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THE DIARY OF GEORGE LLOYD (1642–1718): [Colchester Diary]

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 November 2022


Thursday, 19 August: Half an houer after 5 I took Coach at the King's Armes in Leadenhall Streete, about 9 bayted at Hart Streete, about 11 came to Ingerstone dined there with 2 gentell men and one woman after at 12 came out and about 4 stayd at a towne <Keldon> 8 miles shorte of Colchester, and came thither a little after 6 to the Three Crownes where I lay that night.

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10 ‘Baited’ (archaic), to stop briefly on a journey, originally to feed horses, OED.

11 Lloyd refers here to the Essex village of Ingatestone, roughly halfway between London and Colchester.

12 The village of Kelvedon, between Chelmsford and Colchester.

13 This building still stands where Head Street becomes North Hill, facing down Colchester High Street, and until recently was used as a post office. D'Cruze, Shani (ed.), Colchester People, Vol. 3 (Morrisville, NC, 2010), 2829Google Scholar.

14 John Smith, rector of St Mary-at-the-Walls 1662–1677 (CCEd ). The church had been damaged in the siege in 1648, and so from this time until 1714, the rectors of St Mary's sequestrated Holy Trinity, ministering to both congregations and carrying out much of their business there. Smith was an author of at least one substantial Volume of apologia, Christian, Christian Religion's Appeal from the Groundless Prejudices of the Sceptick to the Bar of Common Reason (London, 1675)Google Scholar. At least one other work, namely The Doctrine of the Church of England, concerning the Lord's Day (London, 1683; 2nd edn 1694) is attributed to him, though his name does not appear on the title page. He is sometimes wrongly conflated with ‘Narrative Smith’, known for his narrative of the Popish Plot, who was from Walworth in Durham: see VCHE, 325; cf. Smith, John, The Narrative of Mr John Smith of Walworth (London, 1679)Google Scholar. CCEd Person ID: 166567.

15 This is a good example of Lloyd's poorly parsed and often confusing writing style; he is here describing accompanying Smith in search of his son, not his brother.

16 This small inn stood at what is now 38 St Botolphs St., Colchester: D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, p. 14.

17 St Botolph's Gate, also known as South Gate, to the south-east of the centre of Colchester, near the church of the same name. Possibly Roman in origin, the Gate survived the Siege of Colchester in 1648. It was demolished in 1814.

18 Also known simply as the Mariners, the building from which this tavern operated still stands at 111 Magdalen St., on the corner with Magdalen Green: D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, p. 19.

19 Probably Moses Delight, scrivener of Trinity parish, who died in 1717; for will, see ERO, D/ABW 82/179. He was assessed at three hearths in 1670, EHT, 294. Lloyd's diary tells us that he was also a schoolmaster: see 25 September 1677.

20 Just off West Stockwell St., in the town centre.

21 A recently deceased Colchester schoolmaster. See Will of John Le Duke of Colchester, schoolmaster, proved 4 May 1670, ERO, D/AC W18/189.

22 Here commences Lloyd's rigorous documentation of his thrice daily regime of ‘devotion’, which is consistently observed throughout the diary. In the manuscript, Lloyd renders this phrase using various abbreviations, usually ‘per: my dt’ or similar, and in the London Diary, simply ‘pd’. Daily regimes of private religious devotion are recommended in a number of 17th-century devotional manuals, but I think it likely that Lloyd followed the prescription laid out by arguably his favourite divine, Jeremy Taylor. In The Golden Grove, or, A Manuall of Daily Prayers and Letanies (London, 1655), Taylor instructs his readers – in a chapter named ‘The Diary’, referring to daily routine – to ‘spend each day religiously’, laying aside time in the morning, afternoon, and evening to ‘go to your usuall devotions’, ibid. 47–57. Lloyd explicitly describes himself using the Golden Grove, and other works by Taylor, in his acts of domestic piety: see 9 February 1676.

23 The Angiers (also spelled Aungier, Ainger, Angeir, Anger, amongst other variables) were a prominent family in Colchester. There is some suggestion, albeit unconfirmed, that they were related to the Angiers of nearby Dedham, which produced several notable nonconformists including John (1605–1677), ODNB. The individual referenced here cannot be definitively identified. See Charles Partridge, ‘The Angier Family’, East Anglian, or, Notes and Queries, 12 (1908), 198–201.

24 This individual, whose Christian name is never given, has proven surprisingly difficult to trace. A Dr John Harrison ran unsuccessfully for Parliament in Colchester in 1695: Hist. Parl. 1690–1715, Vol. 2, 186. However, an MD of the same name, of Colchester, appears in Cantabrigienses in 1682: Vol. 1, pt. 2, 136.

25 Lloyd emphasized this pause with a long dash.

26 Hieremias Drexelius (Jeremias Drexel), 1581–1638, a Jesuit and author of devotional literature. Born in Augsburg, he was court preacher to Maximilian I of Bavaria for 23 years until his death.

27 On North Hill to the north-west of the centre of Colchester. St Peter is of medieval origin but much of the present red-brick building dates to the mid 18th century, TBE, Essex, 135–136.

28 Thomas Thompson, MA, held the living of St Peter from 1672/3 until his death in 1682, CCEd Person ID: 166911. He was also rector of Roydon, Suffolk, in 1672, and chaplain to Aubrey de Vere, 20th earl of Oxford: Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 4, 228.

29 Represented with an ornate ‘v’ symbol or versicle, ℣: this abbreviation is expanded throughout.

30 This verse is partly rendered in an as yet unidentified shorthand; these passages are demarcated in square brackets. Translation of the shorthand was thankfully made possible by Lloyd's inclusion of chapter and verse.

31 Edge of page torn away.

32 This seems likely to have been John Wheely of infamous Colchester legend, an ironmonger who purchased Colchester castle in 1683 in order to demolish it and sell the raw materials to cover his debts. After causing substantial damage to the castle, the enterprise proved unprofitable and he sold it to Sir Isaac Rebow in 1705, VCHE, 241, 245.

33 Archaic term for a haystack, OED.

34 Here, Lloyd is referring to learning the practice of double entry bookkeeping. Lloyd did indeed become adept at this methodology: see Introduction, pp. 23, 27–28.

35 See Lloyd's autobiographical preface above.

36 Sir William Halford of Welham married Elizabeth Pretyman, daughter of Sir John Pretyman, 1st Bt (c.1612–1676), in 1663: see Cokayne, Complete Baronetage, Vol. 4, 195. Pretyman was MP for Leicester from 1661–1676: Hist. Parl. 1660–1690, Vol. 3, 284.

37 This establishment (or another with the same name) was sold in 1700 for £300. It was in ‘St Maries Street’, now Church St., in the parish of St Mary-at-the-Walls, ERO, D/DU 457/10.

38 The King's Head was one of Colchester's foremost inns in the period, though by the mid 18th century it was eclipsed by the White Hart. It was in the parish of St Mary-at-the-Walls, in Headgate Court off Head St.: D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, 17–18.

39 ‘A convenient way of performing multiplication by means of aliquot parts in cases where one or both quantities are expressed in more than one unit’, OED. Such a method would have been extremely useful in accounting (or indeed simply counting) in pre-decimal currency.

40 This is likely to have been the merchant John Furly, a Quaker and patriarch of one of Colchester's most prosperous mercantile families. His father, John Furly (c.1590–1673) was a linen draper, alderman, and later mayor of Colchester in 1638 and 1650. John's brother Benjamin (1636–1714), who emigrated to Rotterdam in 1658, was an acquaintance of John Locke, Sir William Penn, John Stubbs, and Algernon Sydney, amongst others (ODNB).

41 Wivenhoe, a small town and port about three miles south-east of Colchester.

42 An archaic unit of liquid or dry measure, equal to two imperial gallons. However, measurements were not rigidly standardized in the 1670s.

43 ‘My own book’.

44 Sir Charles Lucas (1613–1648) of Colchester, Essex, was a Royalist officer during the English Civil War. He was executed by firing squad following the siege of the town in 1648, and later became a Royalist martyr.

45 Holy Trinity is in Trinity St. in the very centre of Colchester. See TBE, Essex, 136.

46 The bottom of this page is badly damaged, and confident transcription of the fragments of tiny writing is impossible.

47 A calligraphic design to showcase italic script.

48 ‘Mr Meadows’, the person from whom Lloyd initially rented the premises for his school, has proven to be particularly difficult to track down. Lloyd's scattered references suggest he was renting from Robert Meadows (22 September 1675), and his school operated from a room above his shop (30 August, 10 September, and 14 October 1675). He had a brother, probably Samuel Meadows (see 1 and 16 September 1675). I have not been able to trace wills belonging to these individuals, nor do they appear in the Hearth Tax return for 1670. However, there is a will proved on 7 April 1718 in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury belonging to an Elizabeth Meadows, widow of Colchester. Elizabeth had six living children, Robert, Edward, Mary, Elizabeth, Ann, and Martha, and the will mentions that her late husband's name was Robert. It seems possible, therefore, that this Robert and Elizabeth Meadows were the same Mrs and Mrs Meadows referred to extensively below. See TNA, PROB 11/563/238.

49 Here, Lloyd uses an abbreviation for the word ‘our’, an ‘o’ with a swooping line from the top, resembling an italic ‘b’. Henceforth, this abbreviation will be silently expanded.

50 Lloyd is probably referring to the gatehouse of St John's Abbey, a former Benedictine monastery founded in 1095 and dissolved in 1539. The Abbey was subsequently acquired by the Lucas family, who built a house on the property. The house and much of the rest of the Abbey was destroyed by Parliamentarian troops during the Siege of Colchester in 1648; the gatehouse, however, survives to this day, TBE, Essex, 137.

51 Here again we see Lloyd attempting a phonetic spelling of an unfamiliar name: the ‘Strottons’ would later become the ‘Strattons’ or ‘Strettons’. Lloyd's landlords, Mr and Mrs Stratton, appear to have been of humble social and economic status; no will can be found for either individual. Lloyd moved in as a lodger at once on this day but only arranged to ‘bord’, i.e. to take his meals with the Strattons later: see 31 August 1675. Scattered references below suggest that Mr Stratton may have been a grocer of some kind. Stratton's Christian name was probably Robert (see 4 October 1677), but this name does not appear in the Hearth Tax return for 1670. A John Stretton was assessed at two hearths in All Saints’ parish, EHT, 296. The will of John Streaton, carpenter, was proved in March 1683, and makes no mention of a Robert Stratton or Streaton, ERO, D/ACW 20/44. Mrs Stratton appears to have been the sister of the miller Richard Orbell of St Mary-at-the-Walls: see 15 October 1675.

52 Lloyd probably means ‘bed’. Throughout the diary, Lloyd exhibits a fascination with manual work.

53 I can find no trace of an establishment with this exact name in Colchester, but it may have been the Lamb, on the edge of St Runwald's parish, on the north side of the High St. Also noted by Morant as the Shoulder of Mutton. D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, 18, and Philip Morant, The History and Antiquities of Colchester, in the County of Essex, Vol. 2 (London, 1748), 9.

54 Unidentified, not one of the regular clergy in Colchester.

55 St James the Great is a large church on East Hill, which runs off the east end of the High St. See TBE, Essex, 133.

56 Here Lloyd misspells the name of William Shelton, rector of St James from 1670 until his death in 1699. Although he is little known or researched today, Shelton was an enthusiastic controversialist and staunch defender of the Church of England against dissenters and Catholics, publishing a number of religious polemics and some Christian moralistic literature between the 1660s and the 1690s, one of which, Moral Vertues Baptized Christian, or, The Necessity of Morality among Christians (London, 1667), describes him as a ‘late Fellow of Jesus Colledge in Cambridge’. See also VCHE, 318.

57 In the parish of St Nicholas, at 110 High St., presumably giving its name to Swan Passage, which runs behind the site, D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, 27.

58 Ambiguously and untidily written, but perhaps a phonetic guess or misspelling of ‘Meadows’, the individual mentioned regularly below.

59 It is unclear here whether Meadows means his wife, or a landlady from whom he was hoping to sublet the property.

60 Gum sandarac, derived from the resin of the sictus tree, could be used for pounce; a fine powder sprinkled on a writing medium (paper) in order to prevent ink bleeding or blotting. Pounce was often made using powdered cuttlefish bone, OED.

61 To ‘make your honours’ (now ‘honour your partner’) is to make a bow or curtsey, typically towards your partner at the beginning of a dance. Lloyd must be teaching the young Smith how to dance, OED.

62 A field north of the Colne and Colchester Castle. It is now the site of a park and cricket club.

63 Probably John Edlin(g), of the parish of St Mary-at-the-Walls, whose will was proved 19 November 1695. He also owned property in St Botolph, but was assessed at St Mary's with two hearths in 1670. ERO, D/ABW 75/109; EHT, 300.

64 Ink blot.

65 The diarist's brother, Nicholas Lloyd (c.1630–1680) scholar and rector of St Mary Newington: see Introduction, pp. 2–3, 21.

66 This unusual name does not appear again but is written clearly; perhaps another example of phonetic spelling of an unfamiliar name.

67 Meaning ‘baker's’.

68 Bid.

69 Faded and uncertain.

70 Lexden is now a suburb of Colchester but was a separate village in the 17th century, about two and a half miles from the centre of Colchester. ‘Lexen cross’ may refer to one of three medieval crosses which stood in the village: ‘Lamb's Cross’, ‘Stone Cross’, or ‘Peddars Cross’, VCHE, 391–392.

