Skip to main content Accessibility help

FAT-Based Robust Adaptive Control of Electrically Driven Robots in Interaction with Environment

  • Alireza Izadbakhsh (a1), Payam Kheirkhahan (a1) and Saeed Khorashadizadeh (a2)


This paper presents a robust adaptive impedance controller for robot manipulators using function approximation techniques (FAT). Recently, FAT-based robust impedance controllers have been presented using Fourier series expansion for uncertainty estimation. In fact, sinusoidal functions can approximate nonlinear functions with arbitrary small approximation error based on the orthogonal functions theorem. The novelty of this paper in comparison with previous related works is that the number of required regressor matrices in this paper has been reduced. This superiority becomes more dominant when the manipulator degrees of freedom (DOFs) are increased. First, the desired signals for motor currents are calculated, and then the desired voltages are obtained. In the proposed approach, only a simple model of the actuator and manipulator dynamics is used in the controller design and all the rest dynamics are treated as external disturbance. The external disturbances can then be approximated by Fourier series expansion. The adaptation laws for Fourier series coefficients are derived from a Lyapunov-based stability analysis. Simulation results on a 2-DOF planar robot manipulator including the actuator dynamics indicate the efficiency of proposed method.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. E-mail:


Hide All
1.Mao, Y. and Agrawal, S. K., “Design of a cable-driven arm exoskeleton (CAREX) for neural rehabilitation,” IEEE Trans. Robot. 28, 922931 (2012).
2.Spong, M. W., Lewis, F. L. and Abdallah, C. T., Robot Control: Dynamics, Motion Planning, and Analysis (IEEE Press, New York, 1993).
3.Whitney, D. E., “Historical perspective and state of the art in robot force control,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 6, 314 (1987).
4.Hogan, N., “Impedance control: An approach to manipulation: Part I-III,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 107, 124 (1985).
5.Kazerooni, H., “On the robot compliant motion control,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 111, 416425 (1989).
6.Raibert, M. and Craig, J., “Hybrid position/force control of manipulators,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 102, 126133 (1981).
7.Khatib, O., “A unified approach for motion and force control of robot manipulators: The operational space formulation,” IEEE J. Robot. Autom. 3, 4353 (1987).
8.Almeida, F., Lopes, A. and Abreu, P., “Force-impedance control: A new control strategy of robotic manipulators,” Recent Adv. Mechatr. 126137 (1999).
9.Kazerooni, H., Houpt, P. and Sheridan, T., “Robust compliant motion for manipulators: Part II, design method,” IEEE J. Robot. Autom. 2, 93105 (1986).
10.Seraji, H. and Colbaugh, R., “Force tracking in impedance control,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 16, 97117 (1997).
11.Boaventura, T., Buchli, J., Semini, C. and Caldwell, D. G., “Model-based hydraulic impedance control for dynamic robots,” IEEE Trans. Robot. 31, 13241336 (2015).
12.Filaretov, V. F. and Zuev, A. V., “Adaptive Force/Position Control of Robot Manipulators,” IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Xian, China (2008) pp. 96101.
13.Spong, M. W., Hutchinson, S. and Vidyasagar, M., Robot Modelling and Control (Wiley, Hoboken, 2006).
14.Slotine, J. J. E. and Li, W., “Adaptive Strategies in Constrained Manipulation,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Raleigh, NC, USA, 4 (1987) pp. 595601.
15.Colbaugh, R., Seraji, H. and Glass, K., “Direct Aadaptive Impedance Control of Manipulators.” Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Brighton, UK, 3 (1991) pp. 24102415.
16.Zhen, R. R. Y. and Goldenberg, A. A., “An Adaptive Approach to Constrained Robot Motion Control,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Nagoya, Japan, 2 (1995) pp. 18331838.
17.Izadbakhsh, A. and Fateh, M. M., “Real-time robust adaptive control of robots subjected to actuator voltage constraint,” Nonlinear Dyn. 78, 19992014 (2014).
18.Izadbakhsh, A. and Masoumi, M., “FAT-Based Robust Adaptive Control of Flexible-Joint Robots: Singular Perturbation Approach,” Annual IEEE Industrial Society’s 18th International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), Toronto, ON, Canada (2017) pp. 803808.
19.Izadbakhsh, A., “Robust adaptive control of voltage saturated flexible joint robots with experimental evaluations,” AUT J. Model. Sim. 50(1), 3138 (2018).
20.Huang, A. C., Wu, S. C. and Ting, W. F., “A FAT-based adaptive controller for robot manipulators without regressor matrix: Theory and experiments,” Robotica 24, 205210 (2006).
21.Chien, M. C. and Huang, A. C., “Adaptive impedance controller design for flexible-joint electrically-driven robots without computation of the regressor matrix,” Robotica 30, 133144 (2012).
22.Izadbakhsh, A., “FAT-based robust adaptive control of electrically driven robots without velocity measurements,” Nonlinear Dyn. 89, 289304 (2017).
23.Izadbakhsh, A., “A note on the nonlinear control of electrical flexible-joint robots,” Nonlinear Dyn. 89, 27532767 (2017).
24.Izadbakhsh, A. and Rafiei, S. M. R., “Robust Control Methodologies for Optical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems–New Approaches and Comparison,” Proceedings of the 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IEEE-EPE-PEMC), Poznan, Poland (2008) pp. 21022107.
25.Izadbakhsh, A. and Khorashadizadeh, S., “Robust task-space control of robot manipulators using differential equations for uncertainty estimation,” Robotica 35(9), 19231938 (2017).
26.Izadbakhsh, A. and Khorashadizadeh, S., “Robust impedance control of robot manipulators using differential equations as universal approximator,” Int. J. Control 91(10), 117 (2017).
27.Chien, M. C. and Huang, A. C., “Adaptive impedance control of robot manipulators based on function approximation technique,” Robotica 22, 395403 (2004).
28.Huang, A. C. and Chien, M. C., Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators: A Unified Regressor-Free Approach. (World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 2010).
29.Yang, R., Yang, C., Chen, M. and Na, J.Adaptive impedance control of robot manipulators based on Q-learning and disturbance observer,” Syst. Sci. Control Eng. 5(1), 287300 (2017).
30.Ficuciello, F., Villani, L. and Siciliano, B., “Variable impedance control of redundant manipulators for intuitive human–robot physical interaction,” IEEE Trans. Rob. 31(4), 850863 (2015).
31.Lee, J., Chang, P. H. and Jamisola, R. S., “Relative impedance control for dual-arm robots performing asymmetric bimanual tasks,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electr. 61(7), 37863796 (2014).
32.Fateh, M. M. and Khoshdel, V., “Voltage-based adaptive impedance force control for a lower-limb rehabilitation robot,” Adv. Robot. 29(15), 961971 (2015).
33.Fateh, M. M. and Babaghasabha, R., “Impedance control of robots using voltage control strategy,” Nonlinear Dyn. 74(1–2), 277286 (2013).
34.Khorashadizadeh, S. and Fateh, M. M., “Uncertainty estimation in robust tracking control of robot manipulators using the Fourier series expansion,” Robotica 35(2), 310336 (2017).
35.Chu, Z., Cui, J. and Sun, F., “Fuzzy adaptive disturbance-observer-based robust tracking control of electrically driven free-floating space manipulator,” IEEE Syst. J. 8(2), 343352 (2014).
36.Dawson, D. M., Qu, Z. and Carroll, J. J., “Tracking control of rigid-link electrically-driven robot manipulators,” Int. J. Control 56(5), 9911006 (1992).
37.Wang, H., Ren, W., Cheah, C. C. and Xie, Y., “Dynamic Modularity Approach to Adaptive Inner/Outer Loop Control of Robotic Systems,” 35th Chinese Control Conference, Chengdu, China (IEEE, 2016) pp. 32493255.
38.Izadbakhsh, A. and Fateh, M. M., “Robust Lyapunov-based control of flexible-joint robots using voltage control strategy,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 39, 31113121 (2014).
39.Izadbakhsh, A. and Rafiei, S. M. R., “Endpoint perfect tracking control of robots– A robust non inversion-based approach,” Int. J. Control Autom. Syst. 7(6), 888898 (2009).


FAT-Based Robust Adaptive Control of Electrically Driven Robots in Interaction with Environment

  • Alireza Izadbakhsh (a1), Payam Kheirkhahan (a1) and Saeed Khorashadizadeh (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed