Position-tracking problems in the structures of rigid formations of nonholonomic mobile robots, such as fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs), must reconcile tracking precision and flight stability, which usually exclude each other due to nonholonomic motion constraints. Therefore, a position-tracking control that is based on distance and position displacement, defined as inputs of control loops, requires the application of dead zones around target positions, which are the points of instability. For this reason, the control becomes sensitive to any external disturbance causing oscillations of control signals and so it becomes difficult to maintain a zero value of position displacement over a long time horizon. Thus, we propose an approach based on the adaptive mechanism of an asymmetrical local artificial potential field, which is defined by a local frame of reference whose origin is located in the tracked position of a UAV in the formation frame. It couples controls of both airspeed and heading angle into a nonlinear potential function of relative position and orientation with respect to the tracked position and adapts it according to heading rate of the leader. The function splits the area around the tracked position longitudinally into two zones of acceleration and deceleration; therefore, velocity vectors are longer (higher airspeed) only when a UAV is behind the tracked position and shorter (lower airspeed) when it is ahead. The area is laterally symmetrical, and orientations of velocity vectors align asymptotically to the longitudinal direction accordingly with the decrease in the lateral error. Finally, velocity vectors are rotated proportionally to the heading rate of the leader, which improves the tracking precision during turns. If we assumed that a UAV’s tracked position is in motion, it could easily be proven that the position control based on the adaptive asymmetrical potential function becomes asymptotically stable in the tracked position. Numerical simulation verifies this thesis and presents more precise and stable position tracking due to the adaptation mechanism.