71 Perhaps Thomas Elkin of Colchester, ‘practitioner in Physick’, whose will dates from 1679, ERO, D/ABW 69/163. He was assessed at four hearths in the parish of Holy Trinity in 1670, EHT, 293.

72 This usage is obscure (perhaps a slip of the pen), but it seems plausible that Lloyd was treating his parchment with pounce or similar: see n. 60, 30 August 1675.

73 This seems to suggest that Lloyd's school was, in some loose sense at least, a ‘formal’ institution for the short period of its existence. However, I have found no evidence of any official recognition of the school.

74 Lloyd was reading Thomas Deloney, who was a silk-weaver as well as an author of ballads and prose fiction. The misremembered title given by Lloyd actually refers to Thomas of Reading, or, The Sixe Worthy Yeomen of the West (1599?).

75 Whilst finding specific references to a place of this exact name is difficult, there is now a Drury Rd between Lexden and Colchester. Documents from the 16th to the 20th century at ERO relate to a ‘Drury Farm’ on Maldon Rd, which meets Drury Rd, D/DEI T255, D/B, D/DEI T402, D/B 6 Pb3/8291.

76 There were many Cockerells in Colchester and surrounding locales in this period. Unfortunately, although this individual and a Mr Cockerell are mentioned regularly throughout the diary, they cannot be confidently identified.

77 A large pot-bellied jug, associated with East Anglia. A gotch between two people is a considerable quantity of alcohol; one 18th-century example has been found to contain 36 pints! See Partridge, Charles, ‘East Anglian Ringers’ Gotches’, East Anglian, or, Notes and Queries, 10 (1904), 143, 356Google Scholar.

78 Although Lloyd had only known the Strattons for a matter of days, he quickly fell into a familiar routine with them, including communal Biblical readings and Psalm singing, of which more below.

79 See Introduction, pp. 2–3, 10.

80 See Introduction, pp. 18–20. Note that ‘Mrs’ in the 17th century did not refer exclusively to married women.

81 Here, Lloyd is being deliberately secretive; ‘Philoclea’ – or ‘Phyloclea’ – is clearly a pseudonym for another young women in whom he had some romantic interest or aspiration. In Sydney's Arcadia (1593), Philoclea is one of the daughters of Basilius, duke of Arcadia, secretly pursued by Pyrocles, disguised as a woman. The fictional Philoclea's sister was named Pamela and, on 30 October 1677, we find Lloyd ‘writting to Phyloclea and Pamilla’. For this reason, I speculate (though it can be no more than speculation) that Lloyd was referring to the sisters Elizabeth and Mary Lynford (or Linford), referred to regularly below. See Introduction, pp. 18–20.

82 No relation to the aforementioned ‘Mrs Gray’.

83 Mary Bond appears regularly, particularly in the first months of the diary, in Lloyd's mentions of evening socializing. He often abbreviated her name ‘M: B:’.

84 Jeremy Taylor, DD (1613–1667), was a devotional writer and bishop of Down and Connor in the Church of Ireland. Early in his career, Taylor enjoyed the patronage of Laud, becoming his chaplain and chaplain-in-ordinary to Charles I. During a period of imprisonment and exile in Wales during the Civil Wars and Interregnum, Taylor became chaplain to Richard Vaughan, 2nd earl of Carberry, and resided with him at Golden Grove, which lent its name to the devotional manual often cited by Lloyd. Taylor gained his see upon the Restoration. He was a moderate and defender of the unity of the Church of England, who earned a reputation as an advocate of religious toleration, a tendency which might also be read into Lloyd's own outlook on faith. Several of his works have also been praised for their literary qualities. ODNB.

85 This was probably John or Robert Sewell, or Seawell, sons of John Sewell, grocer of St Peter's parish whose will was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in 1667. Lloyd refers to John by name on 24 January 1676. Robert was a rower by trade; his will was proved in 1707, at which time John seems still to have been alive. See TNA, PROB 11/324/266; ERO, D/ABW 79/77. None of these individuals appear in the Hearth Tax return for 1670, but an Edward Sewell was assessed at one hearth in St Martin's parish, EHT, 296.

86 John 16:33.

87 Very faded and uncertain.

88 An obsolete usage for housekeeper, or perhaps Lloyd's ‘Landlady’, OED.

89 Francis Quarles (1592–1644) was a poet best known for the 1634 work Emblemes, read here by Lloyd. Quarles was a ‘moderate protestant and royalist’ – much like Lloyd himself – and Emblemes, which contains illustrations by the well-known engraver William Marshall (fl. 1617–1649), ‘brought to protestant England, suitably adapted, the spiritual and emotional qualities of the Catholic meditation on pictures’, ODNB.

90 Rushton, Northamptonshire, where Lloyd had lived and served the Cockayne family briefly before moving to Colchester.

91 Possibly a relative of Brien Cockayne, 2nd Viscount Cullen, in whose service Lloyd had worked at Rushton and Harborough. Lloyd would have used the correct honorific had he been referring to the viscount.

92 Possibly a relative of Sir Gervase Elwes, 1st Bt, of Woodford, Essex, whom Lloyd appears to have had some connection to and visited later in the diary: see 27 December 1675.

93 Very faded and uncertain.

94 There are several placenames in the vicinity of Colchester which contain the word ‘Heath’: Old Heath, Lexden Heath, Horkesley Heath, and Fordham Heath, amongst others. In the absence of further detail or a name, there is little to be done in identifying this individual.

95 Probably Joseph Blomfield (Blumfield, Bloomfield) of St Mary-at-the-Walls: see n. 141, 15 October 1675.

96 A piece of land enclosed for breeding game birds or rabbits. It may have been in the south-east corner of Lexden parish, where it bordered St Mary-at-the-Walls; fields named Upper Warren and Lower Warren survived here until 1838, VCHE, 396.

97 The gardens and greens around the former St John's Abbey, south-east of Colchester town centre: see n. 50, 28 August 1675.

98 It seems likely that Lloyd was reading Eusebius of Caesarea (b.260 ×265, d.339 × 340), an early biblical scholar, historian, and Christian polemicist.

99 The writing in this passage is larger, heavy, and erratic, and Lloyd writes ‘devotion’ (in its abbreviated form, ‘Dt’) three times, almost on top of one another. There is no explanation for this, and it does not occur again in the diary.

100 Lewis Bayly, The Practice of Piety, Directing a Christian How to Walk that He May Please God (date of 1st edn unknown; 2nd edn 1612). Bayly (c.1575–1631) was bishop of Bangor from 1613 until his death. The Practice of Piety was a ‘Protestant classic’ and was popular with English readers throughout the 17th century, ODNB.

101 Lloyd's ‘overheads’ in terms of rent for both his dwelling and his business premises amounted to £22 per year, over half the average salary of a small schoolmaster.

102 Or ‘above’.

103 Slightly unclear and ambiguous.

104 New mayors were chosen annually at Michaelmas (29 September), strictly speaking the halfway point of the year in the Old Style, which took Lady Day (25 March) as the first day of the year. The mayor for 1675 was one Alexander Hindmarsh.

105 Titus Flavius Josephus (37–c.100), the Romano-Jewish historian.

106 In East Stockwell St. in the parish of St Martin, D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, 24.

107 The Great Fire of Northampton occurred on 20 September 1675, consuming much of the historic centre of the town, including the church of All Hallows. It was said to originate in a thatched house in St Mary St. For a contemporary account, see Anon., A True and Faithful Relation of the Late Dreadful Fire at Northampton (London, 1675). Ralph Josselin also wrote in his diary about the news of the fire, which apparently reached him earlier than Lloyd, on 26 September: see MacFarlance, A. (ed.), The Diary of Ralph Josselin, 1616–1683 (Oxford, 1976), 587Google Scholar.

108 Lloyd's precise meaning here cannot be determined with certainty, but he seems to have been carrying out casual scrivener's work.

109 This place name, which context seems to suggest was a river or ditch, is a mystery. I have found no reference to this term in any other sources. Below (14 October 1675), Lloyd mentions crossing the ‘sheaton bridg’ on his way home from Myland, immediately to the north of Colchester over the River Colne, crossed by North Bridge: the simplest explanation is that this was a local, colloquial name for the river and bridge there.

110 Colchester had a purpose-made post house built in St Mary's parish in 1664/5, but there are records of the King's Head being used as a delivery and collection point by the mid 18th century, VCHE, 237.

111 Compost?

112 Berechurch, a small village about three miles south of Colchester town centre.

113 Monkwick, an area just north of Berechurch, which now survives in the name of Monkwick Avenue.

114 Richard Hawksbee, of the parish St-Mary-at-the-Walls, was assessed at eight hearths in 1670, EHT, 300. He was the son of John Hawksby, vicar of Earls Colne from 1615 to 1640, and his wife Dionisia: French, Henry and Hoyle, Richard, The Character of English Rural Society: Earls Colne, 1550–1750 (Manchester, 2007), 219220CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

115 Probably the Colne, which flows north of Lexden into Colchester.

116 Here the words ‘sins and’ are very uncertain; this passage is very ambiguous, and appears to read as a messy abbreviation ‘Ss’ for ‘sins’, and a poorly rendered ampersand. I have also speculated that this may be a fragment of the shorthand used elsewhere.

117 A fair held on the eve and feast day in commemoration of St Denis of Paris (9 October) and six following days (reduced in 1635 to four) was granted to the burgesses of Colchester by Edward II in 1319, VCHE, 273. Lloyd clearly held the feast day in some reverence, fasting and making a private confession.

118 ‘Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.’ Isaiah 55:1.

119 Myland, also known as Mile End, is a parish and formerly a village about one mile north of Colchester town centre. It is now a suburb of the town.

120 A medieval church dedicated to St Michael.

121 Thomas Doolittle (b.1630 × 1633, d.1707) was a nonconformist minister and devotional author born in Kidderminster, Worcestershire. Lloyd may have been reading Doolittle's very popular A Treatise Concerning the Lord's Supper (1667), which reappears later in the diary (n. 205, 25 December 1675).

122 These abbreviations have been left since they cannot be definitively expanded. However, it seems very likely that Lloyd was meeting his usual companion, William Smith, and perhaps a John Smith.

123 Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.

124 Probably Lavenham, a village a little over halfway between Colchester and Bury St Edmunds.

125 The Abbey of Bury St Edmunds was formerly one of the richest Benedictine monasteries in England until its dissolution in 1539. Its ruins are near the centre of the town, and remain a very prominent landmark.

126 St Edmund was king of East Anglia from c.855 until his martyrdom at the hands of Viking invaders in 869. His remains were later moved to Bury St Edmunds (Beadoriceworth), attracting pilgrimages and leading to the establishment of the abbey in the 11th century.

127 Here Lloyd's information is rather muddled and misleading; Edward VI did endow a school at Bury in 1550, which remains open and still bears his name. There are two large parish churches in the town which would have existed during Lloyd's visit in 1675, neither of which was built by Edward VI. St Mary's, in particular, is an unusually grand parish church which underwent substantial renovation in the 15th and 16th centuries. The other, some 200 yards away, was formerly known as St James, but has now been rebranded as St Edmundsbury Cathedral.

128 Probably ‘rode in it’, but Lloyd's precise meaning is unclear.

129 Tick-tack is a historical ‘table game’, a variant on backgammon. For an overview of the rules contemporary to Lloyd, see Cotton, Charles, The Compleat Gamester (London, 1674), 158161Google Scholar.

130 The inn at Scole, a tiny village on the Suffolk–Norfolk border, was famous in its day for its grandness and particularly the extravagance of its signpost, which elaborately arched over and across the road. The inn, a large red brick building, survives to this day, but the sign does not. A vivid description (and accompanying poem) can be found in Brome, James, Travels Over England, Scotland and Wales (London, 1701, 2nd edn), 120125Google Scholar.

131 Yaxley, Suffolk, another small village about four miles south of Scole, on the road to Ipswich.

132 An individual with the surname King.

133 Ipswich, on the Orwell Estuary, is famous for its waterfront and was one of the most important ports in England.

134 Lloyd was describing a newly constructed ship ready to be launched; the ‘stocks’ were the frame which supported the vessel whilst it was being built.

135 Very unclear and faded; tight binding.

136 This building appears no longer to exist; a former county gaol which still stands in Ipswich later served as the headquarters of East Suffolk County Council, and then Ipswich Council, until 2004. However, it was built in 1836–1837; TBE, Suffolk, 297.

137 Christchurch Mansion is a substantial Tudor house near the centre of Ipswich. It was constructed on the grounds of the dissolved Priory of the Holy Trinity by the Withypoll family. The sole heiress, Elizabeth Withypoll, married Leicester Devereux, 6th earl of Hereford, and the mansion stayed in the Devereux family until it was sold by the 10th Viscount in the 1730s. It was, at the time Lloyd visited, probably the largest house in Ipswich, with 32 hearths according to the poll tax assessment of 1702: see Michael Reed, ‘Ipswich in the Seventeenth Century’, PhD thesis, University of Leicester, 1973, 148.

138 The Red Lion still exists at the same site today, as the Red Lion Hotel. Dating from about the late 15th century, it stands prominently at 42–44 High St., with beautiful exposed timber framing and projecting upper windows; it is described by Pevsner and Radcliffe as a ‘remarkable building’. TBE, Essex, 140–141; D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, 22–23.

139 Probably Richard Orbell, a miller of St Mary-at-the-Walls. He was assessed at three hearths in 1670, and his will was proved on 26 May 1681. EHT, 300; ERO, D/ABW 70/61.

140 Susan Orbell.

141 Lloyd never gives this individual's full name, but I think it likely that this was the same individual referred to elsewhere as ‘Joseph the barber’. One Joseph Blomfield, barber of St Mary-at-the-Walls, Colchester had his will proved on 13 January 1690: see ERO, D/ABW 73/95.

142 This has two possible meanings. Firstly, as a ‘notebook’ or memoranda similar to a commonplace; secondly, a book, in print or manuscript, containing musical notation arranged in such a way that it might be read by people sitting round a table. For the former, see H. R. Woudhuysen, ‘Writing-tables and table-books’, eBLJ, article 3 (2004), 1–11; for the latter, Scott. A. Trudell, ‘Performing women in English books of Ayres’, in Dunn, Leslie C. and Larson, Katherine R. (eds), Gender and Song in Early Modern England (Abingdon, 2016), 18CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

143 These words very faded and obscure; abbreviation unexpanded due to uncertainty.

144 Faded and uncertain.

145 Originally ‘R: M:’.

146 Lloyd offers us no explanation for this passage, but his hand here is quite clear.

147 Lloyd attempts a kind of flourish here, albeit in his tiny and cramped hand; the result is a confusing squiggle. However, it most closely resembles his capital ‘R’ – perhaps the first letter of Mr Hast's Christian name – here referring to a small calligraphic showpiece.

148 Originally ‘R:’.

149 Originally ‘M: B’; Lloyd frequently uses this particular abbreviation from this point, quite clearly to refer to Mary Bond.

150 Got.

151 Uncertain. Lloyd may be a referring to a shim or cleat, a small wedge of wood or metal used to secure the handle in the ‘head’ of a tool such as a hammer.

152 See Sunday, 17 October 1675.

153 Presumably, Lloyd altered the colour of his belt by dyeing or some other process.

154 Four pence.

155 Uncertain due to lack of context, but probably a relative – perhaps the mother – of Mary Bond.

156 The decades after the Restoration saw a major shift in male fashion, in which the doublet and jerkin evolved into a long outer coat, or justacorps, and waistcoat or vest; a sleeveless, usually knee-length garment. Both were usually made with the same fabric. This shift reflected changing tastes on the continent and the influence of the major Catholic royal courts – namely the French and Habsburgs – over that of Charles II. Lloyd was a keen follower of fashion. See Breward, Christopher, The Culture of Fashion (Manchester, 2015), 7886Google Scholar.

157 Originally ‘Nat:’.

158 Probably William Coleman, saymaker, whose sons William and John were admitted to Colchester Grammar School in 1672 and 1675 respectively. William Coleman junior was born in the parish of St James on 26 June 1660. A ‘William Coeman’ was assessed at six hearths in the parish of St James in 1670. See Round, John Horace, Register of the Scholars Admitted to Colchester School, 1637–1740 (Colchester, 1897), 64, 70Google Scholar; EHT, 285; ERO, D/P 138/1/6.

159 A form of fine and absorbent clay which has been used for centuries to cleanse and thicken woollen garments.

160 This was unlikely to be Lloyd's very first time wearing a periwig, since they were already established as essential male fashion accessories by the 1670s; cf. Pepys, who first tried one in May 1663, and found he had ‘no stomach’ for it, despite the difficulties he had in keeping his own hair clean. He acquiesced to the new fashion by November of the same year, noting that the removal of his own hair ‘went a little to my heart’, Pepys, Vol. 4, 130, 362.

161 Perhaps Joseph Blumfield (Bloomfield, Blomfield): see n. 141, 15 October 1675.

162 ‘Blessed be the Lord, who hath not given us as a prey to their teeth.’ Psalm 124:6.

163 ‘So let all thine enemies perish, O Lord: but let them that love him be as the sun when he goeth forth in his might. And the land had rest forty years.’ Judges 5:31. The anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot on 5 November had been observed since the passage of the Observance of the 5th November Act 1605 (3 Jac. I, c. 1) in January 1606 (New Style). It was a source of occasional controversy as the political landscape changed throughout the 17th century, variously being claimed by ‘puritan’ champions of ongoing reformation and religious conscience, and by defenders of the divine institutions of monarchy and episcopacy. By the time of Lloyd's diary, it was ‘both a divisive and unifying occasion […] universally observed but subject to various interpretations’: see Cressy, David, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and the Protestant Calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (Stroud, 2004), 171189Google Scholar.

164 Here Lloyd slightly muddles the title of Taylor's The Golden Grove, or, A Manuall of Daily Prayers and Letanies (1655), which in later editions, included an addendum entitled A Guide for the Penitent. The earliest example I have found is from 1667.

165 Unknown.

166 A sword was an essential fashion accessory for any young man with genteel aspirations in the later 17th century; cf. Samuel Pepys, who remarked in his diary on carrying a sword ‘as the manner now among gentlemen is’, Pepys, Vol. 2, 28–29. A ‘scimitar’ is in fact a large, curved cavalry sword from the Middle East or North Africa – probably not what Lloyd was carrying.

167 The precise medicinal ‘oyle’ chosen by Lloyd to treat his cold is a mystery, but the addition of sugar, either as a sweetener or as an ingredient with medical properties itself, was typical, Leong, Elaine, ‘Making medicines in the early modern household’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 82 (2008), 145168CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed.

168 Originally ‘Ja: B:’.

169 Lloyd is referring to the pulleys which helped to operate a mechanical jack, a device for lifting or suspending heavy loads. This may refer to a roasting jack, ‘device for turning a spit for roasting meat over an open fire’, OED. What Lloyd and his landlord used it for is unclear. They may have been operating a jack-operated water pump; below, he makes scattered references to ‘cleansing’ the jack, for instance at 9 October and 1 November 1676. On 21 November 1677, Lloyd specifically mentions cleaning the ‘jackhead’, which the OED has as ‘a lifting-pump used for raising large volumes of water’, albeit used in the 18th century.

170 Originally ‘Ja: B:’.

171 See Sunday, 17 October 1675.

172 Probably George Hammond, mentioned by Morant as an alderman who participated in a perambulation of the bounds of Colchester in 1671. A will for a George Hammond, beer brewer of St Leonard's parish, was proved on 10 February 1680, and a person of the same name and parish was assessed at four hearths in 1670. See ERO, D/ABW 69/210; EHT, 291.

173 Originally ‘Steph:’.

174 Lloyd is using ‘Mother’ as a respectful title for an older woman unrelated to him, OED. This may have been Elizabeth Cockerell, a elderly spinster of North Hill in St Peter's parish, whose will was proved in 1686; she was apparently erroneously listed as a widow, with four hearths, in the assessment of 1670. See ERO, D/ABW 72/7; EHT, 287. Another ‘Widow Cockerill’ was assessed at nine hearths in the parish of St Mary-at-the-Walls, ibid. 299.

175 Originally ‘R: M:’.

176 Lloyd is referring to a hammered dulcimer, a percussive stringed instrument. It consists of strings stretched across a sound board which are struck with mallets to achieve a note.

177 Ironing.

178 Probably referring to ‘sashoons’, a pair of leather pads inserted into the leg of a boot to improve the fit and prevent chafing, OED.

179 All Saints stands at the eastern end of the High St., facing Colchester Castle. Its tower was built in the 15th century, but the rest of the surviving building dates from the 19th. Declared redundant in 1953, it is now a natural history museum, TBE, Essex, 132.

180 Edmund Hickeringill (1631–1708), rector of All Saints from 1662 until his death, was by far the most well known (or infamous) of the Colchester churchmen referred to by Lloyd. His life and career were marked by near constant legal and theological controversy which cannot be recounted here: see ODNB; CCEd Person ID: 97230.

181 Nathaniel Cuffley was rector of Lexden from 1669 until his death in 1706, CCEd Person ID: 162286.

182 Ripping.

183 Lloyd's hand is very ambiguous here, though an unusual spelling of ‘broiled’ is the most obvious explanation.

184 This word is slightly obscured by tight binding, but it appears to say ‘tredle’. Lloyd may be referring to a string for operating a pedal-operated (see‘treadle’, OED) machine – probably a spinning machine, given that he then ‘made a string of silk’ – which, whilst unusual, is not entirely surprising given his interest in amateur tailoring. It is interesting to note, also, that Lloyd had a sufficiently good relationship with the town's mayor to receive free goods from him: ‘that was Naught’.

185 Cribbage is a ‘matching’ card game, usually for two players but adaptable for three or four, which involves assembling combinations of cards to score points. For an exposition of the contemporary rules, see Cotton, Compleat Gamester, 106–110.

186 A small village about three miles west of Colchester.

187 Probably the work of the puritan Bernard, Richard, The Isle of Man, or, The Legal Proceedings in Man-shire against Sin (London, 1627)Google Scholar, a popular ‘allegory of the trial of sin’ which ran to 16 edns by 1683. See ODNB.

188 One of two copies: one sent to the recipient, the other kept by the sender.

189 A visiting preacher, either by invitation for an occasion, or filling in in case of absence.

190 The term ‘camlet’ supposedly originally referred to a luxurious and expensive fabric from the East, but by Lloyd's time it always referred to ‘a worsted fabric of plain weave. Sometimes of silk, figured or watered (camleted)’, Spufford, Margaret and Mee, Susan, The Clothing of the Common Sort, 1570–1750 (Oxford, 2017), 269Google Scholar.

191 A shirt front – or chemisette – to ‘fill in’ a neckline or décolletage, popular in the 17th century: see OED.

192 Uncertain, though perhaps likely another Bond.

193 Unknown.

194 Probably an unusual spelling of sweat, ‘sweated’.

195 This is the first mention in the diary of the enigmatic Mr Ardrey, one of the diary's most significant ‘characters’: see Introduction, pp. 15–16.

196 Christopher Marsh refers to Lloyd here in Music and Society in Early Modern England (Cambridge, 2010), 184.

197 Handwriting unclear. This may not be the same author mentioned on 2 September 1675. I have been unable to trace this book so far.

198 A term for loose, temporary stitching, often used when altering garments or when adorning them with other fabrics, as Lloyd was doing here, OED.

199 Scoured.

200 This could mean rested, waited, or prayed, OED.

201 This is the first real clue as to Lloyd's landlord Stratton's occupation: a mercer or shopkeeper.

202 Lloyd's acquaintance, mentioned above, who was described above as developing smallpox on 13 November 1675. It is interesting to speculate that Lloyd may have been fringing his gloves with black ribbon for the funeral.

203 Lloyd often uses a chi rho symbol, ☧, to denote the word ‘Sacrament’, and does so in this case. The Greek characters chi and rho – ‘Χ’ and ‘Ρ’ – form the Christogram, the first two letters of ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ or ‘Christos’, used since the reign of Constantine the Great (c.306–337).

204 Them.

205 Doolittle, Treatise Concerning the Lord's Supper (1667): see n. 121, 10 October 1675.

206 This atypical word fades into the very tight margin.

207 Sir Gervase Elwes, 1st Bt (1628–1706) was a local magnate and politician with substantial influence in Suffolk and Essex. He was MP for Sudbury and Suffolk several times between 1677 and his death in 1706. He was buried in Stoke-by-Clare: Hist. Parl. 1690–1715, Vol. 3, 972–973. It is not clear how Lloyd knew him or why he was visiting.

208 Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk, a village almost halfway between Colchester and Cambridge.

209 Lanterloo or Loo, a trick-taking game popular in the 17th century.

210 Probably Elizabeth and Mary Lynford: see Introduction, pp. 18–20.

211 Peas Hill and Market Hill are streets which meet at a corner in central Cambridge.

212 Whaddon, a small village about fifteen miles south-west of Cambridge.

213 St Edward King and Martyr is a royal peculiar in Peas Hill, Cambridge, and was founded in the 13th century.

214 Perhaps Francis Grigg, BA 1660, MA 1663, and fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1665. He was ordained in 1664 and rector of Rawreth, Essex, from 1678 until his death in 1704: Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 2, 268.

215 Probably Pembroke College, Cambridge.

216 Peterhouse, the oldest Cambridge college.

217 Perhaps the old chapel of St John's College, Cambridge, now rebuilt.

218 The Mitre tavern, not to be confused with the pub of the same name which still stands in Cambridge, was one of the primary alehouses of the day in the 17th and 18th centuries. It ‘fell down’ c.1634, but was rebuilt. It stood in the parish of St Edward, at the northern end of Trumpington St. (or perhaps King's Parade). The proprietor c.1664 was one Owen Mayfield, an alderman and mayor of Cambridge 1672–1673, d.1686. See Charles Henry Taylor, The Annals of Cambridge, Vol. 3 (Cambridge, 1845), 265, 515, 542, 553; John E. Foster (ed.), The Diary of Samuel Newton, Alderman of Cambridge, 1662–1717 (Cambridge, 1890), 67, 89.

219 A deep red Spanish wine.

220 Trinity College, Cambridge, founded by Henry VIII in 1546. One of the largest and richest of the Cambridge colleges and famous for its grand and distinctive architecture.

221 Jesus College, Cambridge, founded in 1496.

222 The mayor of Cambridge for 1676 was Andrew Hart, Diary of Samuel Newton, 75.

223 Perhaps a phonetic attempt at spelling a foreign name. One might also speculate that Lloyd was referring to a Dutchman, without attempting to spell his name; ‘Mister’ (and analogues) in Dutch is ‘meneer’. I am grateful to Miranda Bethell for pointing this out.

224 Whether Lloyd is referring to a public establishment or a private individual here is uncertain; his spelling is very unusual and hard to trace to anything, but his hand is quite clear.

225 Probably backgammon or a variant thereof; ‘tables’ are a class of historic boardgames to which backgammon belongs.

226 Whilst the meaning here is ambiguous, it is possible given Elwes's evident fondness for the hunt that Lloyd went to see his ‘courser’, a term which once described a medieval warhorse also used to hunt, and by the 17th century meaning a fast horse, OED. Otherwise, Lloyd may have been referring to a riding course.

227 A mistake on Lloyd's part; there has never been an Allhallows church in Colchester, but there was an All Saints: see n. 179, 21 November 1675.

228 Rubbed.

229 Ripped.

230 In other words, Lloyd listened to his pupils read aloud.

231 Whist, the trick-taking card game. For an account of the rules contemporary to Lloyd, see Cotton, Compleat Gamester, 114–120.

232 Originally ‘Ric’.

233 This name is very faded and a little unclear.

234 See Introduction, p. 8.

235 Perhaps an elderly servant?

236 This appears to be an error; Lloyd probably played cards with a woman in the Meaddows household, not Philoclea as the syntax suggests.

237 The Feast of the Conversion of St Paul the Apostle; not a major date on the liturgical calendar, but I can find no other explanation for Lloyd closing his school on this day. Tylenda, Joseph N., Saints and Feasts of the Liturgical Year (Washington, DC, 2003), 2021Google Scholar.

238 South-east of the centre of Colchester in what is now Magdalen St. Possibly founded in the 12th century as the chapel of the hospital of St Mary Magdalen on the same site, it gained parochial status in 1237. The living was vacant from the Siege of Colchester in 1648 until 1721. The medieval church was demolished in 1852 and rebuilt; the replacement itself was demolished in 1994, VCHE, 327–328.

239 Proverbs 24:21–22 was a particularly apt choice for a sermon on the Feast of King Charles the Martyr, the anniversary of the execution of King Charles I: ‘My son, fear thou the Lord and the king: and meddle not with them that are given to change: [22] For their calamity shall rise suddenly; and who knoweth the ruin of them both?’. The Feast was abolished from the Book of Common Prayer by Act of Parliament, though it has since been partially restored in the Alternative Service Book (1980).

240 2 Samuel 1:27.

241 A sausage.

242 Francesco Spiera, anglicized as Francis Spira (1502–1548), was a Venetian notary whose heretical protestantism, forced recantation at the hands of the Inquisition, and subsequent psychological breakdown and death (some sources claimed suicide) was a popular (and convenient) topic in 17th-century England. Lloyd may have reading Bacon, Nathaniel, A Relation of the Fearefull Estate of Francis Spira (London, 1638)Google Scholar. For recent commentary on the significance of Spiera's story in early modern England, see Overell, M. Anne, Nicodemites: Faith and Concealment between Italy and Tudor England (Leiden, 2018), 150164CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Sheppard, Kenneth, ‘Atheism, apostasy, and the afterlives of Francis Spira in early modern England’, The Seventeenth Century, 27 (2012), 410434CrossRefGoogle Scholar; MacDonald, Michael, ‘The Fearefull Estate of Francis Spira: Narrative, identity, and emotion in early modern England’, Journal of British Studies, 31 (1992), 3261CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

243 Cribbage, like tennis, is a ‘match’ divided into games. A player ‘lurches’ when they score 121 points before their opponent reaches 91, thereby scoring two ‘match points’ instead of one for a single game. In other words, Lloyd won resoundingly.

244 Lloyd's precise meaning is unclear here, but it seems plausible that Lloyd was creating a stylized, calligraphic letter (perhaps ‘A’?) or text for Ardrey, as he did for a number of other individuals throughout the diary.

245 Rogers, Timothy, The Righteous Mans Evidences for Heaven (London, 1618)Google Scholar. Rogers (1589–1655) was a clergyman, schoolmaster, and controversialist who lived and died in Essex, ODNB.

246 The wording is misleading here; Lloyd must have used a prayer for Ash Wednesday from some other source, as none is given in the Golden Grove.

247 Lloyd's hand is untidy and ambiguous; his meaning is probably that there were no ‘public’ prayers being held at church.

248 Presumably relatives of the above-mentioned Sir Gervase Elwes and Brien Cockayne, Viscount Cullen, since the title ‘Esquire’ is too junior for either of them.

249 Chamois.

250 Probably rice pudding or similar made with milk, a popular dish in the 17th century.

251 The term ‘stuff ’ in this context refers to a woollen fabric ‘made from finer, long-staple, worsted fibres, combed instead of carded, and often intermixed with other yarns such as linen, mohair, and silk’. ‘Stuff ’ was distinct from the thicker and heavier ‘cloth’, which was made from carded, short-staple wool. The two terms came to be synonymous in the 19th century. Priestley, Ursula, ‘The marketing of Norwich stuffs, c.1660–1730’, Textile History, 22 (1991), 193209CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Spufford and Mee, Clothing of the Common Sort, 108.

252 I can find no trace of a spring with this or any similar name in or around Colchester; it may have been an informal local name, or it may no longer exist.

253 Perhaps Thomas Ward, ‘Innholder’ of St Mary's, Colchester, whose will was proved in November 1690. Only one son, Thomas, is mentioned in the will. See ERO, D/ACW 21/85.

254 Perhaps violin rosin.

255 ‘Dropsy’ is an archaic term for oedema.

256 Scurvy-grass, or cochlearia, is a genus of herbs high in vitamin C. It has been used as a treatment for scurvy since at least antiquity; it is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia.

257 This appears to be another informal or defunct place name; I can find no trace of it in other sources. On 23 March 1676, Lloyd mentions walking by the ‘back of St James's’ in order to get to Ardrey's, which in this period backed onto open fields. Cf. n. 313, 27 May 1676.

258 This usage is unclear, but the hand is fairly legible.

259 East St. runs from the East Hill over a bridge on the Colne, and mostly outside the old walls of the town; it is a peripheral area which in the 1670s would have been surrounded by countryside.

260 Greenstead is an ancient parish, in 1675 in the hinterlands of Colchester, but today part of the town, about two miles from the centre.

261 Probably galloon, a strip of closely woven ribbon or braid, used for trimming garments or in this case, shoes, OED.

262 Lloyd probably refers to the selection of new churchwardens or other parish officials.

263 This is ambiguous; a ‘chaldron’ can be either an antiquated spelling of ‘cauldron’, or an archaic unit of measurement for coal and other goods (32 or 36 bushels). A chaldron is a very large quantity: compare with Pepys who in July 1664 purchased ‘ten Chaldron’, Pepys, Vol. 4, 223.

264 Perhaps short for ‘Diana’ or similar.

265 The village of Fordham about six miles north-west of Colchester.

266 Possible abbreviation.

267 Lloyd is referring to payments due on one of the ‘quarter days’, on which rents were collected and salaries or debts were often paid out: Lady Day (25 March), Midsummer Day (24 June), Michaelmas (29 September), and Christmas Day.

268 In 1676, the Archdeacon of Colchester was Charles Smith, who held the post from 1675 until his death in 1678: Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 4, 95; CCEd Person ID: 20358.

269 Lloyd is probably referring to dowlas, a strong and coarse linen fabric that was used to make sails, aprons, and other practical or hardwearing applications in the 16th and 17th centuries, OED.

270 Originally ‘K: M:’. There is some uncertainty here since Lloyd mentions a ‘piece’ for a ‘Mr K: Merredale’ in the next entry.

271 Very tiny and obscure.

272 Originally ‘K: M:’.

273 Originally ‘K: M:’.

274 Rowhedge is a small village about three miles from the centre of Colchester. It is separated from nearby Wivenhoe by the Colne.

275 See n. 298, 15 May 1676.

276 Now Nos 6–8 on the south side of High St. in the parish of St Peter, the White Hart was one of the primary inns in early modern Colchester, but defunct in 1816. D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, 31–33.

277 Probably Samuel Mott, prominent in Colchester politics, he was a member of the Dissenting faction. After serving as mayor in 1693–1694, he was disenfranchised for a series of misdemeanours, VCHE, 117; Morant, History and Antiquities of Colchester, Vol. 1, 97. Mott married Elizabeth Creffield, a member of one of Colchester's other prominent families, in the church of St Runwald in September 1659: St Runwald's parish register, ERO, D/P 177/1/1.

278 A substantial inn with a London coach in the High St., in St Peter's parish, near the Moot Hall. It ceased to be an inn in 1763, when it was occupied by a surgeon: D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, 21–22.

279 Lloyd is referring to a medicament of some kind; the name he gives it suggests that it was probably locally produced.

280 Samuel Reynolds (c.1642–1694), was a prominent and wealthy resident of Colchester. The son of Thomas Reynolds, an affluent clothier, Reynolds entered the Middle Temple in 1666. By the time Lloyd was writing, Reynolds owned one of the town's inns, was captain of the militia horse, and a JP for Essex. He was later MP for Colchester in 1681, 1689, and 1690–1694, and was a ‘moderate Whig’: Hist. Parl. 1660–1690, Vol. 3, 326.

281 Identity unclear; not a member of the regular Colchester clergy.

282 Either Great Wigborough or Little Wigborough, a pair of tiny villages about eight miles south-west of Colchester.

283 ‘Imperial’ paper generically refers to a collection of pre-metric British paper sizes such as foolscap, but in this context probably refers to a very large (and perhaps expensive) sheet.

284 Perhaps a mistaken or unusual spelling of panada or panado; a bread soup, often flavoured with nutmeg. For a recipe contemporary to Lloyd, see May, Robert, The Accomptlisht Cook (London, 1660), 407Google Scholar.

285 Perhaps ‘entered’ as in ‘introduced’ him to the art of writing.

286 Brief, spontaneous prayers or acts of religious devotion.

287 Despite his use of ‘my’, Lloyd is merely using mother in its titular sense.

288 The coach for Banbury in Oxfordshire, which would have passed through or near Aynho.

289 This name uncertain due to a large ink blot.

290 Here Lloyd could be referring to any number of establishments, as the Red Lion was a popular name for taverns and inns, and he provides no geographical clues.

291 Writing ambiguous and uncertain.

292 Perhaps an abbreviation of ‘leather’.

293 Spring Gardens is today a dead-end street in St James, Westminster, named after the gardens which once stood there.

294 Lloyd's brother Nicholas was the incumbent minister at Newington by 1676. The speaker here may have been John Turton, curate in 1693 (CCEd Person ID: 96348), or the Mr Turner referred to on 3 June 1677: see n. 487.

295 Presumably Lloyd is referring to a tavern or inn, though its location is unclear.

296 It is unclear to whom Lloyd was referring, but his hand is clear.

297 Lloyd may here be referring to the Royal Exchange (sometimes called the ‘Old Exchange’, including by Lloyd) or the New Exchange (or ‘Britain's Bourse’). The former stands at the corner of Cornhill and Threadneedle St. and was originally opened by Elizabeth I in 1571. The New Exchange, conceived as a competitive imitation of the Royal, was built by Robert Cecil, 1st earl of Salisbury and designed by Inigo Jones. Standing in a prominent position in the Strand, which connected the City of London to Westminster, it was opened by James I in 1609. It was demolished in 1737.

298 Interestingly, here Lloyd was reading Paget, John, Meditations of Death (Dort, 1638)Google Scholar. Paget (d.1638) was a puritan and presbyterian minister, who after his ejection from the living of Nantwich in 1604 went into exile in the Netherlands. After moving to Amsterdam in 1607, he founded the English Reformed church, serving as a pastor for 30 years until 1637. Although John Paget died childless, his brother Thomas (d.1660) had a son, Nathan Paget, a noted physician who practised in London and died in 1679. Lloyd makes clear that two of the Pagets known to him were named William and ‘Jo:’, probably John (see 15 April 1676). Neither Thomas's nor Nathan Paget's wills establish any link to a William, but it is interesting to speculate that there may have been some connection, since Lloyd seemingly acquired the volume whilst visiting the Pagets. See ODNB. For the will of Thomas Paget, see TNA, PROB 11/300/305; for the will of Nathan Paget, see TNA, PROB 11/359/74.

299 The Monument to the Great Fire of London, on Fish Street Hill just to the north of London Bridge, stands on the site of St Margaret Fish Street Hill, the first church to be destroyed by the Great Fire. Designed by Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke, it was built between 1671 and 1676. TBE, London 1, 321–322.

300 A coaching inn, with connections to the West Country, between Fetter Lane and Barnard's Inn, Pepys, Vol. 10, 418.

301 Lloyd is almost certainly referring to the Duke's Company, which performed at Dorset Gardens, also known as the Duke's Theatre. The company was under the patronage of James, duke of York, the future King James II and VII. In 1682, the Duke's Company merged with the King's Company to form the United Company.

302 George Etherege's The Man of Mode, or, Sir Fopling Flutter was first performed in 1676. A printed edition of the text of the play, dated 3 June 1676, mentions that the play was ‘Acted at the Duke's Theatre’. Lloyd may have seen one of the first performances. The play is a typical Restoration comedy of manners, following the rakish Dorimant in his efforts to seduce the heiress Harriet.

303 Sab's or Sable's Quay was one of the 20 ‘legal quays’ established by the Act of Frauds in 1559. Along the north side of the Thames at Billingsgate between London Bridge and the Tower of London, they were the only quays in the Port of London at which goods could be unloaded, in order to protect the power and revenues of the Customs. Crouch, Henry, A Complete View of the English Customs (London, 1725), 251Google Scholar.

304 A small coasting boat or barge.

305 Owing to his proximity to Lambeth, Lloyd is probably referring to the former St George's Fields in Southwark, rather than the better known area in Westminster.

306 Mace ale, as the name suggests, is ale spiced with mace, referenced a number of times in the 17th century, OED. Lloyd's handwriting is ambiguous here.

307 Gracechurch St.

308 Probably ‘buoy’.

309 The Falcon Inn, which persisted in Wivenhoe until 1975. Note that after this visit to the Falcon, Sunday just runs into Monday.

310 Lloyd's meaning here is unclear, but the handwriting is very legible.

311 Door.

312 A large calligraphic capital I: see n. 147, 19 October 1675, and 16 April 1677.

313 Cf. n. 257, 11 March 1676.

314 Lloyd's hand is very ambiguous here, so I have left the original abbreviation; it probably stands for ‘George’.

315 One George Lambe, son of a tailor of the same name, was admitted to Colchester Grammar School in March 1647, aged seven. An individual of the same name was assessed at five hearths in St Leonard's parish in 1670. See Round, Colchester School, 57; EHT, 291.

316 Perhaps preparing a pattern for a calligraphic design. See OED: 1728 … Pounce … Charcoal-Dust, inclosed in some open Stuff; to be pass'd over Holes prick'd in a Work, in order to mark the Lines or Designs thereof on a Paper placed underneath.

317 An archaic spelling of ‘galoshes’, OED.

318 Salad; for contemporary salads, see May, Accomptlisht Cook, 144–151.

319 Perhaps short for Malcolm.

320 St Osyth, a village about twelve miles south-east of Colchester.

321 Probably John Truss, assessed at four hearths in St Osyth in 1670; EHT, 326.

322 A John Lane was assessed at three hearths in 1670, ibid.

323 The narrative structure of this entry is slightly confusing, but Lloyd seems to mean that he spent his time working on the text all day, around which he performed the rest of the actions narrated subsequently in the entry.

324 A chronogram is an inscription wherein specific letters are indicated to denote a date; Lloyd was probably adding to his aforementioned ‘Italian’ (i.e. italic or chancery cursive) calligraphic piece.

325 A crystal lens placed over the face of the watch.

326 Lloyd was preparing himself to receive Holy Communion the following day. Ken's, Thomas A Manual of Prayers for the Use of the Scholars of Winchester Colledge (London, 1674)Google Scholar instructs the reader to ‘commune with your own heart’ and examine one's conscience the day before receiving the Sacrament (pp. 20–28) Cf. Taylor, The Golden Grove (1655), pp. 58–59, which instructs the devotee to examine their conscience and ‘ask pardon for what is amiss’ in the evening.

327 Ken (1637–1711), later bishop of Bath and Wells and a Nonjuror, attended Winchester College in the 1650s, leaving just as Lloyd entered, ODNB.

328 This may have been Shelton or Smith.

329 One of the less well-documented old alehouses of Colchester, the Two Brewers may have been in the parish of St Mary Magdalen, though its precise location is unknown. See Jephcott, Jess A., The Inns, Taverns and Pubs of Colchester (Colchester, 2015), 380381Google Scholar.

330 Lloyd's hand is a little unclear here, but the word is legible. I can find no other examples of this peculiar usage; presumably it refers to a fruit of some kind.

331 This is the first mention of the ‘dancing school’ which Lloyd attended for a brief period. It was probably a fairly informal, perhaps itinerant enterprise of which the ‘Mr Bontall’ mentioned below appears to have been the proprietor; it has left no obvious archival trace.

332 Lloyd probably means coffee house.

333 Two.

334 An unusual usage; perhaps a strange spelling of ‘begot’ or ‘begotten’.

335 Originally ‘Phi’.

336 This is not a street or settlement anywhere in the vicinity of Colchester; rather it is likely to mean ‘Sha(c)ker well’ as in ‘shacker spring’: see 24 February 1676.

337 Malaga, a sweet fortified wine from Malaga in the south of Spain, similar to port.

338 Two.

339 Very faded and uncertain.

340 This line very faded.

341 In cases like this Lloyd assumes the wife (or sometimes servant) of the man visited is understood. (See 30 October 1676; n. 775, 14 March 1711; and n. 807, 3 May 1711.) Here it seems likely that he was speaking to Judith Reynolds, wife of Samuel Reynolds; Lloyd would later act as tutor to their son Samuel. See 22 April 1676 and 9 October 1676.

342 Probably Mary Furly: see 28 November 1676.

343 Dear?

344 In other words, Lloyd and his landlord fell out about the issue of religious nonconformity or dissent.

345 Originally ‘prom of 2 sch:’.

346 Houndsditch.

347 The famous fair, established by Royal Charter by Henry I for Rahere, founder of St Bartholomew's Hospital, was held annually on 24 August from 1133 until 1855. It was immortalized by Ben Jonson in his play of the same name (1614).

348 Jacob Hall (fl. 1662–1681) was a famous acrobat and rope dancer, well known for his athletic prowess and dashing good looks. Pepys saw Hall perform at Bartholomew Fair in 1668, terming his act ‘a thing worth seeing and mightily followed’, Pepys, Vol. 9, 293. See also ODNB.

349 Jessamine, an archaic term for jasmine. Perhaps gloves patterned with jasmine flowers. A fairing is a ‘present, souvenir … from a fair’, OED.

350 Here Lloyd is probably referring to St Botolph-without-Aldgate, in Aldgate High St. The building attended by Lloyd was built in the early 16th century and had escaped damage during the Great Fire. The present building dates to the 18th century, TBE, London 1, 207–208.

351 The church of St Nicholas formerly stood in a prominent position in the High St. It was demolished in 1955.

352 Catechism.

353 Frating, a village eight miles east of Colchester.

354 Thomas Baythorn, rector of Frating from 1672 until his death in 1709: Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 1, 114; CCEd Person ID: 122533.

355 Christopher Monck, 2nd duke of Albemarle (1653–1688), son of George Monck, 1st duke of Albemarle (1608–1670).

356 Thomas Greene was mayor of Colchester for 1676 and 1682. Greene was a member of the pro-dissenter faction in Colchester politics, and his mayoral election alongside Albemarle as recorder marked an attempt to oust the anti-dissenter MP and erstwhile recorder Sir John Shaw (see n. 513, 10 July 1677) and shift the balance of power in the town. Albemarle did not, in fact, successfully become recorder until the following year, as Shaw contested the election and sued the town corporation. By 1678, the dispute was resolved and Shaw became deputy recorder to Albemarle. See VCHE, 116; Hist. Parl. 1660–1690, Vol. 3, 428–429.

357 The meaning of this message is enigmatic, but Mrs Gray may have been reproaching Lloyd for leaving her unwed in London in order to pursue his venture as a schoolmaster in Colchester.

358 Lloyd probably wore a wide-brimmed ‘cavalier’ or ‘slouch’ hat, the brim of which he here had ‘pinned’ to the side for aesthetic purposes.

359 Thomas Shaw, MA 1675, Jesus College, Cambridge; rector of Greenstead from 1676, and Great Holland from 1678, holding both until his death in 1692. His father was the MP for Colchester, Sir John Shaw (see n. 513, 10 July 1677): Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 4, 54. CCEd Person ID: 166295.

360 Lloyd accidentally writes Tuesday rather than Wednesday for this entry.

361 Lloyd writes this name inconsistently; occasionally the first letter is clearly written ‘ff’ or ‘F’; elsewhere it is identical to ‘H’. The name could also be read as ‘Furman’. No wills with either name can be found from this period in Colchester. A Joseph Firman was assessed at one hearth in 1670; EHT, 287.

362 Glass.

363 Their.

364 Originally ‘Golds:’.

365 Unfortunately, ‘Mr Bontall’, master of Lloyd's dancing school, has not been identified outside the diary.

366 A deal is ‘a slice sawn from a log of timber […] and usually understood to be more than seven inches wide, and not more than three thick’, OED.

367 Very unclear.

368 Ford, Emanuel, Parismus, the Renowned Prince of Bohemia (London, 1598–1599)Google Scholar. This very popular Elizabethan romance was reprinted several times throughout the 17th century.

369 An unconventional usage, but presumably here Lloyd means afflicted with smallpox lesions, or ‘sores’.

370 Originally ‘sch:’.

371 Lloyd's hand is untidy here, but similar 17th-century usages, meaning blustering, angry, puffed up, and so on can be found in the OED.

372 In other words, he would not accept Lloyd's notice payment for quitting the premises.

373 Originally ‘F:’.

374 Stratton's precise reason for suing Lloyd over a horse cannot be confidently inferred from the diary. It seems that Stratton sought redress after being incensed by Lloyd's sudden move to Ardrey's, and the horse was a pretext. As we can see below, it appears either that Lloyd and Ardrey had lost or sold Stratton's horse, or that a deal had fallen through as a result of the falling out. Lloyd and Ardrey went to search for the horse on 12 October 1676. Lloyd did not ‘confess’ what had happened in the diary, but possibly the events of 4 September 1676 were related. Cf. entries for 10 April and 12 August 1676.

375 Unclear if this is the William Smith referred to above, or a new acquaintance.

376 See n. 284, 1 May 1676.

377 This may have been William Hall, a bookseller of St Runwald's parish, whose will was proved on 28 July 1697, ERO D/ACW 22/131. He was assessed in the same parish at two hearths in 1670, EHT, 302.

378 Probably the Colchester physician Richard Thompson, of Holy Trinity parish, whose will was proved on 22 April 1691, ERO, D/ABW 73/253.

379 An emetic.

380 This seems very likely to have been the Samuel Reynolds, eldest son of Captain Samuel Reynolds, later MP for Colchester (see n. 280, 22 April 1676). He was born in July 1666, and was admitted to Colchester Grammar in 1677, and went on, like his father, to pursue the law, entering Gray's Inn in 1683, Round, Colchester School, 72.

381 Lloyd's meaning is ambiguous but his hand is clear; he may be referring to musicians from Debenham, a village in Suffolk about thirty miles from Colchester.

382 Layer de la Haye, a village almost five miles south-west of Colchester.

383 Lloyd may mean Abberton, a village three miles east of Layer de la Haye.

384 Here Lloyd wrote merely ‘per:’.

385 Or perhaps ‘Parson’?

386 The words ‘we had’ are ambiguous and uncertain here.

387 Featley, Daniel, Ancilla pietatis, or, The Handmaid to Private Devotion (London, 1626)Google Scholar.

388 Cramped against the edge of the page, there is no name.

389 Probably not his brother, but rather a fellow clergyman.

390 Secretary hand; Lloyd's piece was probably intended to demonstrate his breadth of calligraphic skills.

391 Drunk.

392 Pain in the bowels, diarrhoea.

393 Lloyd could be referring here to the gospels of Matthew or of Mark.

394 Definitive identification is difficult, but this seems likely to have been Mary (bap. 14 June 1658), daughter of Stephen Furly (bap. 3 December, 1630) and his wife Elizabeth, née Reynolds. Stephen was the brother of the better-known John and Benjamin (see n. 40, 26 August 1675), and there is some suggestion he was not a Quaker. Mary's baptism took place in the parish of St Leonard, though Stephen does not appear in the Hearth Tax return of 1670 in Colchester, nor can any will be found, See ERO, D/P 245/1/1; Cadbury, Henry J., ‘A Quaker before the Privy Council, 1663’, Bulletin of Friends Historical Association, 49 (1960), 3738Google Scholar.

395 ‘Frets’ here probably refers to a decorative design of some sort, whether written or drawn, or added to a piece of furniture, OED.

396 Posset is a dessert or sweet beverage made with curdled milk or cream; in this case it was curdled with sack, a fortified wine, perhaps the same ‘Malligoe’ referred to in the entry for Wednesday this same week.

397 Perhaps a member of the prominent and wealthy Rebow family. John Rebow (d.1699) was a clothier and merchant, and one of Colchester's principle citizens. His son Sir Isaac Rebow (1655–1726) was MP for the town on several occasions between 1689 and 1722, amongst other offices, and was a consistent Whig, Hist. Parl. 1690–1715, Vol. 5, 262–265.

398 This word is sloppily squeezed into the inner margin: possibly ‘pitt’.

399 ‘Prety sober’ is very untidy and ambiguous; this transcription is speculative.

400 Originally ‘Mr Chaps’. This and other references to ‘Mr Chappel’ are likely referring to John Chappel (d.1681?), BA 1658/9 and MA 1662, Emmanuel College, Cambridge; rector of Inworth 1662/3–1678 and rector of Great Wigborough 1669–1681. He married Ariana Bland, daughter of Robert, from whom he inherited the latter living. CCEd Person ID: 161805. See Nicholas Carlisle, Collections for a History of the Ancient Family of Bland (London, 1826), 148; Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 1, 324. Cf. 27 February 1677.

401 It seems likely that Lloyd meant to write ‘Mrs Gray’.

402 Hilts?

403 Turkey had only recently been introduced to English tables in the 17th century, and would have been something of a novelty; May's Accomplisht Cook contains several elaborate recipes for ‘turky’, 444.

404 Bourne Mill and its pond still exist today, about one mile to the south of Colchester Castle (see National Trust).

405 This entry abruptly ends without explanation. Perhaps Lloyd was interrupted by Ardrey.

406 Lloyd probably means Josephus: see n. 105, 1 October, 1675.

407 This word is very ambiguously written and this transcription is speculative. ‘Broiding’ is an antiquated variant of ‘braiding’, and ‘broidering’ is an alternative form of ‘embroidering’, OED. Both could make sense here, given Lloyd's proclivity for making and altering garments. He could even be braiding the silk strings he had ‘wound’ on his machine. See n. 184, 25 November 1675.)

408 Aynho, a small village in Northamptonshire; for Lloyd, a long journey of some 130 miles.

409 For the original prayer, see Bayly, Practice of Piety, 468–480, esp. 477–479. Cf. the 1675 edn (printed by Philip Chetwinde), 225–230.

410 Originally a stylized ‘X’.

411 This seems likely to be the village of Ashdon, about four miles north-east of Saffron Walden, near the Cambridgeshire border.

412 Probably Whittlesford, a village about seven miles south of Cambridge.

413 Royston, Hertfordshire.

414 This is a puzzling reference, and perhaps a mistake. Gosfield is a small village in the Braintree district of Essex, two miles west of Halstead. Lloyd would, in fact, likely have passed near or through Gosfield on his initial journey from Colchester to Ashdon. It seems plausible that Lloyd wrote the account of his journey in retrospect, and simply wrote Gosfield in error.

415 Perhaps Woburn, Bedfordshire, between Royston and Aynho. There is no ‘Oburne’ in the vicinity. Lloyd would, however, have needed to make speedy progress in order to make the journey described in the following morning; it is some thirty miles from Woburn to Aynho.

416 In other words, Cribbage adapted for four players instead of the traditional two.

417 Lloyd may be referring to the sermons of John Donne, the metaphysical poet (1572–1631).

418 Isaiah 9:6.

419 Possibly Margaret; obscured by tight binding.

420 Isaiah 7:14.

421 Souldern, a small village some two miles south of Aynho.

422 Deddington, Oxfordshire, just under four miles west of Aynho.

423 ‘Whist’.

424 This seems likely to have been Richard Berry, who became vicar of Bicker, Lincolnshire, in 1680, in part thanks to the endorsement of Nicholas Lloyd. See Introduction, pp. 21. CCEd Person ID: 86274.

425 Probably a corn on the foot.

426 Writing messy and obscure here.

427 Hebrews 2:16.

428 I can find no single publication with this title or similar. Lloyd may have been reading any number of hagiographical or quasi-historical texts, or indeed the gospels themselves (though they are particularly patchy on the ‘life’ of St Jude).

429 ‘Our’ symbol.

430 Nicholas Lloyd's living at St Mary, Newington Butts. According to Nicholas's own autobiography, he only ‘settled’ at Newington in 1677: BODL MS Rawl. D. 32/1.

431 Aylesbury, the county town of Buckinghamshire, on the route from Aynho to London, where Lloyd was heading.

432 Potentially one of three villages in south-east Buckinghamshire collectively called the Chalfonts: Chalfont St Peter, Chalfont St Giles, and Little Chalfont.

433 Partly obscured by tight binding.

434 It was at the Windmill Inn in Shoe Lane that John Felton resolved, after reading the Parliamentary Remonstrance, to assassinate the duke of Buckingham in 1628: Ben Weinreb, Christopher Hibbert, Julia Keay, and John Keay, The London Encyclopedia, 3rd edn (London, 2008), 835.

435 A bridge across the Fleet Ditch, at the eastern end of Holborn St., close to the present Holborn Viaduct.

436 Maid.

437 The marriage of William Smith and Elizabeth Martin is recorded in the Frating parish register on 18 January 1676/7; ERO, D/P 349/1/1.

438 A puzzling reference; there are no prominent residents of Essex with this name at this period. It may be Sir Thomas Smith, 2nd Bt of Hatherton, Cheshire, who had inherited the title from his uncle, Sir Thomas Smith, 1st Bt, in 1675. He was the son of Laurance Smith, of Bow, Middlesex, now part of London. Burke, John and Burke, John Bernard, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England (Baltimore, 1985), 492Google Scholar.

439 Lloyd is referring to the bridegroom. Cf. ‘Mrs Brid’ above.

440 See n. 81, 7 September 1675. ‘Policritie’ or ‘Policrity’ seems likely to be another pseudonym used by Lloyd to obliquely refer to a woman in whom he had some romantic interest, perhaps one of the Lynford sisters, or ‘Mrs Gray’.

441 Litany.

442 The courante was a style of dance of French and Italian origin, in triple metre, which was extremely popular throughout Europe from the 16th to the 18th centuries: Horst, Louis, Pre-Classic Dance Morms (Princeton, NJ, 1987), 3443Google Scholar.

443 ‘Earl's’? Lloyd's hand is unclear here.

444 A non-specific medicine mixed with honey or other sweetening agent, OED.

445 Lloyd's phrasing implies that the ‘Antick’ was a clearly defined dance with particular steps; cf. OED, under ‘antic’, a slightly later use by Defoe ‘The Gentleman … led me only a Courant, and then ask'd me, if I had a-mind to dance an Antick’.

446 A village ten miles south-west of Colchester.

447 Or perhaps ‘Packs’.

448 Scimitar.

449 The idea of choosing a ‘Valentine’ on 14 February did exist in the 17th century, though not necessarily with the romantic implications it carries now. Here Lloyd had selected a (probably) married woman, Ariana, wife of John Chappel, the rector of Wigborough (see n. 400, 3 December 1676). Valentines in this period were often selected by lottery amongst a group of friends, or by chance – the first person of the opposite sex you saw that day – so Lloyd did not necessarily make a deliberate choice. That his Valentine was a friend's wife was not unusual; cf. Pepys, Vol. 1, 55, where Pepys's wife Elizabeth ‘challenged’ his friend Mr Moore to be her Valentine, as he was the first man she saw that day. Lloyd's gifts were typical of the period, as was the practice of writing a Valentine's note. The association of Saint Valentine's Day with unambiguous romantic love, and its slow commercialization through the development of the practice of sending greetings cards, began to emerge later in the 18th century: see Sally Holloway, ‘Love, custom and consumption: Valentine's Day in England c.1660–1830’, Cultural and Social History, 17 (2020), 295–314; Pepys, Vol. 10, 377–378. Why Lloyd waited until 7 March to declare his intention, though, is a mystery!

450 This abbreviation almost certainly represents the word ‘dozen’, but here Lloyd is probably referring to the coarse woollen or kersey fabric, originating in Devonshire, by this name, i.e. gloves made half of dozen cloth, rather than six gloves! Spufford and Mee, Clothing of the Common Sort, 270.

451 ‘Boree’ refers to the bourrée, a French dance in double time similar to a gavotte; it would have been newly fashionable in the 1670s. ‘Vasell’ is unclear, though Lloyd's hand is quite legible. See Horst, Pre-Classic Dance Forms, 78–84.

452 Lloyd wrote this line in an extraordinarily tiny hand, evincing his evident guilt. ‘Mrs Smith’ probably refers to Elizabeth Smith, whose wedding to his friend William Smith Lloyd had attended on 18 January 1677.

453 Lloyd's hand is untidy and ambiguous here.

454 In other words, a basic step or series of steps essential for learning a given dance or style, such as a dosado.

455 Joseph Powell succeeded John Smith as rector of St Mary-at-the-Walls in February 1677 and held the living until his death in 1698. He was also rector of Halstead, Essex (1670–1676), Aldham, Essex (1671–1692), and Balsham, Cambridgeshire (1693–1698). His will was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury on 9 April 1698, TNA, PROB 11/445/96. See Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 3, 387; CCEd Person ID: 18772.

456 Could not.

457 Bed.

458 This enigmatic passage, the interpretation of which is not aided by untidy and cramped writing (‘danced’ may be ‘dawnd’) may be a strangely worded reference to a sighting of comet observed in the northern hemisphere in April 1677, and documented in Hooke, Robert, Cometa (London, 1678)Google Scholar.

459 Lloyd's hand is cramped here; this word uncertain.

460 Samuel Shaw was the son of Sir John Shaw, MP for Colchester (see n. 513, 10 July 1677). He was a lawyer, having studied at Jesus College, Cambridge, before entering Lincoln's Inn in 1669. See Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 4, 53.

461 ‘After’ or ‘afore’. Lloyd had a peculiar, and at times frustrating, habit of changing his habitual spellings and abbreviations as the diary went on.

462 Charles II was officially crowned king of England and Ireland on 23 April 1661; he had already been crowned king of Scotland at Scone on 1 January 1651.

463 The choice of sermon reflected the day of national celebration: ‘But my horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn: I shall be anointed with fresh oil.’ Psalms 92:10.

464 Lloyd means palimpsest, a paper or parchment which can be reused when a previous inscription has been erased. The term can also refer to a manuscript in which one text has been overwritten with another, but Lloyd intends the former usage.

465 The Feast of St Mark the Evangelist, ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark.

466 Rainbowe, Edward, A Sermon Preached at the Funeral of the Right Honorable Anne Countess of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery (London, 1677)Google Scholar. Anne, countess of Pembroke etc., is better known as Lady Anne Clifford (d. 22 March 1676). She was the author of an important series of diaries and memoirs: see Malay, Jessica L., Anne Clifford's Autobiographical Writing, 1590–1676 (Manchester, 2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

467 Lloyd may have meant ‘my piece’ or a flourished letter ‘P’.

468 1 Corinthians 15:58.

469 Lloyd's sense is confusing here; he is referring to two individuals, and Farman was an intermediary of some kind for the landlord, Peak.

470 ‘Off ’.

471 This word is obscured by ink.

472 This could mean Matthew or Mark.

473 ‘But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead; [25] Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.’ Romans 4:24–25.

474 Originally ‘child:’.

475 There is no ‘Bridges’ amongst the Colchester clergy in the 1670s, but rather curiously the nearby villages of Wivenhoe and Alresford (which lie two miles apart) both had rectors named Samuel Bridge at this time; one of them seems the most likely candidate here. See Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 1, 214, for details of both; CCEd Person ID: 4998 (Alresford); and 86489 (Wivenhoe).

476 The tang of a blade; the metal of the blade forms the core of the handle, strengthening the knife, OED.

477 A village about nine miles north-east of Colchester.

478 ‘A name given to “a comparatively short prayer, more or less condensed in form, and aiming at a single point, or at two points closely connected with each other” […] Applied particularly to the prayer, which varies with the day, week, or octave, said before the Epistle in the Mass or Eucharistic service, and in the Anglican service also in Morning and Evening Prayer’, OED.

479 The Feast of the Ascension, which celebrates the bodily ascension of Jesus to Heaven. It is held on a Thursday, on the fortieth day of Easter.

480 Catechize.

481 Originally ‘Child:’. It is unclear whether Lloyd meant ‘children’ or was using a colon as punctuation; I have chosen the former.

482 John Launder, vicar of St Mary Dedham from 1672 until his death in 1678: see Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 3, 51.

483 If Lloyd meant ‘Master Warden of Wadham’, as opposed to a person named ‘Mr Warden’ or similar, he met Gilbert Ironside the Younger (1632–1701), who was warden of Wadham College, Oxford, from 1665 until 1689. Lloyd's brother, Nicholas, was an alumnus of Wadham and had been chaplain to the previous warden, Walter Blandford, so George may have had some previous familiarity with Ironside.

484 Ilford, formerly a town in its own right, is now part of east London.

485 Part of the grounds of Westminster Palace, between the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey.

486 The seventh Sunday after Easter, Whitsunday or Pentecost celebrates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles during the Feast of Weeks.

487 This individual – the same ‘Mr Turner’ mentioned several times above and below – is likely to have been Bryan Turner, rector of St Faith under St Paul's, London, c.1662, and of Souldern, Oxfordshire c.1665 (a mile and a half south of Aynho; note that in the next entry Lloyd and Turner travel together to Souldern). He was later made prebend of Hereford, but died before he could be installed, in 1698. Note his reference to Galatians 5:22; the same chapter and verse was cited in Turner, Bryan, A Sermon Preached before the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, and Aldermen of London at the Guild-Hall Chappel, Octob. the 28th 1677 (London, 1678), 8Google Scholar. It seems plausible that this was the same sermon being read, in pre-published form, by Lloyd on 6 December 1677. See Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 4, 273; CCEd Person ID: 167031.

488 A second ‘Mr Turner’.

489 William Beaw, DD (1616–1706), bishop of Llandaff (1679). At the time of the diary, Beaw was rector of Adderbury, a living which he held from 1661 until his death. An alumnus of Winchester College and New College, Oxford, and an active Royalist during the Civil Wars, Beaw would have shared much in common with Lloyd and his brother Nicholas. See ODNB; CCEd Person ID: 7575.

490 Adderbury, an Oxfordshire village some three and a half miles north-west of Aynho.

491 Great Missenden, a village in the Chiltern Hills in Buckinghamshire, on the route from Aynho to London.

492 A dealer in glassware or glazier; in the 17th century, the former occupation was sometimes used as a pretext for begging, so Lloyd may have been engaging in an act of charitable generosity: see OED.

