Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Smart walkers: an application-oriented review

  • Solenne Page (a1) (a2) (a3), Ludovic Saint-Bauzel (a1) (a2) (a3), Pierre Rumeau (a4) and Viviane Pasqui (a1) (a2) (a3)

Summary

In this paper, a development method for smart walker prototypes is proposed. Development of such prototypes is based on technological choices and device evaluations. The method is aimed at guiding technological choices in a modular fashion. First, the method for choosing modules to be integrated in a smart walker is presented. Application-specific modules are then studied. Finally, the issues of evaluation are investigated. In order to work out this method, more than 50 smart walkers and their pros and cons with respect to the different studied applications are reviewed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: E-mail: page@isir.upmc.fr

References

Hide All
1. “World population ageing,” Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, United Nations, New York (2013).
2. “Merck manual, gait disorders in the elderly.” http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/geriatrics/gait_disorders_in_the_elderly/gait_disorders_in_the_elderly.html, (Last full review/revision August 2013 by James O. Judge, MD, Content last modified Sep. 2013).
3. Shaffer, S. and Harrison, A., “Aging of the somatosensory system: A translational perspective,” Phys Ther. 87 (2), 193207 (Feb. 2007). Epub 2007 Jan 23.
4. Sturnieks, D. L., George, R. S. and Lord, S. R., “Balance disorders in the elderly,” Neurophysiol Clin. 38 (6), 467478 (2008 Oct 7). doi: 10.1016/j.neucli.2008.09.001.
5. “Global report on falls prevention in older age,” World Health Organization, 2007.
6. Davison, J., Bond, J., Dawson, P., Steen, N. and Kenny, R.-A., “Patients with recurrent falls attending accident & emergency benefit from multifactorial intervention a randomised controlled trial,” Age Ageing 34 (2), 162168 (2005).
7. Heese, S., Sonntag, D., Bardeleben, A., Käding, M., Roggenbruck, C. and Conradi, E., “The gait of patients with full weightbearing capacity after hip prosthesis implantation on the treadmill with partial body weight support, during assisted walking and without crutches,” Z. Orthop. Ihre Grenzgeb. 137 (3), 265272 (1999).
8. Joyce, B. and Kirby, R. L., “Canes, crutches and walkers,” Am. Fam. Physician 43 (2), 535542 (1991).
9. OrthoInfo, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00181&return_link=0, (accessed in: 22.04.15).
10. Lacey, G. and MacNamara, S., “User involvement in the design and evaluation of a smart mobility aid,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 37 (6), 709723 (2000).
11. Martins, M. M., Santos, C. P., Frizera-Neto, A. and Ceres, R., “Assistive mobility devices focusing on smart walkers: Classification and review,” Robot. Auton. Syst. 60, 548562 (2012).
12. Martins, M., Santos, C., Frizera, A. and Ceres, R., “A review of the functionalities of smart walkers,” Medical Engineering & Physics 37, 917928 (2015).
13. Jonsson, L., The Importance of the 4-Wheeled Walker for Elderly Women Living in their Home Environment - a three-year study. Swedish Handicap Institute (2001).
14. Böttcher, S., “Principles of Robot Locomotion,” Proceedings of Human Robot Interaction Seminar (2006).
15. Alwan, M., Rajendran, P. J., Ledoux, R., Huang, C., Wasson, G. and Sheth, P., “Stability margin monitoring in steering-controlled intelligent walkers for the elderly,” AAAI Fall Symposium 2005: Caring Machines.
16. Campion, G., Bastin, G. and Dandrea-Novel, B., “Structural properties and classification of kinematic and dynamic models of wheeled mobile robots,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 12 (1), 4762 (1996).
17. Chugo, D., Sakaida, Y., Yokota, S. and Takase, K., “Sitting Motion Assistance on a Rehabilitation Robotic Walker,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO) (2011) pp. 1967–1972.
18. Mou, W.-H., Chang, M.-F., Liao, C.-K., Hsu, Y.-H., Tseng, S.-H. and Fu, L.-C., “Context-Aware Assisted Interactive Robotic Walker for Parkinson's Disease Patients,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2012) pp. 329334.
