1The Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats
2Yeats: The Man and the Masks
(London: Faber and
3 F. A. C. Wilson, drawing on Yeats's ‘heterodox mysticism’, takes the Emperor to
symbolize God and interprets the passage from natural life to transcendent symbol as
that from this life to the next. (W. B. Yeats and Tradition, London:
Victor Gollancz, 1958;
231–243, esp. 242; also 15). On my account this ‘mystical’ dimension of the
poem images a form of human creativity. ‘Byzantium’ contains both aspects; it is the
nature of the Romantic Image to be multifaceted in such ways.
5A Course of Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature, trans.
Black, John and Morrison, A. J. W. (New York: AMS
Press, 1965), Lect. VI, 88.
6Romantic Image, op. cit., 5.
7‘Baudelaire’, in his Selected
Essays (London: Faber and
Faber, 1961), 426.
8Oeuvres complètes, 2 vols., ed. Marchal, Bertrand (Paris,
1998–2003), II. 700. A ‘principle’ summarized by
Symons, Arthur as ‘to name is to destroy, to suggest is to
create’. (The Symbolist Movement in Literature,
Heinemann, 1899, 132)
9The Symbolist Movement in Literature, op.cit, 129.
10Lustra of Ezra Pound with Earlier Poems (New
York: Alfred A. Knopf,
11The Collected Poems of William Carlos Williams, Volume I
1909–1939, ed. Litz, A. Walton and MacGowan, Christopher (Manchester:
224. For convenience, I on occasion refer to this poem using its
conventional designation, as above, but strictly it is untitled.
12 See especially ‘Logic and Conversation’ in his Studies
in the Way of Words (Cambridge, Mass. and
London: Harvard University Press,
13 Kermode's word, Romantic Image, op. cit., 85.
14Anabasis: A Poem (London:
Faber and Faber, 1959),
15Romantic Image, 152.
Apology for Heroic Poetry and Poetic Licence’, in
Essays of John Dryden, 2 vols. (ed.) Ker, W. P. (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1900), I. 186.
17On the Sublime xv. §§ 1–2.
18Lewis, C. Day, The Poetic Image
Cape, 1947), 18–19.
Perception’, in his Freedom and Resentment and Other
Essays (London and New York:
George Allen & Unwin,
21Living Forms of the Imagination (London &
New York: T&T Clark,
22The Concept of Mind (London:
23 Imagination', in Williams, Bernard and Montefiore, Alan (eds) British Analytical Philosophy
(London: Routledge &
Kegan Paul, 1966), 160.
33The Poetic Image, op. cit., 23; the quotation is from John Middleton
Murry's essay ‘Metaphor’ in his Countries of the
Mind: Essays in Literary Criticism
(London: Oxford University
Press, 1937), II. 4.
34Ibid, 25. Compare O'Hear, Anthony, The Element of Fire: Science, Art and the Human
World (London and New York:
104–5: ‘A literal description of a feeling or
attitude I have will not precisely delineate it, nor will it bring out the way in
which it is not an object for me, but something I feel, something constitutive of
what I am. It is at this point that one can have recourse to metaphor or symbol,
transferring certain terms from the public realm to indicate the nature of one's
inner state. . . . [T]he metaphor, precisely because it is not literal, awakens
intimations and a free flow of associations, where the literal closes and confines
one's thought. . . . [T]he criterion of success will be to produce a metaphor which
evokes the right sort of experience in one's audience.’
35The Poetic Image, op. cit., 25, 35. If, as some suppose, Nashe's
“air” is an error for “hair” this does not weaken the point; the received line has
stood the test of time in a manner the proposed alternative could hardly have
36Ways of Worldmaking (Hassocks,
38A Course of Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature, op. cit.,
39The Statesman's Manual: or The Bible the Best Guide to Political Skill and
Foresight, in his Lay Sermons. Ed. White, R. J., Collected Works, Vol.6,
Bollingen Series LXXV (Cambridge and Princeton:
Routledge & Kegan Paul and Princeton
UP, 1972), 30. Compare: ‘The
allegorist leaves the given . . . to talk of that which is confessedly less real,
which is a fiction. The symbolist leaves the given to find that which is more real.’