493 Probably St Botolph Aldgate: see n. 350, 27 August 1676.

494 Lloyd's hand is ambiguous.

495 Perhaps Jeremy Shaw, son of Sir John Shaw, MP for Colchester (see n. 513, 10 July 1677). Born on 10 January 1656, he was admitted to Colchester Grammar School in 1672, and was later a JP for Essex, Round, Colchester School, 64–65.

496 Soling.

497 Oiled.

498 Scimitar.

499 Syllabub, dessert, popular in the 17th century, made by curdling sweetened cream or milk with alcohol and fruit juice.

500 Matthew Hale, Contemplations Moral and Divine by a Person of Great Learning and Judgement (London, 1676). Contemplations Moral and Divine: The Second Part was published the same year. Both were anonymous, but an edition from 1677 can be found with a frontispiece depicting Hale (1609–1676).

501 Colchester celebrated a four-day fair for the Feast of St John the Baptist (24 June). It was granted to St John's Abbey at its foundation, and was confirmed by Henry I in c.1104. VCHE, 269–274.

502 Entered in the parish register as Martha, wife of Nathaniel Lawrence, a prominent figure in Colchester, and son of Thomas Lawrence who had been mayor in 1643–1644. Nathaniel was mayor of the town four times (1672, 1679, 1683, 1709) and was elected to represent Colchester in Parliament in 1685. He was a dissenter or ‘occasional conformist’. ERO, D/P 138/1/7; Hist. Parl. 1660–1690, Vol. 2, 714.

503 This seems to be an error on Lloyd's part; there is no ‘Barfield’ in the vicinity, and the Essex villages of Great Bardfield and Little Bardfield lie some thirty miles to the west of Dedham. He may, however, have been referring to a private property of which I can find no trace.

504 Unkempt or ill-groomed, OED; a rare example of Lloyd being explicitly disparaging.

505 A wine made from the common perennial, cowslip. The well-known diarist John Evelyn included a recipe for cowslip wine in his Acetaria: A Discourse of Sallets (London, 1699), unpaginated.

506 John Ardrey, at the time rector of Great Musgrave, Westmorland (1671–1684). See Introduction, n. 63.

507 Perhaps one of the Lynford sisters; cf. entry and note (n. 81) for 7 September 1675.

508 Currants?

509 Handwriting obscure here; uncertain.

510 Seemingly Hadleigh, Suffolk, a town some fifteen miles north of Colchester – a strange choice for a prospective pupil, but Lloyd's hand is quite clear.

511 ‘A person who becomes surety for another; a bail; a surety; a member of a frank-pledge or frithborh’, OED. It is unclear, however, whether Lloyd was using this term strictly accurately, or in what capacity Smith acted.

512 See Hale, Contemplations, 53–102.

513 Sir John Shaw (1617–1690) was one of Colchester's most prominent and powerful citizens. Educated at Cambridge and Lincoln's Inn, he followed his father into town and county politics during the Civil War and Interregnum, in spite of his Royalist sympathies. Shaw was recorder for the town in 1655, 1658–1677, and 1688. He was elected to represent Colchester in Richard Cromwell's Parliament in 1659, re-elected in 1660, and again to the Cavalier Parliament in 1661, where he was a moderately active member. Aligned with the ‘Court’ party, Shaw was active in persecuting dissenters, and was described as ‘thrice vile’ by Shaftesbury; Hist. Parl. 1660–1690, Vol. 3, 428–429.

514 Angry, OED.

515 There are thousands of species of liverworts, or Marchantiophyta, so it is impossible to say which precise ‘herb’ Lloyd was consuming. Historically, as the name suggests, these small non-vascular plants were considered to have beneficial medical effects for liver complaints.

516 Sorrel is a very common herbaceous plant, occasionally used in cookery today, but very popular in the 17th century.

517 An unripe or green cooking apple, OED.

518 Lloyd overwrote ‘6’ here.

519 See n. 318, 8 June 1676.

520 This tavern was at the corner of Angel Lane and High St., in the parish of St Runwald, D'Cruze, Colchester People, Vol. 3, p. 3.

521 Harwich and Harwich Haven, with its several ports, are 20 miles east of Colchester, at the mouth of the Stour and Orwell estuaries.

522 Cf. n. 81, 7 September 1675.

523 Woodbridge is a market town in Suffolk, some 20 miles north-east of Dedham.

524 This seems likely to mean Rendlesham, six miles north-east of Woodbridge, known for its forests.

525 Possibly ‘Lane’.

526 Lloyd's lack of exposition is frustrating here, but we can infer from the circumstances of his life that he did not own did not own land of such considerable value himself; it may have belonged to one of the Lynford sisters.

527 Possibly faint.

528 Slightly unclear.

529 Presumably not Mr Goldsberry of Colchester, though Lloyd often abbreviated his name in this way.

530 A fair was granted to Ipswich on St James's Day (25 July) early in the reign of King John (c.1199) for the benefit of the town's lepers; ‘some small Remains’ of the tradition were still upheld by the mid 18th century: see John Kirby et al., The Suffolk Traveller (London, 1764), 34.

531 Combing.

532 This strongly suggests that ‘Philoclea’ or ‘Phyloclea’ is Mary Lynford: see n. 81, 7 September 1675.

533 ‘For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost…’ Hebrews 6:4. Presumably Lloyd meant that the sermon focused on the latter half of this verse.

534 Handwriting slightly unclear; an unusual name or spelling.

535 A small silver cup for ‘tasting’ wine, OED.

536 Cramped against the edge of the page; sweat.

537 Very cramped in a tight margin.

538 Probably The Weavers Pocket-Book, or, Weaving Spiritualised (London, 1675) by John Collinges (1623/4–1691), a presbyterian and erstwhile rector of St Stephen's Norwich; he was ejected for nonconformity in 1662.

539 Lloyd's superscript ‘l’ is messy and could also be read as ‘d’: this seems very unlikely, since it would hardly have been worth Stratton's time or effort to bring legal proceedings over twenty pence.

540 Frustratingly, this transcription is uncertain. Lloyd writes this word very ambiguously, but the most likely conclusion that the word is an unusual spelling of ‘journey’, presumably one during which Stratton's horse was injured or lost.

541 Entry cuts off here.

542 Probably ‘swooned’.

543 See n. 14, 20 August 1675.

544 Probably a windmill as a meeting point; no tavern or inn by this name is recorded in Colchester.

545 A small inn, with links to the carrying trade, at the corner of Bear Lane and the High St., Colchester People, Vol. 3, p. 3.

546 Handwriting slightly unclear here.

547 Christopher Sill, rector of East Donyland, some four miles south of Colchester, from 1664 until his death in 1687. CCEd Person ID: 166358.

548 Not a member of the usual Colchester clergy, and difficult to identify with certainty in the absence of other information. One possible candidate could be Robert Pooley, vicar of Stow Bedon and Rockland St Peter until his death in 1690: Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 3, 380; CCEd Person ID: 126802.

549 Now more commonly referred to as the Song of Solomon.

550 1 Corinthians 4:21.

551 Anonymous, though attributed to Marchamont Nedham, A Pacquet of Advices and Animadversions Sent from London to the Men of Shaftsbury (London, 1676). This was a hostile response to Shaftesbury's famous pamplet, A Letter from a Person of Quality to his Friend in the Country (1675), in which he had accused Danby's ministry of attempting to introduce ‘absolute and Arbitrary government’ and episcopacy by divine right, amongst other charges. See Harris, Tim, Politics under the Later Stuarts: Party Conflict in a Divided Society 1660–1715 (London, 1993), esp. ch. 3Google Scholar.

552 Rhenish wine.

553 See n. 334, 26 July 1676.

554 Handwriting slightly unclear.

555 Raisins.

556 Uncertain; Lloyd's hand is very ambiguous here.

557 Possibly ‘Puckle’ or ‘Puckel’, mentioned above and below.

558 Torn away here; ‘something’ or ‘supper’.

559 Probably Nayland, a Suffolk village nearly seven miles north of Colchester.

560 Or ‘Kight’.

561 This could be Great Easton, an Essex village some 25 miles west of Colchester, or Little Easton, one mile to the south of Great Easton. However, neither parish had an incumbent named Ashwell, CCEd.

562 This could mean Job 13:17 or John 13:17.

563 The rector of Greenstead at this time was Thomas Shaw (see n. 359, 10 September 1676). This seems most likely to have been Robert Bond, rector of Layer Breton, about seven miles south-west of Colchester, from 1677 until his death in 1688/9. See Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 1, 177; CCEd Person ID: 122986.

564 ‘Church text’ is not a standard name for any early modern writing hand; Lloyd may have been referring to the non-cursive chancery hand, or perhaps the ubiquitous secretary hand. For a good summary of early modern writing hands, see Grace Ioppolo, ‘Early modern handwriting’, in Michael Hattaway (ed.), A New Companion to English Renaissance Literature and Culture, Vol. 1 (Oxford, 2010), 177–189.

565 Chancery cursive, a writing hand based on humanist minuscule, also known as italic or Italian script owing to its origins in 15th-century Italy. Lloyd's brother, Nicholas, habitually wrote in this clear and readable hand.

566 Probably Layer de la Haye.

567 Probably John Lynnes, of St Peter's parish, assessed at one hearth in 1670, EHT, 291.

568 A coaching inn, of lower reputation and importance than the Red Lion or White Hart. Of medieval origin, it stood in the parish of St Nicholas on the corner of the High St. and George Lane. Colchester People, Vol. 3, p. 12.

569 Edge of page torn away.

570 See n. 325, 29 June 1676.

571 Perhaps the Three Ashes, a very ancient pub on Ashes Rd, Cressing, just outside Braintree, some fifteen miles west of Colchester.

572 Pebmarsh, a tiny village near Halstead, Essex, some thirteen miles north-west of Colchester and about eight miles from Cressing.

573 Bures, another village, four miles east of Pebmarsh, on the way to Dedham.

574 The Sun Inn is still standing and operational in Dedham.

575 Probably Captain Silas Taylor (1624–1678), a former parliamentary officer, antiquary, and, at this time, commissioner of the King's storehouse at Harwich (appointed 1664). He was known to Pepys, who mentioned him several times in his diary, describing him as ‘a good understanding man […] a good Scholler – and among other things, a great antiquary’, Pepys, Vol. 6, 81. See ODNB.

576 Sudbury, Suffolk, 15 miles north of Colchester.

577 Inserted at base of page facing.

578 Lloyd usually spells this name ‘Fayne’: see 14 August 1677.

579 Isaiah 56:12.

580 A marionette show of Italian origin, popular in Restoration England, and an ancestor of Punch and Judy; cf. Pepys, Vol. 7, 257.

581 Possibly ‘gold’.

582 A village almost ten miles north-east of Colchester.

583 Lloyd's hand is ambiguous here, as is the spelling.

584 Lambswool is an antiquated term for wassail, a mulled wine or ale beverage now associated with Christmas.

585 Stratford St Mary, a village lying one and a half miles north of Dedham. The village rector, Richard Shaw, MA 1673, Emmanuel College, Cambridge, had been appointed that year (1677): Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 4, 53; CCEd Person ID: 102758.

586 A town ten miles west of Colchester.

587 A village four miles south of Coggeshall.

588 In other words, a packet-boat, or a small coasting ship travelling regularly between two points, usually for the transport of mail, OED.

589 The landlady of the Sun Inn, where Lloyd usually stayed when he went to Dedham. See Friday, 5 October 1677, and 11–14 October 1677 above.

590 The ‘s’ in ‘send’ is very faint: this word probably means ‘sand’, but may have been used in the nautical sense as a noun, the ‘carrying or driving impulse of the sea’, OED.

591 In other words, the bar, or bank, at the mouth of the Blackwater Estuary.

592 Buoy.

593 Probably the Nore, especially after the reference to the buoy, later (1732) the position of the first lightship in the world.

594 Probably Woolwich.

595 A prominent east–west road in Southwark, one mile north-east of Newington Butts.

596 Camlet from Brussels was the finest available at the time; an extravagant purchase for a man who had recently lost his livelihood.

597 Carnelian, a red mineral used as a gemstone, OED.

598 There was a Bishop's Head in Chancery Lane, Holborn, mentioned as early as 1636 by John Taylor in his Travels and Circular Perambulation (London, 1636).

599 There was no specific place called ‘the Rates’ in Newington. It seems likely, from the context, that Lloyd was visiting the operator of the turnpike which stood to the north of Newington at the entrance to the town.

600 The church of St George the Martyr, Southwark, which dates back to the 12th century but was rebuilt in 1734–1736 by John Price; TBE, London 2: South, 576.

601 See n. 300, 17 May 1676.

602 On the south bank of the Thames, about halfway between the Tower of London and Westminster.

603 Steaks.

604 Norris's?

605 The identity of this individual is uncertain; he was not the minister at Aynho or nearby Souldern. It seems possible that it was George Ellis, who had been ordained a deacon in June 1677, and later became rector of Over Worton, about eight miles west of Aynho, in 1683, CCEd Person ID: 14059.

606 Two.

607 Handwriting ambiguous.

608 In Sidney's Arcadia, Pamela is the sister of Arcadia, adding further credence to the possibility that Lloyd is referring obliquely to the Lynford sisters.

609 Ambiguous; untidily cramped in margin.

610 Probably Stoke Mandeville, three miles south of Aylesbury, though this would mean they took a circuitous route.

611 Perhaps Uxbridge, now in suburban west London.

612 Robert Sparke, a lecturer of uncertain office, published A Sermon Preached in S. George's Church Southwark, at the Funeral of that Pious and Worthy Gentlewoman, Mrs. Frances Fenn (London, 1679). The title page describes him as ‘R. Sparke of Newington M.A.’ The burial of Elizabeth, the wife of a ‘Robert Sparke Lecturer’, is recorded in the parish register for St Mary Newington on 13 December 1677: see LMA, P92/MRY/007. Lloyd mentions his brother reading the funeral service on this day in the diary. A Robert Sparke, MA, of St Mary, Newington was also granted a licence to practice medicine in the province of Canterbury in 1682; LPL, VX 1A/10/186. A possible CCEd Person Record may be found with ID 166586. See Cantabrigienses, Vol. 1, pt. 4, 127–128; John Venn, Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College, 1349–1897, Vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1897), 228.

613 Probably the old Chapel Royal at Whitehall, which, like much of the complex which existed in Lloyd's day, was destroyed by a fire in 1698.

614 A former area of open fields in Southwark, immediately to the north-west of Newington Butts, where the Imperial War Museum and St George's Cathedral now are.

615 The anonymous Whole Duty of Man (1658) was a classic foundational text of Anglicanism. The most likely author is usually considered to be the Royalist clergyman and provost of Eton, Richard Allestree (1621/2–1681). Lloyd represented ‘of’ here with a symbol resembling the number ‘4’, perhaps slipping into the shorthand used elsewhere in the diary.

616 Possibly Camberwell Glebe, about two miles south of Newington Butts, but Lloyd's meaning is uncertain.

617 We can only speculate, but one of London's largest inns at the time was the Bull in Bishopsgate, just to the north of the former site of Gresham College. It was demolished in 1866. Pepys, Vol. 10, 419.

618 Lloyd's hand is quite clear here; this would appear to be one of the more extreme examples of his frustratingly taciturn understatement.

619 Here Lloyd is probably referring to the Stone Gallery at Whitehall, which ran along the southern edge of the Privy Garden. Lloyd's access is not as exclusive as it might seem; by the Restoration, the area appears to have become something of a ‘through-passage’, and Pepys fell into a ditch passing through it at night. See Pepys, Vol. 1, 26; Vol. 10, 479–483.

620 The Harp and Ball was a large tavern on the ‘river side’ of Charing Cross, approximately on the site of No. 25, Whitehall. The proprietor at about this time, Hugh Roberts, was described as a gentleman and his will; the premises had 20 hearths in 1666, Pepys, Vol. 10, 422.

621 The future William III. William had married Mary, the daughter of Charles II – the future Mary II – at St James's Palace on 4 November 1677.

622 Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705); her birthday was in fact on 25 November.

623 A link was a flaming torch used by pedestrians to light their night-time journeys.

624 ‘Off’? Perhaps meaning closed.

625 The oldest part of the Palace of Westminster, constructed in the 11th century by William II.

626 A strange reference; the Privy Stairs were the King's river stairs down on the Thames, but Lloyd writes as if they were part of their journey around the grounds; perhaps he was mistaken. Pepys, Vol. 10, 483.

627 A room in the Palace of Whitehall in which presentations were made, apparently ‘open to anyone who was entitled to appear at court’. How Lloyd and his companions gained this privileged access is something of a mystery. Pepys, Vol. 10, 482.

628 Moorfields, a former open area near Moorgate, just north of the Wall.

629 In other words, accused her of committing adultery with Lloyd.

630 Thin, flat strips of wood used in trelliswork, or as a base for applying plaster or tiles, OED.

631 Thomas Clutterbuck, DD (d.1700), was rector of St Mary Southampton and prebendary of Leckford, Hampshire. He later held the Middleton Prebend at Chichester Cathedral (1678–1682) and became archdeacon of Winchester in 1684. See Oxonienses, Vol. 1, 294; CCEd Person ID: 62992.

632 Thomas Pittis, DD (bap. 1636, d.1687), held a number of livings; Gatcombe, Isle of Wight (1662), a lectureship at Christ Church Newgate (1670), Lutterworth, Leicestershire (1678), and St Botolph without Bishopsgate (1678). He was also a royal chaplain. He was the immediate predecessor of Lloyd's brother, John, in the living of Holyrood, Southampton, from 1666–1675. There must have been some dispute or discussion to be had, as Lloyd notes in this entry, with regard to the tithes or ‘tenths’ owing to this living, which had only recently passed to John Lloyd. See ODNB; CCEd Person ID: 95105.

633 ‘S’ very faint.

634 Originally a possession of Evesham Abbey from 1133 until 1503, St Michael Cornhill subsequently became the property of the Drapers’ Company. The church was destroyed in the Great Fire but the tower survived; the body was rebuilt in 1669–1672. The tower was rebuilt by Hawksmoor in 1718–1722; TBE, London 1, 249–251.

635 Henry Compton (1632–1713) became bishop of Oxford in 1676 and held the office until his death. He was liberal on matters of Protestant dissent, but was vehemently anti-Catholic, ODNB.

636 Fish Street Hill still exists today, connecting Monument St. to Lower Thames St. During Lloyd's lifetime, however, it was the main road connecting to the old London Bridge.

637 Lloyd's brother John lived in Southampton, and so this payment may have related to him.

638 This may have been Milton, John, The History of Britain, That Part Especially Now Called England (London, 1670)Google Scholar. Lloyd's brother Nicholas, with whom he appeared to be cohabiting during this phase of the diary, owned a copy: see Dunmore, John, Catalogus librorum bibliothecæ Reverendi Nicolai Lloydii (London, 1681), 30Google Scholar.

639 Probably Sir Walter Raleigh, The Life and Death of Mahomet (London, 1637), a copy of which was also owned by Nicholas Lloyd. Dunmore, Catalogus, 42.

640 ‘A small enclosed piece of land; a paddock, a close’, OED.

641 Ambiguous, probably meaning ‘sawing’.

642 This abbreviation has been left unexpanded since absolute certainty is impossible, but this seems very likely to have been Sammes, Aylett, Britannia antiqua illustrata, or, The Antiquities of Ancient Britain derived from the Phœenicians (London, 1676)Google Scholar. This volume was owned by Nicholas Lloyd: Dunmore, Catalogus, 24.

643 This is a curious route description, since York House, a large mansion which once stood on the banks of the Thames, was the location of the principle watergate giving access to the Strand. Presumably Lloyd meant that he took to the water opposite the Strand, and landed at York House watergate.

644 Since Lloyd was in the vicinity of St James, this may have been either of the taverns of this name mentioned by Pepys; one at Charing Cross (Pepys, Vol. 1, 19) and another in the Strand (Vol. 7, 424): see also Vol. 10, 421.

645 See n. 487, 3 June 1677.

646 Stick?

647 Joseph Hall (1574–1656), bishop of Norwich from 1641 until he was deprived of his office by Parliament in 1646 and episcopacy was abolished. A prolific writer, satirist, and occasional controversialist, he was sometimes called the ‘English Seneca’. The catalogue of Nicholas Lloyd's library shows that he owned several of his works. ODNB.

648 The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living (London, 1650), followed by Holy Dying (1651).

649 This word is very cramped into a margin with very tight binding, and therefore uncertain.

650 This must have been a brother-in-law or even the husband of a more distant female relative (such as the unidentified ‘Aunt Lettis’): Lloyd did not have a brother named Henry.

651 St Dunstan-in-the-East, just off Tower St., now Great Tower St. Perhaps of pre-Conquest origin, but the building was substantially enlarged in 1382. The church was damaged, but not destroyed, during the Great Fire. Repairs were carried out 1668–1671, and the tower was rebuilt by Wren 1695–1701. Unfortunately, the body of the church was badly damaged in the Blitz in 1941, and it was not repaired. The site of the ruin is now a public garden. See TBE, London 1, 213–214.

652 Sir Herbert Price, 1st Bt (c.1608–1678) of the Priory, Brecon, was MP for Brecon in 1640, 1641–1643, and 1661–1678. A lieutenant-colonel in the Royalist army during the Civil War, he fought at Naseby and went into exile following the Parliamentarian victory. He was an inactive member on the ‘Court’ side during the Cavalier Parliament, and was marked ‘thrice vile’ in Shaftesbury's list of 1677; Hist. Parl. 1660–1690, Vol. 3, 285–286.

653 Passed quickly under London Bridge, always dangerous when the tide was running high: see OED.

654 Handwriting unclear: lines?

655 Certainty is impossible, but I consider it likely that Lloyd was referring to a manuscript copy of his brother John Lloyd's Shir ha shirim, or, The Song of Songs being a paraphrase upon the most excellent canticles of Solomon in a pindarick poem (London, 1682). The preface to this edition alleges that a previous printing (1681), which appeared anonymously and without dedications or epistles, had been plagiarized after being ‘Committed privately to a Friend in London (and not intending to trouble the Press) [it] was, under pretence of being borrow'd (as the Gentleman who lent it sends me word) Wrote out by a Stranger’. Lloyd's diary may contain references to the sharing around London of this manuscript. George Lloyd also contributed a dedicatory poem to the introductory matter, as did Thomas Lardner (mentioned here) who addresses John as his ‘Worthy Friend’.

656 Here, Lloyd may have been referring to an actual turnstile, or Great Turnstile, an alleyway connecting High Holborn to Lincoln's Inn Fields.

657 Very cramped in margin; ambiguous.

658 Here Lloyd referred not to the law court but to the King's Bench Prison, in Southwark not far from Newington. The Court of King's Bench was based at Westminster Hall.

659 Perhaps the guide for Lloyd and his companions on their tour of ships which ensues in this entry. Cramped at the edge of the page; ambiguous and with a possible tilde.

660 Deptford.

661 The Anne (1661) was a royal yacht, or a ‘pleasure boat’ officially designated for the use of the monarch. J. D. Davies, Pepys's Navy: Ships, Men and Warfare, 1649–1689 (Barnsley, 2008), 63.

662 The term ‘frigate’ was ambiguous in the 17th century, with several contradictory definitions (Pepys, Vol. 10, 585). There was no ship with this precise name, but Lloyd may have been referring to the HMS Royal Katherine (1664), built by Christopher Pett and named after the wife of Charles II, Catherine of Braganza. The launch of the ship was attended by Pepys, Pepys, Vol. 5, 305.

663 This may have been the same establishment visited by Pepys on visits to Deptford on Admiralty business. In September 1660, after visiting Deptford to disburse pay on the ship Success, Pepys, Sir George Carteret, and Sir William Penn ‘had a very good dinner’ at the Globe: see Pepys, Vol. 1, 253–254.

664 Lloyd's hand here is imprecise and ambiguous, but this seems very likely to have been his meaning.

665 See n. 655, 28 December 1677.

666 Perhaps Thomas Gale (1635/6–1702), antiquary and clergyman. A good friend of Samuel Pepys, Gale became high-master of St Paul's School, London, and DD at Cambridge in 1675, before being made a prebendary of St Paul's Cathedral the following year. He became dean of York Minster in 1697. ODNB; CCEd Person ID: 35534.

667 A common name for taverns in the period, but two possible locations are: the Three Tuns at Charing Cross south of the Strand (now Whitehall), valued at 16 hearths in 1664, which continued into the 19th century under the name Rummer; and the Three Tuns on the north side of Hart St. or Crutched Friars, kept by John Kent until his death in 1689, which had previously existed in Lombard St. but was destroyed in the Great Fire. Pepys, Vol. 10, 427.

668 This was probably an informal betrothal ceremony of some kind; it was certainly not an official or binding wedding, since Lloyd was not ordained. The ‘official’ marriage, between Elizabeth Lynford and Thomas Lardner, a London apothecary, was granted by licence and took place on 21 February 1678, at the church of All Hallows the Great (see Register of baptisms, marriages and burials, All Hallows the Great, 1666–1720, LMA, P69/ALH7/A/001/MS05159).

669 Strong alcoholic spirits, OED.

670 Handwriting unclear; ambiguous.

671 Unfortunately this is not a sufficient basis on which to identify this individual.

672 Probably Mortlake, now in the London Borough of Richmond.

673 Abbreviation for ‘Malcolm’?

674 Perhaps the effort to publish John Lloyd's book.

675 The Dog Tavern Yard can be found on Rocque's 1746 map on the corner of Thames St. and St Dunstan's Hill.

676 Erith, on the south bank of the Thames, a small port in Kent in the 17th century, now part of Greater London.

677 The HMS Jersey (1654) was a 4th-rate frigate; much to his amusement, Pepys was made captain of the vessel for one day in 1669 in order that he could sit as an ‘expert assessor’ for a naval court martial relating to the loss of the Defiance, a 3rd-rate ship lost to fire the year before: see Pepys, Vol. 9, 481.

678 This ‘old and notable tavern’ stood in Chancery Lane near the junction with Fleet St., ‘against the Temple’ as Lloyd suggests. It was known as a meeting place of the Green Ribbon Club (originally known as the King's Head Club, such was its association with the venue), radical members of the ‘country party’ during the Popish Plot and the Exclusion Crisis, Pepys, Vol. 10, 423.