Hostname: page-component-758b78586c-qzq9q Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-11-28T21:18:21.299Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Germination of Viburnum odoratissimum seeds: a new level of morphophysiological dormancy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 September 2008

Carol C. Baskin*
Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky40506, USA Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky40546, USA
Ching-Te Chien
Division of Silviculture, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan
Shun-Ying Chen
Division of Forest Biology, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan
Jerry M. Baskin
Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky40506, USA
*Correspondence Fax: +1-859-257-1717 Email:


Previous studies indicated that seeds of Viburnum odoratissimum had only physiological dormancy (PD), but no measurements of embryos were made during the dormancy-break treatments. Thus, we investigated embryo growth and radicle and cotyledon emergence over a range of temperatures. Seeds have underdeveloped embryos, and their length increased about 300% before radicle emergence. Embryos also had PD, as evidenced by delays in beginning of embryo growth (2–3 weeks) and of germination after embryos were elongated (4 weeks). After radicle emergence, epicotyl emergence was delayed 1–8 weeks, depending on incubation temperature, but cold stratification was not required to break PD of the epicotyl. Unlike seeds of many previously studied Viburnum spp., epicotyls of V. odoratissimum have non-deep, rather than deep, PD. Hence, a new level of MPD called non-deep, simple, epicotyl MPD has been identified.

Short Communication
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Baskin, C.C. and Baskin, J.M. (1998) Seeds: Ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. San Diego, Academic Press.Google Scholar
Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (2004) A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Science Research 14, 116.Google Scholar
Chen, S.-Y., Chien, C.-T., Chen, Y.-C. and Chang, W.-L. (1999) Dormancy and germination promotion of Viburnum odoratissimum seeds. Seed and Nursery (Taiwan) 1, 101110(in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Chien, C.-T., Chen, S.-Y. and Chang, W.-L. (2002) Stratification and gibberellin treatments for seeds of four Taiwanese tree species. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 17, 5157(in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Fedec, P. and Knowles, R.H. (1973) Afterripening and germination of seeds of American highbush cranberry (Viburnum trilobum). Canadian Journal of Botany 51, 17611764.Google Scholar
Giersbach, J. (1937) Germination and seedling production of species of Viburnum. Contributions from the Boyce Thompson Institute 9, 7990.Google Scholar
Hidayati, S.N., Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (2005) Epicotyl dormancy in Viburnum acerifolium (Caprifoliaceae). American Midland Naturalist 153, 232244.Google Scholar
Karlsson, L.M., Hidayati, S.N., Walck, J.L. and Milberg, P. (2005) Complex combination of seed dormancy and seedling development determine emergence of Viburnum tinus (Caprifoliaceae). Annals of Botany 95, 323330.Google Scholar
Li, H.-L. (1963) Woody flora of Taiwan. Narberth, PA, Livingston Publishing Co.Google Scholar
Mabberley, D.J. (1997) The plant-book. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants (2nd edition). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Nikolaeva, M.G. (1969) Physiology of deep dormancy in seeds. Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Nauka (Translated from Russian by Z. Shapiro, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.).Google Scholar
Nikolaeva, M.G. (1977) Factors controlling the seed dormancy pattern. pp. 5174in Khan, A.A. (Ed.) The physiology and biochemistry of seed dormancy and germination. Amsterdam, North-Holland.Google Scholar
Nikolaeva, M.G. (2001) Ekologo-fiziologicheskie osobennosti pokoya i prorastaniya semyan (itogi issledovantii zaistekshee stoletie) [Ecological and physiological aspects of seed dormancy and germination (review of investigations for the last century)]. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 86, 114. (A slightly modified version of the English translation of this paper can be found atwww.usd./isss/Nikolaeva-manuscript-web.doc. The title of the paper on the web is ‘An update of Nikolaeva's seed dormancy classification system and its relevance to the ecology, physiology, biogeography and phylogenetic relationships of seed dormancy and germination’.).Google Scholar
Nikolaeva, M.G., Rasumova, M.V. and Gladkova, V.N. (1985) Reference book on dormant seed germination. Danilova, M.F. (Ed.). Leningrad, Nauka Publishers (in Russian).Google Scholar
Nikolaeva, M.G., Lyanguzova, I.V. and Pozdova, L.M. (1999) Biology of seeds. St. Petersburg, V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (in Russian with English summary and English table of contents).Google Scholar
Winkworth, R.C. and Donoghue, M.J. (2005) Viburnum phylogeny based on combined molecular data: implications for taxonomy and biogeography. American Journal of Botany 92, 653666.Google Scholar
Zolobova, Z.P. (1970) Some results on the effect of temperatures on the seeds and plumules of Viburnum opulus L. during stratification in order to hasten seedling emergence. pp. 141146in Bailobok, L.S.; Suszka, B. (Eds) Proceedings of the international symposium on seed physiology of woody plants, held at Kornik, Poland, 3–8 September 1968. Warsaw, Institute of Dendrology and Kornik Arboretum, Polish Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar