1.Canny, J., The Complexity of Robot Motion Planning (The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987).
2.Zexiang, L. and Canny, J. F., Nonholonomic Motion Planning (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, 1993).
3.Latombe, J., Robot Motion Planning (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 1991).
4.Schwartz, J. T. and Sharir, M., “On the piano movers' problem: III. Coordinating the motion of several independent bodies amidst polygon barriers,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 2 (3), 46–75 (1983).
5.Hopcrof, J. E., Schwartz, J. T. and Sharir, M., “On the complexity of motion planning for multiple independent objects; pspace-hardness of the warehouseman's problem,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 3 (4), 76–88 (1984).
6.LaValle, S. M. and Hutchinson, S. A., “Optimal motion planning for multiple robots having independent goals,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 14 (6), 912–925 (1998).
7.Gulec, N. and Unel, M., “A Novel Algorithm for the Coordination of Multiple Mobile Robots,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 3733 NCS, (2005) pp. 422–431.
8.van den Berg, J. P. and Overmars, M. H., “Roadmap-based motion planning in dynamic environments,” IEEE Trans. Robot. 21 (5), 885–897 (2005).
9.Lee, S. and Adams, T. M., “Spatial model for path planning of multiple mobile construction robots,” Comput.-Aided Civ. Infrastruct. Eng. 19 (4), 231–245 (2004).
10.Desai, J. P., Ostrowski, P. J. and Kumar, V., “Modeling and control of formations of nonholonomic mobile robots,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 6, 905–908 (2001).
11.Hirota, K., Kuwabara, T., Kenichi, I., Miyanohara, A., Ohdachi, H., Ohsawa, T., Takeuchi, W., Yubazaki, N. and Ohtani, M., “Robots Moving in Formation by IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 1, Yokohama, Japan Using Neural Network and Radial Basis Functions,” Proceedings of the (1995) pp. 91–94.
12.Jing, X.-J. and Wang, Y.-C., “Control of Behavior Dynamics for Motion Planning of Mobile Robots in Uncertain Environments,” Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics, ICM '05, vol. 2005, Taipei, Taiwan (2005) pp. 364–369.
13.Liang, Y. and Lee, H.-H., “Avoidance of Multiple Obstacles for a Mobile Robot with Nonholonomic Constraints,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Dynamic Systems and Control Division (Publication) DSC, vol. 74 DSC, no. 2 PART B, Orlando, FL, United States (2005) pp. 1657–1663.
14.Lawton, R. J., Young, B. J. and Beard, R. W., “A Decentralized Approach to Elementary Formation Maneuvers,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 1, San Francisco, CA, USA (2000) pp. 2728–2743.
15.Yamaguchi, H., “Cooperative hunting behavior by mobile robot troops,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 9, 931–940 (1999).
16.Shao, J., Xie, G., Yu, J. and Wang, L., “Leader-Following Formation Control of Multiple Mobile Robots,” Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, ISIC '05 and the 13th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, MED '05, vol. 2005, (Limassol, Cyprus), pp. 808–813, 2005.
17.Balch, T. and Arkin, R. C., “Behavior-based formation control for multi-robot teams,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 6, 926–939 (1998).
18.Cao, Z., Xie, L., Zhang, B., Wang, S. and Tan, M., “Formation Constrained Multi-robot System in Unknown Environments,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 1, Taipei, Taiwan (2003) pp. 735–740.
19.Marchese, F. M. and Negro, M. D., “Path-Planning for Multiple Generic-Shaped Mobile Robots with MCA,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 3993 NCS–III, (2006) pp. 264–271.
20.Warren, C., “Multiple Robot Path Coordination Using Artificial Potential Fields,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 1, Cincinnati, OH, USA (1990) pp. 500–505.
21.Sheu, C. and Young, K., “Heuristic approach to robot path planning based on task requirements using a genetic algorithm,” J. Intell. Robot. Syst.: Theory and Appl. 1, 65–88 (1996).
22.Yun, X. and Tan, K., “Wall-Following Method for Escaping Local Minima in Potential Field Based Motion Planning,” Proceeding of the 8th International Conference on Advanced Robotics, ICAR'97, Monterey, CA, USA (1997) pp. 421–426.
23.Cosio, F. A. and Castaneda, M. P., “Autonomous robot navigation using adaptive potential fields,” Math. Comput. Modelling 40 (9–10), 1141–1156 (2004).
24.Ge, S. S. and Cui, Y. J., “Dynamic motion planning for mobile robot using potential field method,” Auton. Robot. 1, 207–222 (2002).
25.Kim, D. H., Wang, H. O., Ye, G. and Shin, S., “Decentralized Control of Autonomous Swarm Systems Using Artificial Potential Functions: Analytical Design Guidelines,” Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, vol. 1, Nassau, Bahamas (2004) pp. 159–164.
26.Chester, C. R., Techniques in Partial Differential Equations (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).
27.Kim, J. and Khosla, P. K., “Real-time obstacle avoidance using harmonic potential functions,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom. 3, 338–349 (1992).
28.Connolly, C. I., Burnd, J. B. and Weiss, R., “Path Planning Using Laplace's Equation,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Cincinnati, OH, USA (1990) pp. 2102–2106.
29.Guldner, J., Utkin, V. I. and Bauer, R., “A three-layered hierarchical path control system for mobile robots: Algorithms and experiments,” Robot. Autom. Syst. 14, 133–147 (1995).
30.Arai, T. and Ota, J., “Motion planning of multiple mobile robots using virtual impedance,” J. Robot. Mechatronics 8 (1), 67–74 (1996).
31.Akishita, S., Kawamura, S., and Hisanobu, T., “Velocity potential approach to path planning for avoiding moving obstacles,” Adv. Robot. 7 (5), 463–478 (1996).
32.Sugiyama, S. and Akishita, S., “Path Planning for Mobile Robot at Crossroads by Using Hydrodynamic Potential,” Proceedings of 1998 Japan–USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, Ohstu, Japan (1998) pp. 595–602.
33.Kuethe, A. M. and Chow, C. Y., Foundation of Aerodynamics: Bases of Aerodynamic Design, 4th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986).
34.Fahimi, F., Ashrafiuon, H. and Nataraj, C., “Obstacle avoidance for spatial hyper-redundant manipulators using harmonic potential functions and the mode shape technique,” J. Robot. Syst. 20 (1), 23–33 (2003).
35.Zhang, Y. and Valavanis, K. P., “Sensor-based 2-D potential panel method for robot motion planning,” Robotica 1, 81–89 (1996).
36.Zhang, Y. and Valavanis, K. P., “A 3-D panel method for robot motion planning,” Robotica 1, 421–434 (1997).
37.Luca, A. D., Oriolo, G. and Samson, C., Feedback Control of a Nonholonomic Car-Like Robot, Robot Motion Planning and Control (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1998).