19. Graf, B., “An adaptive guidance system for robotic walking aids,” J. Comput. Inform. Technol. 17 (1), 109120 (2009).
20. Pasqui, V., Saint-Bauzel, L., Zong, C., Clady, X., Decq, P., Piette, F., Michel-Pellegrino, V., Helou, A. E., Carré, M., Durand, A., Hoang, Q., Guiochet, J., Rumeau, P., Dupourque, V. and Caquas, J., “Projet miras: Robot d'assistance à la déambulation avec interaction multimodale,” IRBM 33 (2), 165172 (2012). Numéro spécial ANR TECSANTechnologie pour la santé et l'autonomie.
21. Spenko, M., Yu, H. and Dubowsky, S., “Robotic personal aids for mobility and monitoring for the elderly,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 14 (3), 344351 (2006).
22. Lee, G., Ohnuma, T., Chong, N. and Lee, S.-G., “Walking intent-based movement control for jaist active robotic walker,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.: Syst. (99), (2013).
23. Park, H. K., Hong, H. S., Kwon, H. J. and Chung, M. J., “A nursing robot system for elderly people,” Proceedings of 2002 Joint Workshop on Intelligent Control and Robotics, Beijing, China (2002, 7) pp. 103–106.
24. Wada, M. and Asada, H., “Design and control of a variable footprint mechanism for holonomic omnidirectional vehicles and its application to wheelchairs,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 15 (6), 978989 (1999).
25. Yu, H. and Dubrowsky, S., “Omni-Directional Mobility using Active Split Offset Castors,” Proceedings of the SAME IDETC/CIE 26th Biennial Mechanics and Robotics Conference (2000) pp. 822–829.
26. Zhu, X., Cao, Q., Tan, H. and Tang, A., “Omni-Directional Vision Based Tracking and Guiding System for Walking Assistant Robot,” Proceedings of the Advances in Neural Network Research and Applications, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol. 67, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg (2010) pp. 537–543.
27. Wu, H.-K., Chien, C.-W., Jheng, Y.-C., Chen, C.-H., Chen, H.-R. and Yu, C.-H., “Development of Intelligent Walker with Dynamic Support,” Proceedings of the 18th IFAC World Congress Milano (Italy) (2011).
28. Kyung-Ryoul, M., Guo, Z. and Yu, H., “Development and evaluation of a novel over-ground robotic walker for pelvic motion support,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) (2015).
29. Stevens, J. A., Thomas, K., Teh, L. and Greenspan, A. I., “Unintentional fall injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults treated in u.s. emergency departments,” J. Am. Geriatrics Soc. JAGS 57 (8), (Aug. 2009).
30.“The keepace: A personalized electric walking assist car,” http://www.murata.com/corporate/ad/article/metamorphosis17/application_note/02/02.html, (accessed in: 25.02.14).
31. Inagaki, S., Suzuki, T. and Ito, T., “Design of Man-Machine Cooperative Nonholonomic Two-Wheeled Vehicle Based on Impedance Control and Time-State Control,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (2009) pp. 3768–3773.
32. Sabatini, A., Genovese, V. and Pacchierotti, E., “A Mobility Aid for the Support to Walking and Object Transportation of People with Motor Impairments,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, vol. 2 (2002) pp. 1349–1354.
33. Xiong, G., Gong, J., Junyao, G., Zhao, T., Liu, D. and Chen, X., “Optimum Design and Simulation of a Mobile Robot with Standing-Up Devices to Assist Elderly People and Paraplegic Patients,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO) (2006) pp. 807–812.
34. Saint-Bauzel, L., Pasqui, V. and Monteil, I., “A reactive robotized interface for lower limb rehabilitation: Clinical results,” IEEE Trans. Robot. 25 (3), 583592 (2009).
35. Ye, J., Huang, J., He, J., Tao, C. and Wang, X., “Development of a Width-Changeable Intelligent Walking-Aid Robot,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Micro-NanoMechatronics and Human Science (MHS) (2012) pp. 358–363.
36. Merlet, J.-P., “Preliminary Design of Ang, A Low-Cost Automated Walker for Elderly,” Proceedings of the New Trends in Mechanism Science, vol. 5 of Mechanisms and Machine Science, Springer, Netherlands (2010) pp. 529–536.
37. Bühler, C., Heck, H., Nedza, J. and Wallbruch, R., “Evaluation of the mobil walking & lifting aid,” Assistive Technology - Added Value to the Quality of Life (2001).
38. Prajapati, C., Watkins, C., Cullen, H., Orugun, O., King, D. and Rowe, J., “The ‘s’test-a preliminary study of an instrument for selecting the most appropriate mobility aid,” Clin. Rehabil. 10 (4), 314318 (1996).
39. Zhang, Y., Niu, J., Hayes, M., Chaisson, C., Aliabadi, P. and Felson, D., “Prevalence of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and its impact on functional status among the elderly. the framingham study,” Am. J. Epidemiology 156 (11), (2002).
40. Kai, Y., Tanioka, T., Inoue, Y., Matsuda, T., Sugawara, K., Takasaka, Y. and Nagamine, I., “A walking support/evaluation machine for patients with parkinsonism,” J. Med. Investigation 51, 117124 (2004).
41. “The rehabilitation institute of chicago, 2005.” http://www.kineadesign.com/portfolio/kineassist/, (accessed in: 25.02.14).
42. Bouri, M., Stauffer, Y., Schmitt, C., Allemand, Y., Gnemmi, S., Clavel, R., Metrailler, P. and Brodard, R., “The Walktrainer: A Robotic System for Walking Rehabilitation,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO), pp. 1616–1621, Dec. 2006.
43. Einbinder, E. and Horrom, T., “Smart walker: A tool for promoting mobility in elderly adults,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 47 (9), xiiixvi (2010).
44. Chugo, D., Asawa, T., Kitamura, T., Songmin, J. and Takase, K., “A Motion Control of a Robotic Walker for Continuous Assistance during Standing, Walking and Seating Operation,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2009) pp. 4487–4492.
45. Chuy, O., Hirata, Y. and Kosuge, K., “Augmented Variable Center of Rotation in Controlling a Robotic Walker to Adapt user Characteristics,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2005) pp. 1779–1784.
46. Huang, C., Wasson, G., Alwan, M., Sheth, P. and Ledoux, A., “Shared Navigational Control and User Intent Detection in an Intelligent Walker,” Proceedings of the AAAI Fall 2005 Symposium (EMBC), 2005.
47. Rentschler, A. J., Simpson, R., Cooper, R. A. and Boninger, M. L., “Clinical evaluation of guido robotic walker,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 45, 12811294 (2008).
48. Chuy, O., Hirata, Y. and Kosuge, K., “Environment Feedback for Robotic Walking Support System Control,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (2007) pp. 3633–3638.
49. Song, K.-T. and Jiang, S.-Y., “Force-Cooperative Guidance Design of an Omni-Directional Walking Assistive Robot,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA) (2011) pp. 1258–1263.
50. Jun, H.-G., Chang, Y.-Y., Dan, B.-J., Jo, B.-R., Min, B.-H., Yang, H., Song, W.-K. and Kim, J., “Walking and Sit-to-Stand Support System for Elderly and Disabled,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) (2011) pp. 1–5.
51. Seo, K.-H. and Lee, J.-J., “The development of two mobile gait rehabilitation systems,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 17 (2), 156166 (2009).
52. Hirata, Y., Hara, A. and Kosuge, K., “Passive-Type Intelligent Walking Support System “rt walker”,” Proceedings of the Proceedings IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), vol. 4 (2004) pp. 3871–3876.
53. Tan, R., Wang, S., Jiang, Y., Ishida, K. and Fujie, M., “Path Tracking Control of an Omni-Directional Walker Considering Pressures from a User,” Proceedings of the 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) (2013) pp. 910–913.
54. Grondin, S. and Li, Q., “Intelligent Control of a Smart Walker and its Performance Evaluation,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) (Jun. 2013) pp. 1–6.
55. Hirata, Y., Muraki, A. and Kosuge, K., “Motion Control of Intelligent Passive-Type Walker for Fall-Prevention Function Based on Estimation of User State,” Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (2006) pp. 3498–3503.
56. Huang, Y.-C., Wu, C.-J., Ko, C.-H. and Young, K.-Y., “Collision-free guidance for passive robot walking helper,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC) (2012) pp. 3129–3134.
57. Noury, N., Fleury, A., Rumeau, P., Bourke, A., Laighin, G., Rialle, V. and Lundy, J. E., “Fall Detection - Principles and Methods,” Proceedings of the 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) (Aug. 2007) pp. 1663–1666.
58. Martins, M., Santos, C. and Frizera, A., “Online Control of a Mobility Assistance Smart Walker,” Proceedings of the IEEE 2nd Portuguese Meeting in Bioengineering (ENBENG) (2012) pp. 1–6.
59. Yu, K.-T., Lam, C.-P., Chang, M.-F., Mou, W.-H., Tseng, S.-H. and Fu, L.-C., “An Interactive Robotic Walker for Assisting Elderly Mobility in Senior Care Unit,” Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts (ARSO) (2010) pp. 24–29.
60. Taghvaei, S., Hirata, Y. and Kosuge, K., “Control of a Passive Walker using a Depth Sensor for User State Estimation,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO) (2011) pp. 1639–1645.
61. Nejatbakhsh, N. and Kosuge, K., “User-Environment Based Navigation Algorithm for an Omnidirectional Passive Walking Aid System,” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) (2005) pp. 178–181.
62. Geravand, M., Rampeltshammer, W. and Peer, A., “Control of Mobility Assistive Robot for Human Fall Prevention,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) (2015).
63. Pruski, A., Robotique Mobile: la Planification de Trajectoire (France, Hermes Science Publications, 1996).
64. Kotani, S., Mori, H. and Kiyohiro, N., “Development of the robotic travel aid hitomi,” Robot. Auton. Syst. 17 (1–2), 119128 (1996).
65. Kulyukin, V., Kutiyanawala, A., LoPresti, E., Matthews, J. and Simpson, R., “iwalker: Toward a Rollator-Mounted Wayfinding System for the Elderly,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on RFID (2008) pp. 303–311.
66. Graf, B., Reiser, U., Hägele, M., Mauz, K. and Klein, P., “Robotic Home Assistant Care-o-bot 3 - Product Vision and Innovation Platform,” Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Advanced Robotics and its Social Impacts (ARSO) (2009) pp. 139–144.
67. Morris, A., Donamukkala, R., Kapuria, A., Steinfeld, A., Matthews, J., Dunbar-Jacob, J. and Thrun, S., “A Robotic Walker that Provides Guidance,” Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), vol. 1 (2003) pp. 25–30.
68. Glover, J., Thrun, S. and Matthews, J., “Learning User Models of Mobility-Related Activities through Instrumented Walking Aids,” Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), vol. 4 (2004) pp. 3306–3312.
69. Tsai, C.-C., Huang, Y.-S., Wang, Y.-C. and Hu, S., “Design and Implementation of a Nursing-Care Walking Assistant for the Elderly,” Proceedings of 2005 Chinese Automatic Control Conference, Citeseer (2005) pp. 210–215.
70. Glover, J., Holstius, D., Manojlovich, M., Montgomery, K., Powers, A., Wu, J., Kiesler, S., Matthews, J. and Thrun, S., “A robotically-augmented walker for older adults,” tech. rep. (Carnegie Mellon University, Research Showcase@CMU, 2003).
71. Rodriguez-Losada, D., Matia, F., Jimenez, A., Galan, R. and Lacey, G., “Implementing Map Based Navigation in Guido, the Robotic Smartwalker,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), IEEE (2005) pp. 3390–3395.
72. Shi, Y., Kotani, S. and Mori, H., “A route comprehension support system for a robotic travel aid,” Syst. Comput. Japan 37 (9), 8799 (2006).
73. Kulyukin, V., LoPresti, E., Kutiyanawala, A., Simpson, R. and Matthews, J., “A Rollator-Mounted Wayfinding System for the Elderly: Proof-of-Concept Design and Preliminary Technical Evaluation,” Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) (Phoenix, Arizona, 2007).
74. Sabatini, A., Genovese, V. and Maini, E., “Be-Viewer: Vision-Based Navigation System to Assist Motor-Impaired People in Docking their Mobility Aids,” Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), vol. 1 (2003) pp. 1318–1323.
75. Hashimoto, H., Sasaki, A., Ohyama, Y. and Ishii, C., “Walker with Hand Haptic Interface for Spatial Recognition,” Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (2006) pp. 311–316.
76. Yuk, G.-H., Park, H.-S., Dan, B.-J., Jo, B.-R. and Chang, W.-S., “Development of Smart Mobile Walker for Elderly and Disabled,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) (2013) pp. 300–301.
77. Nemoto, Y., Egawa, S., Koseki, A., Hattori, S., Ishii, T. and Fujie, M., “Power-Assisted Walking Support System for Elderly,” Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, vol. 5 (1998) pp. 2693–2695.
78. Schneider, J., Stork, W., Irgenfried, S. and Worn, H., “A Multimodal Human Machine Interface for a Robotic Mobility Aid,” Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Applications (ICARA) (Feb. 2015) pp. 289–294.
79. Zhang, L., Cao, Q. X., Leng, C. T., Tang, A. L. and Shi, F., “The development of walking assistant robot for the elderly,” Key Eng. Mater. 467–469, 18931898 (2011).
80. Chan, A. D. C. and Green, J., “Smart Rollator Prototype,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA) (2008) pp. 97–100.
81. Doughty, K., Telehealth to support health promotion and management of disease. Oxford Desk Reference: Geriatric Medicine, 2012, pp. 551555.
82. Abellanas, A., Frizera, A., Ceres, R. and Gallego, J., “Estimation of gait parameters by measuring upper limb-walker interaction forces,” Sensors Actuators A: Phys. 162 (2), 276283 (2010). Eurosensors XXIII, 2009.
83. Page, S., Martins, M., Saint-Bauzel, L., Santos, C. and Pasqui, V., “Fast Embedded Feet Pose Estimation Based on a Depth Camera for Smart Walker,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (May 2015) pp. 4224–4229.
84. Alwan, M., Wasson, G., Sheth, P., Ledoux, A. and Huang, C., “Passive Derivation of Basic Walker-Assisted Gait Characteristics from Measured Forces and Moments,” Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEMBS), vol. 1 (2004) pp. 2691–2694.
85. Hausdorff, J., “Gait variability: Methods, modeling and meaning,” J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 2 (1), 19 (2005).
86. Omar, F., Sinn, M., Truszkowski, J., Poupart, P., Tung, J. and Caine, A., “Comparative analysis of probabilistic models for activity recognition with an instrumented walker,” In: Proceedings of the 26th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI 2010), (July 2010).
87. Yoo, D., Hong, H., Kwon, H. and Chung, M., “20 Human-Friendly Care Robot system for the Elderly,” Proceedings of the Advances in Rehabilitation Robotics, Lecture Notes in Control and Information Science, vol. 306 (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg (2004) pp. 323–332.
88. Hirata, Y., Muraki, A. and Kosuge, K., “Standing Up and Sitting Down Support using Intelligent Walker Based on Estimation of User States,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (2006) pp. 13–18.
89. Miro, J., Osswald, V., Patel, M. and Dissanayake, G., “Robotic Assistance with Attitude: A Mobility Agent for Motor Function Rehabilitation and Ambulation Support,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) (2009) pp. 529–534.
90. Morita, Y., Chugo, D., Sakaida, Y., Yokota, S. and Takase, K., “Standing Motion Assistance on a Robotic Walker Based on the Estimated Patient's Load,” Proceedings of the 4th IEEE RAS EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob) (2012) pp. 1721–1726.
91. Shim, H.-M., Lee, E.-H., Shim, J.-H., Lee, S.-M. and Hong, S.-H., “Implementation of an Intelligent Walking Assistant Robot for the Elderly in Outdoor Environment,” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) (2005) pp. 452–455.
92. Tomita, M., Ogiso, T., Nemoto, Y. and Fujie, M. G., “A study on the path of an upper-body support arm used for assisting standing-up and sitting-down motion,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 43, 949956 (2000).
93. Zhu, C., Oda, M., Suzuki, M., Luo, X., Watanabe, H. and Yan, Y., “A New Type of Omnidirectional Wheelchair Robot for Walking Support and Power Assistance,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2010) pp. 6028–6033.
94. Zhang, L., Bai, D. and Yi, L., “Optimization of Walking Assistance Mechanism in Rehabilitation Wheelchair,” Proceedings of the IEEE/ICME International Conference on Complex Medical Engineering (CME) (2011) pp. 621–626.
95. Zhang, X., Wang, Y. and Wei, X., “Research on control technology of elderly-assistant & walking-assistant robot based on tactile-slip sensation,” Eng. Sci. 11, (2013) pp. 8996.
96. Song, K.-T. and Lin, C.-Y., “A New Compliant Motion Control Design of a Walking-Help Robot Based on Motor Current and Speed Measurement,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2009) pp. 4493–4498.
97. Wasson, G., Sheth, P., Alwan, M., Granata, K., Ledoux, A. and Huang, C., “User Intent in a Shared Control Framework for Pedestrian Mobility Aids,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), vol. 3 (2003) pp. 2962–2967.
98. Frémy, J., Michaud, F. and Lauria, M., “Pushing a Robot Along - a Natural Interface for Human-Robot Interaction,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (2010) pp. 3440–3445.
99. Chuy, O., Hirata, Y., Wang, Z. and Kosuge, K., “Approach in Assisting a Sit-to-Stand Movement using Robotic Walking Support System,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (2006) pp. 4343–4348.
100. Pasqui, V. and Bidaud, P., “Bio-Mimetic Trajectory Generation for Guided Arm Movement during Assisted Sit-to-Stand Transfer,” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots, Geneva, Belgium (Sep. 2006) pp. 246–251.
101. Wang, T., Merlet, J.-P., Sacco, G., Robert, P., Turpin, J.-M., Teboul, B., Marteu, A. and Guerin, O., “Walking analysis of young-elderly people by using an intelligent walker ang,” Robot. Auton. Syst. 75 (A), 96106 (2016).
102. Neto, A. Frizera, Ceres, R., de Lima, E. Rocón and Pons, J. L., “Empowering and assisting natural human mobility: The simbiosis walker,” Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst. 8 (3), 3450 (2011).
103. Röfer, D. T., Laue, T. and Gersdorf, D. B., “iwalker - an intelligent walker providing services for the elderly,” Technically Assisted Rehabilitation (2009). European Conference on Technically Assisted Rehabilitation (TAR-09), March 18-19, Berlin, Germany.
104. Yu, H., Spenko, M. and Dubowsky, S., “An adaptive shared control system for an intelligent mobility aid for the elderly,” Auton. Robots 15 (1), 5366 (2003).
105. Jiang, Y. and Wang, S., “Adapting Directional Intention Identification in Running Control of a Walker to Individual Difference with Fuzzy Learning,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA) (2010) pp. 693–698.
106. Zhou, W., Xu, L. and Yang, J., “An Intent-Based Control Approach for An Intelligent Mobility Aid,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (CAR) 2, (2010) pp. 54–57.
107. Huang, Y.-C., Yang, H.-P., Ko, C.-H. and Young, K.-Y., “Human Intention Recognition for Robot walking Helper using Anfis,” Proceedings of the 8th Asian Control Conference (ASCC) (2011) pp. 311–316.
108. McLachlan, S., Arblaster, J., Liu, D., Miro, J. and Chenoweth, L., “A Multi-Stage Shared Control Method for an Intelligent Mobility Assistant,” Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR) (2005) pp. 426–429.
109. Tang, A. and Cao, Q., “Motion control of walking assistant robot based on comfort,” Ind. Robot: Int. J. 39 (6), 564579 (2012).

Keywords

Smart walkers: an application-oriented review

  • Solenne Page (a1) (a2) (a3), Ludovic Saint-Bauzel (a1) (a2) (a3), Pierre Rumeau (a4) and Viviane Pasqui (a1) (a2) (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed