Skip to main content Accessibility help


  • John Davison (a1) (a2) and Sarah Marrinan (a2)


In the context of an aging population, the importance of falls and their prevention has arguably never been greater. Both injurious and non-injurious falls are a frequent occurrence resulting in potentially devastating physical and social consequences. In recent years, there has been a marked expansion in falls research, meta-analysis, and local and national management guidelines, reflecting increased multidisciplinary professional and public awareness of falls.


Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: J Davison, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 4LP, UK.


Hide All
1National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Falls: The assessment and prevention of falls in older people. London: 2004, Clinical Guideline 21.
2Department of Health. National Service Framework for Older People. London. Department of Health; HMSO 2001.
3Rubenstein, LZ, Robbins, AS, Josephson, KR, Schulman, BL, Osterweil, D. The value of assessing falls in an elderly population. A randomized clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 308–16.
4Shaw, FE. Falls in cognitive impairment and dementia. Clin Geriatr Med 2002; 18: 159–73.
5Oliver, D, Connelly, JB, Victor, CR et al. Strategies to prevent falls and fractures in hospitals and care homes and effect of cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analyses. BMJ 2007; 334 (7584): 82.
6Rubenstein, LZ, Josephson, KR, Osterweil, D. Falls and fall prevention in the nursing home. Clin Geriatr Med 1996; 12: 881902.
7The Consumer Safety Unit. Accidents in the elderly. 1986.
8Blake, AJ, Morgan, K, Bendall, MJ et al. Falls by elderly people at home: prevalence and associated factors. Age Ageing 1988; 17: 365–72.
9Campbell, AJ, Borrie, MJ, Spears, GF, Jackson, SL, Brown, JS, Fitzgerald, JL. Circumstances and consequences of falls experienced by a community population 70 years and over during a prospective study. Age Ageing 1990; 19: 136–41.
10Downton, JH, Andrews, K. Prevalence, characteristics and factors associated with falls among the elderly living at home. Aging Clin Exp Res 1991; 3: 219–28.
11Prudham, D, Evans, JG. Factors associated with falls in the elderly: a community study. Age Ageing 1981; 10: 141–46.
12Tinetti, ME, Speechley, M, Ginter, SF. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 1701–07.
13Berg, WP, Alessio, HM, Mills, EM, Tong, C. Circumstances and consequences of falls in independent community-dwelling older adults. Age Ageing 1997; 26: 261–68.
14Gryfe, CI, Amies, A, Ashley, MJ. A longitudinal study of falls in an elderly population: I. Incidence and morbidity. Age Ageing 1977; 6: 201–10.
15Kannus, P, Parkkari, J, Koskinen, S et al. Fall-induced injuries and deaths among older adults. JAMA 1999; 281: 1895–99.
16Grisso, JA, Kelsey, JL, Strom, BL et al. Risk factors for falls as a cause of hip fracture in women. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1326–31.
17Nyberg, L, Gustafson, Y, Berggren, D, Brannstrom, B, Bucht, G. Falls leading to femoral neck fractures in lucid older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 156–60.
18Salkeld, G, Cameron, ID, Cumming, RG et al. Quality of life related to fear of falling and hip fracture in older women: a time trade-off study. BMJ 2000; 320 (7231): 341–46.
19Stevens, JA, Corso, PS, Finkelstein, EA, Miller, TR. The costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults. Injury Prev 2006; 12: 290–95.
20Richardson, DA, Bexton, RS, Shaw, FE et al. Prevalence of carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) in older patients with unexplained or recurrent falls attending accident and emergency facilities [Abstract]. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45: 198.
21Department of Trade and Industry. Home accident surveillance system. London: DTI. HMSO, 1987.
22Donald, IP, Bulpitt, CJ. The prognosis of falls in elderly people living at home. Age Ageing 1999; 28: 121–25.
23Vellas, B, Cayla, F, Bocquet, H, de Pemille, F, Albarede, JL. Prospective study of restriction of activity in old people after falls. Age Ageing 1987; 16: 189–93.
24Cwikel, J, Fried, AV. The social epidemiology of falls among community-dwelling elderly: guidelines for prevention. Disabil Rehabil 1992; 14: 113–21.
25Delbaere, K, Crombez, G, Vanderstraeten, G et al. Fear-related avoidance of activities, falls and physical frailty. A prospective community-based cohort study. Age Ageing 2004; 33: 368–73.
26Tinetti, ME, Liu, WL, Claus, EB. Predictors and prognosis of inability to get up after falls among elderly persons. JAMA 1993; 269: 6570.
27Tinetti, ME, Williams, CS. Falls, injuries due to falls, and the risk of admission to a nursing home. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1279–84.
28Murphy, J, Isaacs, B. The post-fall syndrome. A study of 36 elderly patients. Gerontology 1982; 28: 265–70.
29Tinetti, ME, Mendes, dLC, Doucette, JT, Baker, DI. Fear of falling and fall-related efficacy in relationship to functioning among community-living elders. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1994; 49: M140M147
30Cumming, RG, Salkeld, G, Thomas, M, Szonyi, G. Prospective study of the impact of fear of falling on activities of daily living, SF-36 scores, and nursing home admission. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000; 55: M299M305
31Hauer, K, Lamb, SE, Jorstad, EC et al. Systematic review of definitions and methods of measuring falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials. Age Ageing 2006; 35: 510.
32Cummings, SR, Nevitt, MC, Kidd, S. Forgetting falls. The limited accuracy of recall of falls in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1988; 36: 613–16.
33Mackenzie, L, Byles, J, D'Este, C. Validation of self-reported fall events in intervention studies. Clin Rehabil 2006; 20: 331–39.
34Kenny, RA, Traynor, G. Carotid sinus syndrome–clinical characteristics in elderly patients. Age Ageing 1991; 20: 449–54.
35McIntosh, SJ, Lawson, J, Kenny, RA. Clinical characteristics of vasodepressor, cardioinhibitory, and mixed carotid sinus syndrome in the elderly. Am J Med 1993; 95: 203–08.
36NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Nuffield Institute for Health. Preventing falls and subsequent injury in older people. Effective Health Care Bull 1996; 2: 16.
37American Geriatrics Society, British Geriatrics Society, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Panel on Fall Prevention.. Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 664–72.
38Sheldon, JH. On the natural history of falls in old age. BMJ 1960; 2: 1685–90.
39Overstall, PW, Exton-Smith, AN, Imms, FJ, Johnson, AL. Falls in the elderly related to postural imbalance. BMJ 1977; 1 (6056): 261–64.
40Lord, SR, Sambrook, PN, Gilbert, C et al. Postural stability, falls and fractures in the elderly: results from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. Med J Aust 1994; 160: 684–85.
41Wolfson, L, Whipple, R, Derby, CA et al. A dynamic posturography study of balance in healthy elderly. Neurology 1992; 42: 2069–76.
42Moreland, JD, Richardson, JA, Goldsmith, CH, Clase, CM. Muscle weakness and falls in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 1121–29.
43Nevitt, MC, Cummings, SR, Kidd, S, Black, D. Risk factors for recurrent nonsyncopal falls. A prospective study. JAMA 1989; 261: 663–68.
44Lord, SR, Ward, JA, Williams, P, Anstey, KJ. Physiological factors associated with falls in older community-dwelling women. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42: 1110–17.
45Harwood, RH. Visual problems and falls. Age Ageing 2001; 30 (suppl): 1318.
46Ivers, RQ, Cumming, RG, Mitchell, P, Attebo, K. Visual impairment and falls in older adults: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46: 5864.
47Campbell, AJ, Borrie, MJ, Spears, GF. Risk factors for falls in a community-based prospective study of people 70 years and older. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1989; 44: 112–17.
48Robbins, AS, Rubenstein, LZ, Josephson, KR, Schulman, BL, Osterweil, D, Fine, G. Predictors of falls among elderly people. Results of two population-based studies. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 1628–33.
49Lord, SR, Clark, RD, Webster, IW. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in relation to falls in an elderly population. Age Ageing 1991; 20: 175–81.
50Leipzig, RM, Cumming, RG, Tinetti, ME. Drugs and falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis: II. Cardiac and analgesic drugs. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 4050.
51Hartikainen, S, Lonnroos, E, Louhivuori, K. Medication as a risk factor for falls: critical systematic review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007; 62: 1172–81.
52Hien, lT, Cumming, RG, Cameron, ID et al. Atypical antipsychotic medications and risk of falls in residents of aged care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005; 53: 1290–95.
53Lee, JS, Kwok, T, Leung, PC, Woo, J. Medical illnesses are more important than medications as risk factors of falls in older community dwellers? A cross-sectional study. Age Ageing 2006; 35: 246–51.
54Waller, JA. Falls among the elderly–human and environmental factors. Acid Anal Prev 1978; 10: 2123.
55Sattin, RW, Rodriguez, JG, DeVito, CA, Wingo, PA. Home environmental hazards and the risk of fall injury events among community-dwelling older persons. Study to Assess Falls Among the Elderly (SAFE) Group. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46: 669–76.
56van Bemmel, T, Vandenbroucke, JP, Westendorp, RG, Gussekloo, J. In an observational study elderly patients had an increased risk of falling due to home hazards. J Clin Epidemiol 2005; 58: 6367.
57Northridge, ME, Nevitt, MC, Kelsey, JL, Link, B. Home hazards and falls in the elderly: the role of health and functional status. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 509–15.
58Kiely, DK, Kiel, DP, Burrows, AB, Lipsitz, LA. Identifying nursing home residents at risk for falling. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46: 551–55.
59Tinetti, ME, Williams, TF, Mayewski, R. Fall-risk index for elderly patients based on number of chronic disabilities. Am J Med 1986; 80: 429–34
60Tencer, AF, Koepsell, TD, Wolf, ME et al. Biomechanical properties of shoes and risk of falls in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52: 1840–46.
61Sherrington, C, Menz, HB. An evaluation of footwear worn at the time of fall-related hip fracture. Age Ageing 2003; 32: 310–14.
62Shaw, FE, Kenny, RA. Can falls in patients with dementia be prevented? Age Ageing 1998; 27: 79.
63Rubenstein, LZ, Josephson, KR. The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Clin Geriatr Med 2002; 18: 141–58.
64Davies, AJ, Kenny, RA. Falls presenting to the accident and emergency department: types of presentation and risk-factor profile. Age Ageing 1996; 25: 362–66.
65Shaw, FE, Kenny, RA. The overlap between syncope and falls in the elderly. Postgrad Med J 1997; 73: 635–39.
66McIntosh, S, da Costa, D, Kenny, RA. Outcome of an integrated approach to the investigation of dizziness, falls and syncope in elderly patients referred to a ‘syncope’ clinic. Age Ageing 1993; 22: 5358.
67Parry, SW, Steen, IN, Baptist, M, Kenny, RA. Amnesia for loss of consciousness in carotid sinus syndrome: implications for presentation with falls. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 45: 1840–43.
68Kenny, RA, Kalaria, R, Ballard, C. Neurocardiovascular instability in cognitive impairment and dementia. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002; 977: 183–95.
69Tinetti, ME, Baker, DI, McAvay, G et al. A multifactorial intervention to reduce the risk of falling among elderly people living in the community. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 821–27.
70Anonymous. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996; 46: 1470.
71Campbell, AJ, Reinken, J. Postural hypotension in old age: prevalence, associations and prognosis. J Clin Exp Gerontol 1985; 7: 163–75.
72Thomas, JE, Vinken, PJ, Bruyn, GW. Anon. Disease of the carotid sinus syncope. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing; 1972; 19: 532–51.
73Morley, CA, Sutton, R. Carotid sinus syncope. Int J Cardiol 1984; 6: 287–93.
74Kerr, SR, Pearce, MS, Brayne, C, Davis, RJ, Kenny, RA. Carotid sinus hypersensitivity in asymptomatic older persons: implications for diagnosis of syncope and falls. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 515–20.
75Thomas, JE. Hyperactive carotid sinus reflex and carotid sinus syncope. Mayo Clin Proc 1969; 44: 127–39.
76Kenny, RA, Richardson, DA, Steen, N, Bexton, RS, Shaw, FE, Bond, J. Carotid sinus syndrome: a modifiable risk factor for non-accidental falls in older adults (SAFE PACE). J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 38: 1491–96.
77Parry, SW, Kenny, RA. The management of vasovagal syncope. QJ Med 1999; 92: 697705.
78Davison, J, Bond, J, Dawson, P, Steen, IN, Kenny, RA. Patients with recurrent falls attending Accident & Emergency benefit from multifactorial intervention–a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 2005; 34: 162–68.
79Scott, V, Votova, K, Scanlan, A, Close, J. Multifactorial and functional mobility assessment tools for fall risk among older adults in community, home-support, long-term and acute-care settings. Age Ageing 2007; 36: 130–39.
80Mathias, S, Isaacs, B. Balance in elderly patients: the ‘get-up-and-go’ test. Arch Phys Med Rehab 1986; 67: 387–89.
81Tinetti, ME. Performance-oriented assessment of mobility problems in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986; 34: 119–26.
82Lord, SR, Clark, RD, Webster, IW. Physiological factors associated with falls in an elderly population. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991; 39: 1194–200.
83Glynn, RJ, Buring, JE. Ways of measuring rates of recurrent events. BMJ 1996; 312 (7027): 364–67.
84Cumming, RG, Kelsey, JL, Nevitt, MC. Methodologic issues in the study of frequent and recurrent health problems. Falls in the elderly. Ann Epidemiol 1990; 1: 4956.
85Campbell, AJ, Robertson, MC, Gardner, MM, Norton, RN, Tilyard, MW, Buchner, DM. Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home-based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. BMJ 1997; 315 (7115): 1065–69.
86Robertson, MC, Devlin, N, Gardner, MM, Campbell, AJ. Effectiveness and economic evaluation of a nurse-delivered home exercise programme to prevent falls. 1: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2001; 322 (7288): 697–79.
87Campbell, AJ, Robertson, MC, La Grow, SJ et al. Randomised controlled trial of prevention of falls in people aged > or =75 with severe visual impairment: the VIP trial. BMJ 2005; 331 (7520): 817.
88Chang, JT, Morton, SC, Rubenstein, LZ et al. Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. BMJ 2004; 328 (7441): 680.
89Reinsch, S, MacRae, P, Lachenbruch, PA, Tobis, JS. Attempts to prevent falls and injury: a prospective community study. Gerontologist 1992; 32: 450–56.
90Lord, SR, Ward, JA, Williams, P, Strudwick, M. The effect of a 12-month exercise trial on balance, strength, and falls in older women: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 43: 1198–206.
91McMurdo, ME, Johnstone, R. A randomized controlled trial of a home exercise programme for elderly people with poor mobility. Age Ageing 1995; 24: 425–28.
92Cornillon, E, Blanchon, MA, Ramboatsisetraina, P et al. Effectiveness of falls-prevention strategies for elderly subjects who live in the community with performance assessment of physical activities (before-after). Ann Readapt Med Phys 2002; 45: 493504.
93Gillespie, LD, Gillespie, WJ, Robertson, MC, Lamb, SE, Cumming, RG, Rowe, BH. Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003;(4): Art. No. CD000340. 10.1002/14651858.
94Skelton, D, Dinan, S, Campbell, M, Rutherford, O. Tailored group exercise (Falls Management Exercise – ME) reduces falls in community-dwelling older frequent fallers (an RCT). Age Ageing 2005; 34: 636–39.
95Wolf, SL, Barnhart, HX, Kutner, NG, McNeely, E, Coogler, C, Xu, T. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of Tai Chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 489–97.
96Li, F, Harmer, P, Fisher, KJ et al. Tai Chi and fall reductions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005; 60: 187–94.
97Voukelatos, A, Cumming, RG, Lord, SR, Rissel, C. A randomized, controlled trial of tai chi for the prevention of falls: the Central Sydney tai chi trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 1185–91.
98Woo, J, Hong, A, Lau, E, Lynn, H. A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength and balance in community-living elderly people. Age Ageing 2007; 36: 262–68.
99Wolf, SL, Sattin, RW, Kutner, M, O'Grady, M, Greenspan, AI, Gregor, RJ. Intense tai chi exercise training and fall occurrences in older, transitionally frail adults: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 1693–701.
100Wu, G. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Tai Chi for improving balance and preventing falls in the older population–a review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 507: 4654.
101Lamb, S, Gates, S, Fisher, J et al. Scoping Exercise on Fallers’ Clinics: Report to the National Co-ordinating Centre for NHS Service Delivery and Organisation. The University of Warwick. 2007.
102Harwood, RH, Foss, AJ, Osborn, F, Gregson, RM, Zaman, A, Masud, T. Falls and health status in elderly women following first eye cataract surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2005; 89: 5359.
103McGwin, GJ, Gewant, HD, Modjarrad, K, Hall, TA, Owsley, C. Effect of cataract surgery on falls and mobility in independently living older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006; 54: 1089–94.
104Day, L, Fildes, B, Gordon, I, Fitzharris, M, Flamer, H, Lord, S. Randomised factorial trial of falls prevention among older people living in their own homes. BMJ 2002; 325 (7356): 128.
105Cumming, RG, Thomas, M, Szonyi, G et al. Home visits by an occupational therapist for assessment and modification of environmental hazards: a randomized trial of falls prevention. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 1397–402.
106Stevens, M, Holman, CD, Bennett, N, de Klerk, N. Preventing falls in older people: outcome evaluation of a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 1448–55.
107Close, J, Ellis, M, Hooper, R, Glucksman, E, Jackson, S, Swift, C. Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999; 353 (9147): 9397.
108Cumming, RG, Thomas, M, Szonyi, G, Frampton, G, Salkeld, G, Clemson, L. Adherence to occupational therapist recommendations for home modifications for falls prevention. Am J Occup Ther 2001; 55: 641–48.
109Campbell, AJ, Robertson, MC, Gardner, MM, Norton, RN, Buchner, DM. Psychotropic medication withdrawal and a home-based exercise program to prevent falls: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 850–53.
110van der Velde, N, Stricker, BHC, Pols, HAP, van der Cammen, TJM. Risk of falls after withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs: a prospective cohort study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007; 63: 232–37.
111Stein, MS, Wark, JD, Scherer, SC et al. Falls relate to vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in an Australian nursing home and hostel. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999; 47: 1195–201.
112Bischoff, HA, Stahelin, HB, Dick, W et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 2003; 18: 343–51.
113Dhesi, JK, Jackson, SH, Bearne, LM et al. Vitamin D supplementation improves neuromuscular function in older people who fall. Age Ageing 2004; 33: 589–95.
114Latham, NK, Anderson, CS, Reid, IR. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on strength, physical performance, and falls in older persons: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2003; 51: 1219–26.
115Chapuy, MC, Arlot, ME, Duboeuf, F et al. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 1637–42.
116Lyons, RA, Johansen, A, Brophy, S et al. Preventing fractures among older people living in institutional care: a pragmatic randomised double- blind placebo controlled trial of vitamin D supple-mentation. Osteoporos Int 2007; 18: 811–18.
117Law, M, Withers, H, Morris, J, Anderson, F. Vitamin D supplementation and the prevention of fractures and falls: results of a randomised trial in elderly people in residential accommodation. Age Ageing 2006; 35: 482–86.
118Parker, MJ, Gillespie, WJ, Gillespie, LD. Effectiveness of hip protectors for preventing hip fractures in elderly people: systematic review. BMJ 2006; 332 (7541): 571–74.
119Lightbody, E, Watkins, C, Leathley, M, Sharma, A, Lye, M. Evaluation of a nurse-led falls prevention programme versus usual care: a randomized controlled trial. Age Ageing 2002; 31: 203–10.
120Kingston, P, Jones, M, Lally, F, Crome, P. Older people and falls: a randomized controlled trial of a health visitor (HV) intervention. Rev Clin Gerontol 2001; 11: 209–14.
121Mahoney, JE, Shea, TA, Przybelski, R et al. Kenosha County falls prevention study: a randomized, controlled trial of an intermediate-intensity, community-based multifactorial falls intervention. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55: 489–98.
122van Haastregt, JCM, Diederiks, JPM, van Rossum, E, de Witte, LP, Voorhoeve, PM, Crebolder, HFJM. Effects of a programme of multifactorial home visits on falls and mobility impairments in elderly people at risk: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2000; 321 (7267): 994–98.
123Gates, S, Fisher, JD, Cooke, MW, Carter, YH, Lamb, SE. Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention for preventing falls and injuries among older people in community and emergency-care settings: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2008; 336 (7636):130–33.
124Robbins, AS, Rubenstein, LZ. Postural hypotension in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984; 32: 769–74.
125Caine, SE, Alsop, K, MacMahon, M. Overlooking orthostatic hypotension with routine blood-pressure equipment. Lancet 1998; 352 (9126): 458
126National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Bisphosphonates (alendronate, etidronate, risedronate), selective oestrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene) and parathyroid hormone (teriparatide) for the secondary prevention of osteoporotic fragility fractures in postmenopausal women. London. 2005; Technology Appraisal Guidance 87.
127Royal College of Physicians of London and Bone & Tooth Society of Great Britain. Royal College of Physicians ed. Osteoporosis: Clinical guidelines for prevention and treatment. London. 2000.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


  • John Davison (a1) (a2) and Sarah Marrinan (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.