Hostname: page-component-758b78586c-qvhcc Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-11-28T19:52:18.655Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Seed dormancy and germination of the three tropical medicinal species Gomphandra luzoniensis (Stemonuraceae), Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Icacinaceae) and Goniothalamus amuyon (Annonaceae)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 November 2014

Shun-Ying Chen
Division of Silviculture, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nan-Hai Road, Taipei10066, Taiwan
Yu-Han Tsai
Division of Silviculture, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nan-Hai Road, Taipei10066, Taiwan
Carol C. Baskin
Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky40506-0225, USA Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky40546-0312, USA
Jerry M. Baskin
Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky40506-0225, USA
Ching-Te Chien*
Division of Silviculture, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nan-Hai Road, Taipei10066, Taiwan
*Correspondence Fax: +886 2 23078742 E-mail:


The three tropical species Gomphandra luzoniensis, Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Goniothalamus amuyon contain important cancer-fighting drugs; however, little is known about how to propagate these species from seeds. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the germination requirements of seeds of each of these three species in order to provide an effective protocol to produce plants. Fresh seeds of G. luzoniensis germinated up to 73% at high temperatures in light in 4 weeks, and embryos were underdeveloped. Most seeds had morphological dormancy (MD), but a proportion of them had morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). Fresh seeds of N. nimmoniana germinated up to 50% in light in 4 weeks, embryo length increased by 17% before radicle emergence and ≥ 89% of the seeds had germinated after incubation for 6 weeks in light at high temperatures. Thus, about 50% of the seeds have MD and about 50% MPD. Fresh seeds of G. amuyon incubated at 30°C in light for 4 weeks germinated to 69%, whereas at the other incubation temperatures germination took longer than 4 weeks. Embryo length increased 213% before radicle emergence, and after 8 weeks of incubation at high temperatures ≥ 80% of the seeds had germinated. As in the other two species, the seed population consisted of a mixture of MD and MPD. Incubation of seeds of these three species at high temperatures (e.g. 25, 30 and 30/20°C) for up to 2 months is recommended for germination and thus seedling production.

Short Communication
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Alali, F.Q., Zhang, Y., Rogers, L. and McLaughlin, J.L. (1998) Mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins from Goniothalamus giganteus . Phytochemistry 49, 761768.Google Scholar
Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (2005) Underdeveloped embryos in dwarf seeds and implications for assignment to dormancy class. Seed Science Research 15, 357360.Google Scholar
Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (2014) Seeds: Ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, Academic Press.Google Scholar
Bewley, J.D., Bradford, K.J., Hilhorst, H.W.M. and Nonogaki, H. (2013) Seeds: Physiology of development, germination and dormancy (3rd edition). New York, Springer.Google Scholar
Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan (2014) Climate statistics. Available at website (accessed August 2014) (in Chinese).Google Scholar
Chang, C.E. (1993) Icacinaceae. pp. 674679 in Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan (Eds) Flora of Taiwan, vol. 3 (2nd edition). Taiwan, Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan.Google Scholar
Chang, S.H., Tsay, J.Y., Yeh, Y.C. and Ho, C.K. (2008) Micropropagation of Nothapodytes nimmoniana . Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry 41, 1727 (in Chinese with English abstract and captions to figures and tables).Google Scholar
Council of Agriculture. (1996) Rare and endangered plants in Taiwan (I): Goniothalanus amuyon (Blanco) Merr. (Annonaceae). pp. 9798. Taiwan, The Council of Agriculture, the Executive Yuan (in Chinese).Google Scholar
Dandin, V.S. and Murthy, H.N. (2012) Enhanced in vitro multiplication of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham using semisolid and liquid cultures and estimation of camptothecin in the regenerated plants. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 34, 13811386.Google Scholar
Engelmann, F. (1997) Importance of desiccation for the cryopreservation of recalcitrant seed and vegetatively propagated species. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 112, 918.Google Scholar
Fulzele, D.P. and Satdive, R.K. (2005) Distribution of anticancer drug camptothecin in Nothapodytes foetida . Fitoterapia 76, 643648.Google Scholar
Govindachari, T.R. and Viswanathan, N. (1972) Alkaloids of Mappia foetida . Phytochemistry 11, 35293531.Google Scholar
Grushvitzky, I.V. (1967) After-ripening of seeds of primitive tribes of angiosperms, conditions and peculiarities. pp. 329336 in Borris, H. (Ed.) Physiologie, ökologie und biochemie der keimung. Greifswald, Germany, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität.Google Scholar
Hartzell, H. Jr. (1991) The yew tree: a thousand whispers: Biography of a species. Eugene, Oregon, Hulogosi.Google Scholar
Ho, C.K., Chang, S.H., Tsay, J.Y., Chen, K.F., Wu, J.C. and Huang, C.Y. (2007) High content of camptothecin production from different Nothapodytes nimmoniana lines. pp. 141148 in Ho, C.K.; Chien, C.T.; Liao, S.N. (Eds) Proceedings of new development of tree seed propagation, cultivation and plantation techniques. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute Extension Series No. 180 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
Lan, Y.H., Chang, F.R., Yu, J.H., Yang, Y.L., Chang, Y.L., Lee, S.J. and Wu, Y.C. (2003) Cytotoxic styrylpyrones from Goniothalamus amuyon . Journal of Natural Products 66, 487490.Google Scholar
Lan, Y.H., Chang, F.R., Liaw, C.C., Wu, C.C., Chiang, M.Y. and Wu, Y.C. (2005) Digoniodiol, deoxygoniopypyrone A, and goniofupyrone A: three new styryllactones from Goniothalamus amuyon . Planta Medica 71, 153159.Google Scholar
Liao, J.C. (1996) Annonaceae. pp. 415419 in Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan (Eds) Flora of Taiwan, vol. 2 (2nd edition). Taiwan, Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan.Google Scholar
Lilenbaum, R.C., Ratain, M.J., Miller, A.A., Hargis, J.B., Hollis, D.R., Rosner, G.L., O'Brien, S.M., Brewster, L., Green, M.R. and Schilsky, R.L. (1995) Phase I study of paclitaxel and topotecan in patients with advanced tumors: a cancer and leukemia group B study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 13, 22302237.Google Scholar
Ng, F.S.P. (1992) Manual of forest fruits, seeds and seedlings, vol. 2. Kuala Lumpur, Forest Research Institute Malaysia.Google Scholar
Nijënstein, H., Nydam, J., Don, R. and McGill, C.. (Eds) (2007) ISTA handbook on moisture determination (1st edition). Bassersdorf, Switzerland, International Seed Testing Association.Google Scholar
Nikolaeva, M.G. (1969) Physiology of deep dormancy in seeds. Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo ‘Nauka’. (Translated from Russian by Z. Shapiro, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.).Google Scholar
Radha, R.K., Decruse, S.W. and Krishnan, P.N. (2010) Cryopreservation of excised embryonic axes of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Graham) Mabberly – a vulnerable medicinal tree species of the Western Ghats. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 9, 435437.Google Scholar
Ramesha, B.T., Suma, H.K., Senthilkumar, U., Priti, V., Ravikanth, G., Vasudeva, R., Santhosh Kumar, T.R., Ganeshaiah, K.N. and Uma Shaanker, R. (2013) New plant sources of the anti-cancer alkaloid, camptothecine from the Icacinaceae taxa, India. Phytomedicine 20, 521527.Google Scholar
Schori, M. and Utteridge, T.M.A. (2012) Six new species and a new subspecies of Gomphandra (Stemonuraceae) from the Philippines. Kew Bulletin 67, 713729.Google Scholar
Sharma, S.N., Puri, S.C., Srivastava, T.N., Handa, G. and Kaul, B.L. (2000) Enhancement of seed germination in Nothapodytes foetida . Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences 22, 206210.Google Scholar
Surivet, J.P. and Vatèle, J.M. (1999) Total synthesis of antitumor Goniothalamus styryllactones. Tetrahedron 55, 1301113028.Google Scholar
Takimoto, C.H., Wright, J. and Arbuck, S.G. (1998) Clinical applications of the camptothecins. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1400, 107119.Google Scholar
Vladu, B., Woynarowski, J.M., Manikumar, G., Wani, M.C., Von Hoff, D.D. and Wadkins, R.M. (2000) 7- and 10-substituted camptothecins: dependence of topoisomerase I-DNA cleavable complex formation and stability on the 7- and 10-substituents. Molecular Pharmacology 57, 243251.Google Scholar
Wang, B.S.P., Lin, T.P. and Chang, T.T. (1998) Control of fungal growth with sphagnum for cold stratification and germination of tree seeds. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 13, 101108.Google Scholar
Wiart, C. (2007) Goniothalamus species: a source of drugs for the treatment of cancers and bacterial infections? Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 4, 299311.Google Scholar
Wu, Y.C., Duh, C.Y., Chang, F.R., Chang, G.Y., Wang, S.K., Chang, J.J., McPhail, D.R., McPhail, A.T. and Lee, K.H. (1991) The crystal structure and cytotoxicity of goniodiol-7-monoacetate from Goniothalamus amuyon . Journal of Natural Products 54, 10771081.Google Scholar
Yang, J.C. (2011) Seed collection, germination and storage of 16 coastal native species. Forestry Research Newsletter 18 (4), 1520 (in Chinese).Google Scholar