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This paper aims to develop a complete algorithm to determine the robot motion and the scene structure using a monocular vision system. It is based on straight lines and significant points extracted on them. In this way, an agreement between the problems to extract or to match points and the limitations of infinite lines to compute structure and motion is established. Many geometrical relations of the lines in the scene are exploited to clear up the coupling between the rotation and the translation of the camera. Several real images have been used to validate the proposed method. The algorithm has been considered for navigation of a mobile robot moving in man-made environments.
We present a new algorithm for fine motion planning in geometrically complex situations. Geometrically complex situations have complex robot and environment geometry, crowded environments, narrow passages and tight fits. They require complex robot motions with coupled degrees of freedom. The algorithm constructs a path by incrementally building
a graph of linearized convex configuration space cells and solving a series of linear optimization problems with varying objective functions. Its advantages are that it better exploits the local geometry of narrow passages in configuration space, and that its complexity does not significantly increase as the clearance of narrow passages decreases. We demonstrate the algorithm on examples which other planners could not solve.
The Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is a device which is lightweight and small in volume. The SMA can be used as the actuator of a micro-robot, but it is difficult to design a controller to handle the highly nonlinear properties of the SMA. In this paper, a Fuzzy Walking Pattern (FWP) is proposed to control a small biped robot, using an SMA as the actuator. In fact, the desired walking pattern of the small biped robot is used to construct the FWP. The proposed FWP can control the biped robot under the desired walking pattern, and handle the exceptional case when the biped robot is subject to disturbance. The proposed FWP not only solves the control problem of the SMA, but also provides a new method in controller design of the biped robot. In addition, a transputer network is designed to impelement the FWP. Experimental results demonstrate the functions of the FWP.
In this paper, a study of a quadrupedal walking robot capable of walking on the irregular ground is presented. The robot has specially-designed feet with toes making soft and safe landings on uneven surfaces. Using the toe angle and landing force sensors integrated within the feet, its gait control algorithm can adapt the foot trajectory to the ground profile, while the body weight is evenly distributed on the supporting legs. After the landing of a foot, the roll and pitch angles of the body are measured and controlled to keep the body attitude parallel to the plane of support. The contents of this study are the design concept and
working principle of the foot, including the gait control algorithm for walk on the irregular ground. Experimental results are reported.
Adaptive gait planning is an important aspect in the development of control systems for multi-legged robots traversing on rough terrain. The problem of adaptive gait generation
can be viewed as one of finding a sequence of suitable foothold on rough terrain so that legged systems maintain static stability and motion continuity. Due to the limit of static stability, deadlock situation may occur in the process of searching for a suitable foothold, if terrain contains a large number of forbidden zones. In this paper, an improved method for adaptive gait planning is presented by active compensation of stability margin, through center of gravity (CG) adjustment in the longitudinal axis and/or body translation in the lateral direction. An algorithm for the proposed method is developed and embedded in a computer program. Simulation results show that the method provides legged machines with a much larger terrain adaptivity and better deadlock-avoidance ability.
A free gait algorithm is proposed utilizing a new method of gait generation called primary/secondary gait. The primary gait is a fixed sequence of leg transfers with modified leg-end kinematic limits according to the obstacle presence, while the secondary gait is a flexible gait which is generated to adjust the leg-end position. The primary gait is generated considering the following four constraints: stability constraint, kinematic constraint, sequential constraint and neighboring constraints. Primary gait parameters are modified by the influence of the obstacle. Normally, the machine tends to move with the primary gait. When the primary gait cannot move the vehicle, the secondary
gait is adopted to serve as a complement of the primary gait. With the proposed primary/secondary gait, it is expected to improve the efficiency of free gait generation while maintaining the mobility of the vehicle. Simulation results are given to
demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology.
This paper addresses the problem of modeling biped dynamics and the use of such models for the control of walking, running and jumping robots. We describe two approaches to dynamic modeling: the basic Lagrange approach and the non-regular dynamic approach. The new non-regular dynamic approach takes into account discontinuities due to rigid contact between punctual feet and the ground without computing the exact impact time. The contact is close to the physical situation given by non-linear laws (impenetrability, non-smooth contact and real friction cone). Contact dynamics can be well managed with an accurate dynamic model that respects energy consistency during all the phases encountered during
a step (0, 1 or 2 contacts). With this model, we can first study the equilibrum of a biped standing on one foot by a linearisation method. In the second stage, the unified modelized equation is used to establish a general control frame based on non-regular dynamical decoupling. A comparison is made and some simulation results are given with a two degree of freedom planar biped robot.
In this paper a complete and systematic procedure for the identification of the
dynamic parameters of rigid robot manipulators is presented. Starting from the basic results on the subject present in the literature and on a new technique to find exciting trajectories for the estimation, the procedure is developed. A set of algorithms is provided for the implementation of the various steps of the procedure for a generic open-chain structure. The algorithms have been coded in the popular Matlab/Maple environment and the procedure
has been tested in a practical case study to identify the dynamic parameters of a six-degree-of-freedom conventional industrial robot.
This paper is aimed at presenting a study on the kinematics of the Tricept robot,
which comprises a three-degree-of-freedom (dof) parallel structure having a radial link of variable length. The robot workspace is characterized and the inverse kinematics equation is obtained by using spherical coordinates. The inverse differential kinematics and statics are derived in terms of both an analytical and a geometric Jacobian, and a manipulability analysis along the various workspace directions is developed using the concept of force and velocity ellipsoids. A Jacobian-based Closed-Loop Direct Kinematics (CLDK) algorithm is presented to solve the direct kinematics problem along a given trajectory. Simulation results are illustrated for an industrial robot of the Tricept family.
In this paper, a force control algorithm for robot manipulators is introduced, where the dynamics of non-rigid environment interacting with the robot is assumed unknown. The controller design is based on the combination of sliding mode control techniques and the adaptive estimation theory, so the introduced controller compensates the structured or unstructured uncertainty of the environment. The main source of feedback information is received from a wrist force sensor. The designed controller includes additional absorption terms in order to minimise end-point velocity error and to suppress the impact effects at the beginning of the force application.