Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The association between seed size and seed longevity among maternal families in Ambrosia trifida L. populations

  • Brian J. Schutte, Emilie E. Regnier (a1) and S. Kent Harrison (a1)

Abstract

In temperate plant communities, seed size is often inversely related to seed longevity at the species level. We tested if the inverse relationship between seed size and seed longevity holds among individuals within populations of Ambrosia trifida L. (Asteraceae), a summer annual agricultural weed in the eastern United States Corn Belt that typically emerges in two successive flushes: one before 1 May and one after 1 May. The effects of maternal phenotype on seed morphology, seed weight, late emergence (emergence after 1 May) and seed-bank persistence were determined in two 1-year experiments. All seeds were collected from individuals at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. Sixty seeds per collection were used in the analysis. Despite fluctuating environmental conditions during seed development, seed weight within maternal families remained constant for different maturation times. Differences among families constituted 69% of total variation in seed weight, whereas differences within maternal families composed 31% of the variation in seed weight. Percentage late emergence and percentage seed-bank persistence varied among maternal families. In four maternal families, either 0% or 100% of seedlings emerged after 1 May, but a majority of other maternal families produced seedlings both before and after 1 May. Seed-bank persistence rates ranged from 1 to 51% among maternal families. Percentage late emergence and percentage seed-bank persistence were inversely related to maternal-family mean seed weight in 2006, but not in 2005. These results suggest that the inverse relationship between seed size and seed longevity occurs among individuals of a population, but is affected by the environment.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence Email: brian.schutte@ars.usda.gov

