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La Revolucion Industrial y la Nueva Historia Economica (I)*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 April 2010

Joel Mokyr
Affiliation:
Northwestern University

Extract

Ha transcurrido casi un siglo desde la publicación de la famosa obra de Arnold Toynbee, Lectures on the Industrial Revolution (1884). Desde entonces, historiadores de todas las escuelas han llegado a la conclusión de que la Revolución Industrial en Gran Bretaña constituyó un nuevo punto de partida en la historia de la humanidad, un hecho de tanta importancia para la vida cotidiana que puede compararse con la aparición del monoteísmo o con el desarrollo del lenguaje. De este modo, ha surgido una extensa literatura escrita por historiadores, economistas y sociólogos, ingleses y extranjeros, tanto de izquierdas como de derechas, que trata de sus diversos aspectos. Sin embargo, los expertos no se han puesto de acuerdo sobre los problemas fundamentales. En primer lugar se encuentra la mera cuestión de la definición: ¿qué fue exactamente la Revolución Industrial? De los muchos intentos que se han efectuado para resumir lo que supuso la Revolución Industrial, el de Perkin es quizá el más elocuente. En sus propias palabras, fue «una revolución en el acceso de los hombres a los medios de vida, en el control de su entorno ecológico, en su capacidad de escapar de la tiranía y de la mezquindad de la naturaleza (…) abrió el camino a los hombres para completar el dominio de su entorno físico, sin la ineludible necesidad de explotarse unos a otros» (Perkin, 1969, pp. 3–5). En Gran Bretaña cambiaron muchas cosas, y no solamente la manera en que se producían los bienes y servicios. Se transformó la naturaleza de la familia y del hogar, el status de las mujeres y los niños, el papel de la Iglesia, cómo las personas elegían a los gobernantes y mantenían a los pobres, lo que sabían acerca del mundo y lo que querían saber. El descubrimiento de cómo estas transformaciones no económicas afectaron y se vieron afectadas por el cambio económico es un proyecto continuo La revolución fue, en frase irresistible de Perkin, «algo más que una Revolución Industrial». Al centrarnos en la economía aislamos sólo una parte, aunque fundamental, de la modernizatión de Gran Bretaña.

Type
Panoramas de Historia Economica
Copyright
Copyright © Instituto Figuerola de Historia y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid 1987

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