Lewis, C. S., The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval
Tradition (New York:
Oxford University Press, 1958),
40‘On Beauty as the
Symbol of Morality’, in his Critique of
Judgment, trans. Pluhar, Werner S. (Indianapolis/Cambridge:
§59, ¶¶ 351–2, 226–7.
41The Figure of Beatrice: A Study in Dante
(London: Faber and
Faber, 1943), 7. Williams's use of
“image” appears to have significant affinities with that later proposed by
42The Lives of the Poets, 3 vols. (ed.) Middendorf, John H. (New Haven and London:
Yale University Press,
2010), I, 26.
43 C. Day Lewis, The Poetic Image, op. cit., 57.
44Eliot, T. S., Collected Poems: 1909–1962
(London: Faber and
Faber, 1974), 13–17.
45 C. Day Lewis, The Poetic Image, op. cit. 93.
46 T. S. Eliot, Collected Poems: 1909–1962, op. cit., 189–95.
Movement: Notes in the Analysis of Poetry (ii)’, in his
A Selection From Scrutiny, Vol. 1
(Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1968), 231. He adds that
in considering certain types of poetic effect ‘we find “imagery” giving place to
“movement” as the appropriate term for calling attention to what has to be analysed’.
48 From Tennyson's ‘Break, break, break’; compare Eliot's ‘The dancers are all gone
under the hill' (‘East Coker’ II).
49 T. S. Eliot, Collected Poems: 1909–1962, op. cit., 210.
50The Poetic Image, op. cit., 65.
51A Course of Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature, op. cit., Lect.
52Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, trans. Pears, D. F. and McGuinness, B. F. (London: Routledge
& Kegan Paul, 1961),
53Poetic Argument: Studies in Modern Poetry
University Press, 1988), 42.
55 See, for example, Raine, Kathleen, ‘On the Symbol’, in her
Defending Ancient Springs
(London: Oxford University
105–22, and ‘The Vertical
Dimension’, Temenos13, 1992, 195–212. Also Bodkin, Maud, Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: Psychological Studies of
Oxford University Press,
1934). Symons advocated ‘that confidence in the eternal
correspondences between the visible and the invisible universe, which Mallarmé
taught’ (The Symbolist Movement in Literature, op.cit, 138).
56 C. Day Lewis's list, The Poetic Image, op. cit., 141.
57‘The Rhetoric of
Temporality’, in his Blindness and Insight: Essays in
the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism, 2nd edn,
(Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 1983), §I.
‘Allegory and Symbol’, 208.
58 A vigorous response to de Man's essay has been mounted by Douglas Hedley
(Living Forms of the Imagination, op. cit., 136–40). For de Man
‘the prevalence of allegory always corresponds to the unveiling of an authentically
temporal destiny’, where ‘self’ and ‘non-self’ can never ‘coincide’ (‘The Rhetoric of
Temporality’, 206–7), and he downplays the contrast between allegory and symbol as
being of ‘secondary importance’, arguing that Coleridge implicitly allows figural
language as such to be understood in terms of ‘translucence’ (192–3). Hedley replies,
with some plausibility, that this in effect collapses a crucial distinction, pointing
out that for Coleridge there is an ‘ontological link between symbols
and the reality symbolized [which] becomes transparent in the image’, but that with
allegory there is ‘a different relationship between the means of expression and the
objects of that expression’ (Living Forms, 138–9). De Man's
rejection of any such ontological link, and hence resistance to claims for a
symbolic, synecdochal, ‘translucence’ of the eternal through and in the temporal,
appears to be in part a consequence of his accepting the self's ‘authentically
temporal destiny’ as being crucial to the ‘truths’ supposed to have ‘come to light in
the last quarter of the eighteenth century’, and coming close to implying that the
associated ‘secularized thought . . . no longer allows a transcendence of the
antinomies between the created world and the act of creation’ (‘The Rhetoric of
Temporality’, 206–7). Such a position is, of course, incompatible with Coleridgean
panentheism. De Man's assault on ‘this symbolical style’ as lacking ‘an entirely good
poetic conscience’ (208) looks suspiciously like a form of petitio
in the guise of analysis.
59 St.-John Perse, Anabasis, trans. and ed. T. S. Eliot, op.cit.,
10–11. These coordinates suggest an affinity with Ezra Pound's ‘ideogrammic method’,
with concepts built up from combining concrete images; see his ABC of Reading (London:
60In Defense of Reason (Chicago,