References

Hide All
Adkins, S.W., Loewen, M. and Symons, S.J. (1986) Variation within pure lines of wild oats (Avena fatua) in relation to degree of primary dormancy. Weed Science 34, 859864.
Andersson, L. and Milberg, P. (1998) Variation in seed dormancy among mother plants, populations and years of seed collection. Seed Science Research 8, 2938.
Bassett, I.J. and Crompton, C.W. (1982) The biology of Canadian weeds. 55. Ambrosia trifida L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 62, 10031010.
Bassett, I.J. and Terasmae, J. (1962) Ragweeds, the Ambrosia species, in Canada and their history in postglacial time. Canadian Journal of Botany 40, 141150.
Bhati, P. and Sen, D.N. (1978) Adaptive polymorphism in Ipomoea pes-tigridis (Convolvulaceae), a common rainy season weed of Indian arid zone. Plant Systematics and Evolution 129, 111117.
Biere, A. (1991) Parental effects in Lychnis flos-cuculi. 2. Selection on time of emergence and seedling performance in the field. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 4, 467486.
Byers, D.L., Platenkamp, G.A.J. and Shaw, R.G. (1997) Variation in seed characters in Nemophila menziesii: evidence of a genetic basis for maternal effect. Evolution 51, 14451456.
Cohen, D. (1966) Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment. Journal of Theoretical Biology 12, 119129.
Davis, W.E. (1930) Primary dormancy, after-ripening, and the development of secondary dormancy in embryos of Ambrosia trifida. American Journal of Botany 17, 5876.
Funes, G., Basconcelo, S., Diaz, S. and Cabido, M. (1999) Seed size and shape are good predictors of seed persistence in soil in temperate mountain grasslands of Argentina. Seed Science Research 9, 341345.
Gibson, K.D., Johnson, W.G. and Hillger, D.E. (2006) Farmer perceptions of weed problems in corn and soybean rotation systems. Weed Technology 20, 751755.
Halpern, S.L. (2005) Sources and consequences of seed size variation in Lupinus perennis (Fabaceae): adaptive and non-adaptive hypotheses. American Journal of Botany 92, 205213.
Harrison, S.K., Regnier, E.E., Schmoll, J.T. and Webb, J.E. (2001) Competition and fecundity of giant ragweed in corn. Weed Science 49, 224229.
Harrison, S.K., Regnier, E.E., Schmoll, J.T. and Harrison, J.M. (2007) Seed size and burial effects on giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) emergence and seed demise. Weed Science 55, 1622.
Hartnett, D.C., Hartnett, B.B. and Bazzaz, F.A. (1987) Persistence of Ambrosia trifida populations in old fields and responses to successional changes. American Journal of Botany 74, 12391248.
Hosmer, D.W. and Lemeshow, S. (2000) Applied logistic regression (2nd edition). New York, Wiley.
Ishikawa, S.I., Nakajima, J. and Kayashima, K. (2006) Growth and germination responses of a vigorous invasive plant, Ambrosia trifida, to some natural and man-made conditions in Japan. p. 300in Proceedings of the 90th annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America. Montreal, Quebec.
Jones, R.H., Allen, B.P.andSharitz, R.R. (1997) Why do early-emerging tree seedlings have survival advantages? A test using Acer rubrum (Aceraceae). American Journal of Botany 84, 17141718.
Leishman, M.R., Wright, I.J. and Moles, A.T. (2000) The evolutionary ecology of seed size. pp. 3158in Fenner, M. (Ed.) Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities. New York, CABI Publishing.
Littell, R.C., Henry, P.R. and Ammerman, C.B. (1998) Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. Journal of Animal Science 76, 12161231.
Loux, M.M. and Berry, M.A. (1991) Use of a grower survey for estimating weed problems. Weed Technology 5, 460466.
Luzuriaga, A.L., Escudero, A. and Perez-Garcia, F. (2006) Environmental maternal effects on seed morphology and germination in Sinapis arvensis (Cruciferae). Weed Research 46, 163174.
McGinley, M.A., Temme, D.H. and Geber, M.A. (1987) Parental investment in offspring in variable environments: theoretical and empirical considerations. American Naturalist 130, 370398.
Neter, J., Kutner, M.H., Nachtsheim, C.J. and Wasserman, W. (1996) Applied linear statistical models. Chicago, Irwin.
Nurse, R.E. and DiTommaso, A. (2005) Corn competition alters the germinability of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) seeds. Weed Science 53, 479488.
Orozco-Segovia, A., Brechu-Franco, A.E., Zambrano-Polanco, L., Osuna-Fernandez, R., Laguna-Hernandez, G. and Sanchez-Coronado, M.E. (2000) Effects of maternal light environment on germination and morphological characteristics of Sicyos deppei seeds. Weed Research 40, 495506.
Patzoldt, W.L. and Tranel, P.J. (2002) Molecular analysis of cloransulam resistance in a population of giant ragweed. Weed Science 50, 299305.
Rasband, W.J. (2007) ImageJ, U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Available athttp://rsb.info.nih.gov.ij/ (accessed 1 March 2007).
Rees, M. (1996) Evolutionary ecology of seed dormancy and seed size. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 351, 12991308.
Roach, D.A. and Wulff, R.D. (1987) Maternal effects in plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18, 209235.
Rybnicek, O. and Jager, S. (2001) Ambrosia (ragweed) in Europe. Allergy and Clinical Immunology International 13, 6066.
Sako, Y., Regnier, E.E., Daoust, T., Fujimura, K., Harrison, S.K. and McDonald, M.B. (2001) Computer image analysis and classification of giant ragweed seeds. Weed Science 49, 738745.
Sarukhan, J. (1974) Studies on plant demography, Ranunculus repens L, R. bulbosus L and R. acris L. 2. Reproductive strategies and seed population dynamics. Journal of Ecology 62, 151177.
Schutte, B.J., Regnier, E.E. and Harrison, S.K. (2006) Dissection of divergent emergence patterns in agricultural and successional giant ragweed populations. p. 49in Proceedings of the 46th meeting of the Weed Science Society of America. New York, NY.
Schutte, B.J., Regnier, E.E., Harrison, S.K., Schmoll, J.T., Spokas, K. and Forcella, F. (2008) A hydrothermal seedling emergence model for giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida). Weed Science 56, 555560.
Schutz, W. and Rave, G. (2003) Variation in seed dormancy of the wetland sedge, Carex elongata, between populations and individuals in two consecutive years. Seed Science Research 13, 315322.
Seger, J.andBrockmann, H.J. (1987) What is bet-hedging? Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 4, 182211.
Sharif-Zadeh, F. and Murdoch, A.J. (2000) The effects of different maturation conditions on seed dormancy and germination of Cenchrus ciliaris. Seed Science Research 10, 447457.
Simons, A.M. and Johnston, M.O. (2000) Variation in seed traits of Lobelia inflata (Campanulaceae): sources and fitness consequences. American Journal of Botany 87, 124132.
Smith, C.C. and Fretwell, S.D. (1974) The optimal balance between size and number of offspring. American Naturalist 108, 499506.
Sprague, C.L., Wax, L.M., Hartzler, R.G. and Harrison, S.K. (2004) Variations in emergence patterns of giant ragweed biotypes from Ohio, Illinois, and Iowa. p. 60in Proceedings of the 44th meeting of the Weed Science Society of America. Kansas City, Missouri.
Stamp, N.E. (1990) Production and effect of seed size in a grassland annual (Erodium brachycarpum, Geraniaceae). American Journal of Botany 77, 874882.
Thompson, K. (2000) The functional ecology of soil seed banks. pp. 215236in Fenner, M. (Ed.) Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities. New York, CABI Publishing.
Thompson, K., Band, S.R. and Hodgson, J.G. (1993) Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology 7, 236241.
Thompson, K., Jalili, A., Hodgson, J.G., Hamzeh'ee, B., Asri, Y., Shaw, S., Shirvany, A., Yazdani, S., Khoshnevis, M., Zarrinkamar, F., Ghahramani, M.A. and Safavi, R. (2001) Seed size, shape and persistence in the soil in an Iranian flora. Seed Science Research 11, 345355.
USNO (2007) United States Naval Observatory sun rise and set data for Columbus, OH. Available athttp://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneYear.php (accessed 24 October 2007).
Uva, R.H., Neal, J.C. and DiTomaso, J.M. (1997) Weeds of the Northeast. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.
Venable, D.L. and Brown, J.S. (1988) The selective interactions of dispersal, dormancy, and seed size as adaptations for reducing risk in variable environments. American Naturalist 131, 360384.
Watson, M.A. and Casper, B.B. (1984) Morphogenetic constraints on patterns of carbon distribution in plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15, 233258.
Webster, T.M., Loux, M.M., Regnier, E.E. and Harrison, S.K. (1994) Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) canopy architecture and interference studies in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology 8, 559564.
Winn, A.A. (1991) Proximate and ultimate sources of within individual variation in seed mass in Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae). American Journal of Botany 78, 838844.
Zar, J.H. (1999) Biostatistical analysis (4th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall.

Keywords

The association between seed size and seed longevity among maternal families in Ambrosia trifida L. populations

  • Brian J. Schutte, Emilie E. Regnier (a1) and S. Kent Harrison (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed