP1, LRSP2) concentrations in mature seeds were compared to a CHECK line with normal raffinose, stachyose and phytin. To determine whether increasing the supply of free cyclitols to immature embryos of these lines results in increased accumulation of galactosyl cyclitols, isolated immature embryos free of maternal tissues were fed solutions containing either d-chiro-inositol, myo-inositol or d-pinitol, or a control solution without cyclitols, for 24 h. Embryos were precociously matured by slow drying for 14 d with daily transfers to stepwise lower relative humidities. Soluble carbohydrates were extracted from axis and cotyledon tissues of mature, dry embryos and analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography. Axis and cotyledons from LRS, LRSP1 and LRSP2 embryos had low concentrations of stachyose compared to CHECK embryos after feeding a control solution without cyclitols. Feeding d-chiro-inositol to isolated embryos increased fagopyritol B1 accumulation in embryos of all lines. Feeding myo-inositol increased stachyose accumulation in LRSP1 and LRSP2 cotyledons. Feeding d-pinitol increased free d-pinitol in cotyledons of all lines but increased galactopinitol A and galactopinitol B only in LRS cotyledons. Supplying additional d-chiro-inositol to immature embryos can enhance accumulation of fagopyritol B1 in mature embryos of low-raffinose and low-stachyose or low-raffinose, low-stachyose and low-phytin soybeans.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence Fax: +1 607 255 2644 E-mail: rlo1@cornell.edu

References

Hide All
Blackman, S.A., Wettlaufer, S.H., Obendorf, R.L. and Leopold, A.C. (1991) Maturation proteins associated with desiccation tolerance in soybean. Plant Physiology 96, 868874.
Blackman, S.A., Obendorf, R.L. and Leopold, A.C. (1992) Maturation proteins and sugars in desiccation tolerance of developing soybean seeds. Plant Physiology 100, 225230.
Buitink, J., Thomas, M., Gissot, L. and Leprince, O. (2003) Starvation, osmotic stress and desiccation tolerance lead to expression of different genes of the regulatory beta and gamma subunits of the SnRK1 complex in germinating seeds of Medicago truncatula. Plant Cell and Environment 27, 5567.
Chappell, A.S., Scaboo, A.M., Wu, X., Nguyen, H., Pantalone, V.R. and Bilyeu, K.D. (2006) Characterization of the MIPS gene family in Glycine max. Plant Breeding 125, 493500.
Dierking, E.C. and Bilyeu, K.D. (2008) Association of a soybean raffinose synthase gene with low raffinose and stachyose seed phenotype. Plant Genome 1, 135145.
Dierking, E.C. and Bilyeu, K.D. (2009) Raffinose and stachyose metabolism are not required for efficient soybean seed germination. Journal of Plant Physiology 166, 13291335.
Farrant, J.M. and Moore, J.P. (2011) Programming desiccation-tolerance: from plants to seeds to resurrection plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 14, 340345.
Frydman, R.B. and Neufeld, E.F. (1963) Synthesis of galactosylinositol by extracts from peas. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12, 121125.
Gitzelmann, R. and Auricchio, S. (1965) The handling of soya alpha-galactosides by a normal and a galactosemic child. Pediatrics 36, 231235.
Gomes, C.I., Obendorf, R.L. and Horbowicz, M. (2005) myo-Inositol, d-chiro-inositol, and d-pinitol synthesis, transport, and galactoside formation in soybean explants. Crop Science 45, 13121319.
Hitz, W.D., Carlson, T.J., Kerr, P.S. and Sebastian, S.A. (2002) Biochemical and molecular characterization of a mutation that confers a decreased raffinosaccharide and phytic acid phenotype on soybean seeds. Plant Physiology 128, 650660.
Hoch, G., Peterbauer, T. and Richter, A. (1999) Purification and characterization of stachyose synthase from lentil (Lens culinaris) seeds: galactopinitol and stachyose synthesis. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 366, 7581.
Hoekstra, F.A., Golovina, E.A. and Buitink, J. (2001) Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance. Trends in Plant Science 6, 431438.
Horbowicz, M. and Obendorf, R.L. (1994) Seed desiccation tolerance and storability: dependence on flatulence-producing oligosaccharides and cyclitols – review and survey. Seed Science Research 4, 385405.
Horbowicz, M., Brenac, P. and Obendorf, R.L. (1998) Fagopyritol B1, O-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-d-chiro-inositol, a galactosyl cyclitol in maturing buckwheat seeds associated with desiccation tolerance. Planta 205, 111.
Hsu, S.H., Hadley, H.H. and Hymowitz, T. (1973) Changes in carbohydrate contents of germinating soybean seeds. Crop Science 13, 407410.
Karner, U., Peterbauer, T., Raboy, V., Jones, D.A., Hedley, C.L. and Richter, A. (2004) myo-Inositol and sucrose concentrations affect the accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides in seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany 55, 19811987.
Kosina, S.M., Castillo, A., Schnebly, S.R. and Obendorf, R.L. (2009) Soybean seed coat cup unloading on plants with low-raffinose, low-stachyose seeds. Seed Science Research 19, 145153.
Kosina, S.M., Schnebly, S.R. and Obendorf, R.L. (2010) Free cyclitol unloading from seed coats on stem–leaf–pod explants of low-raffinose, low-stachyose, low-phytin soybean. Seed Science Research 20, 223236.
Koster, K.L. and Leopold, A.C. (1988) Sugars and desiccation tolerance in seeds. Plant Physiology 88, 829832.
Lahuta, L.B. and Dzik, T. (2011) d-chiro-Inositol affects accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides in developing embryos of Pisum sativum. Journal of Plant Physiology 168, 352358.
Lahuta, L.B., Górecki, R.J. and Horbowicz, M. (2005) High concentrations of d-pinitol or d-chiro-inositol inhibit the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides in maturing smooth tare (Vicia tetrasperma [L.] Schreb.) seeds. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 27, 505513.
Loewus, F.A. and Murthy, P.P.N. (2000) myo-Inositol metabolism in plants. Plant Science 150, 119.
Ma, J.M., Horbowicz, M. and Obendorf, R.L. (2005) Cyclitol galactosides in embryos of buckwheat stem–leaf–seed explants fed d-chiro-inositol, myo-inositol or d-pinitol. Seed Science Research 15, 329338.
Meis, S.J., Fehr, W.R. and Schnebly, S.R. (2003) Seed source effect on field emergence of soybean lines with reduced phytate and raffinose saccharides. Crop Science 43, 13361339.
Naczk, M., Amarowicz, R. and Shahidi, F. (1997) α-Galactosides of sucrose in foods: composition, flatulence-causing effects, and removal. American Society of Chemistry Symposium Series 662, 127151.
Neus, J.D., Fehr, W.R. and Schnebly, S.R. (2005) Agronomic and seed characteristics of soybean with reduced raffinose and stachyose. Crop Science 45, 589592.
Obendorf, R.L. (1997) Oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols in seed desiccation tolerance (Review Update). Seed Science Research 7, 6374.
Obendorf, R.L. and Górecki, R.J. (2012) Soluble carbohydrates in legume seeds. Seed Science Research 22, 219242.
Obendorf, R.L. and Kosina, S.M. (2011) Soluble carbohydrates in soybean. pp. 201228in Ng, T.B. (Ed.) Soybean – biochemistry, chemistry and physiology. Rijeka, Croatia, InTech Open Access Publisher, Available at http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/soluble-carbohydrates-in-soybean (accessed 29 December 2011).
Obendorf, R.L., Horbowicz, M., Dickerman, A.M., Brenac, P. and Smith, M.E. (1998) Soluble oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols in maturing soybean seeds in planta and in vitro. Crop Science 38, 7884.
Obendorf, R.L., Steadman, K.J., Fuller, D.J., Horbowicz, M. and Lewis, B.A. (2000) Molecular structure of fagopyritol A1 (O-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-d-chiro-inositol) by NMR. Carbohydrate Research 328, 623627.
Obendorf, R.L., Odorcic, S., Ueda, T., Coseo, M.P. and Vassallo, E. (2004) Soybean galactinol synthase forms fagopyritol B1 but not galactopinitols: substrate feeding of isolated embryos and heterologous expression. Seed Science Research 14, 321333.
Obendorf, R.L., Sensenig, E.M., Wu, J., Ohashi, M., O'Sullivan, T.E., Kosina, S.M. and Schnebly, S.R. (2008a) Soluble carbohydrates in mature soybean seed after feeding d-chiro-inositol myo-inositol, or d-pinitol to stem–leaf–pod explants of low-raffinose, low-stachyose lines. Plant Science 175, 650655.
Obendorf, R.L., Zimmerman, A.D., Ortiz, P.A., Taylor, A.G. and Schnebly, S.R. (2008b) Imbibitional chilling sensitivity and soluble carbohydrate composition of low raffinose, low stachyose soybean seed. Crop Science 48, 23962403.
Obendorf, R.L., Zimmerman, A.D., Zhang, Q., Castillo, A., Kosina, S.M., Bryant, E.G., Sensenig, E.M., Wu, J. and Schnebly, S.R. (2009) Accumulation of soluble carbohydrates during seed development and maturation of low-raffinose, low-stachyose soybean. Crop Science 49, 329341.
Obendorf, R.L., Horbowicz, M. and Lahuta, L.B. (2012) Characterization of sugars, cyclitols and galactosyl cyclitols in seeds by GC. pp. 167185in Preedy, V.R. (Ed.) Food and nutritional components in focus No. 3. Dietary sugars: Chemistry, analysis, function, and effects. Cambridge, UK, RSC Publishing.
Parsons, C.M., Zhang, Y. and Araba, M. (2000) Nutritional evaluation of soybean meals varying in oligosaccharide content. Poultry Science 79, 11271131.
Peterbauer, T. and Richter, A. (2001) Biochemistry and physiology of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl cyclitols in seeds. Seed Science Research 11, 185198.
Price, K.R., Lewis, J., Wyatt, G.M. and Fenwick, G.R. (1988) Flatulence – causes, relation to diet and remedies. Die Nahrung 32, 609623.
Raboy, V. (2009) Approaches and challenges to engineering seed phytate and total phosphorus. Plant Science 177, 281296.
Rosnoblet, C., Aubry, C., Leprince, O., Vu, B.L., Rogniaux, H. and Buitink, J. (2007) The regulatory gamma subunit SNF4b of the sucrose non-fermenting-related kinase complex is involved in longevity and stachyose accumulation during maturation of Medicago truncatula seeds. Plant Journal 51, 4759.
Ruttloff, H., Täufel, A., Krause, W., Haenel, H. and Täufel, K. (1967) The intestinal enzymatic decompositon of galacto-oligosaccharides in the human and animal intestine, with particular regard to Lactobacillus bifidus Part II. On the intestinal behaviour of lactulose. Die Nahrung 11, 3946.
Schweizer, T.F. and Horman, I. (1981) Purification and structure determination of three α-d-galactopyranosylcyclitols from soya beans. Carbohydrate Research 95, 6171.
Sebastian, S.A., Kerr, P.S., Pearlstein, R.W. and Hitz, W.D. (2000) Soybean germplasm with novel genes for improved digestibility. pp. 5673in Drackley, J.K. (Ed.) Soy in animal nutrition. Savoy, Illinois, Federation of Animal Science Societies.
Suarez, F.L., Springfield, J., Furne, J.K., Lohrmann, T.T., Kerr, P.S. and Levitt, M.D. (1999) Gas production in humans ingesting a soybean flour derived from beans naturally low in oligosaccharides. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 135139.
Whistler, R.L. and Durso, D.F. (1950) Chromatographic separation of sugars on charcoal. Journal of the American Chemical Society 72, 677679.

Keywords

Cyclitol galactosides in low-raffinose, low-stachyose soybean embryos after feeding d-chiro-inositol, myo-inositol or d-pinitol

  • Ralph L. Obendorf (a1), Elizabeth M. Sensenig (a1), Erin M. Byrt (a1), Anna B. Owczarczyk (a1), Minori Ohashi (a1) and Steven R. Schnebly (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed