2Strindhall, J, Nilsson, BO, Löfgren, S, Ernerudh, J, Pawelec, G, Johansson, B, Wikby, A. No immune risk profile among individuals who reach 100 years of age: findings from the Swedish NONA immune longitudinal study. Exp Gerontol 2007; 42: 753–61.
3Li Jeon, N, Baskaran, H, Dertinger, SK, Whitesides, GM, Van de Water, L, Toner, M. Neutrophil chemotaxis in linear and complex gradients of interleukin-8 formed in a microfabricated device. Nat Biotechnol 2002; 20: 826–30.
4Sun, WY, Pitson, SM, Bonder, CS. Tumor necrosis factor-induced neutrophil adhesion occurs via sphingosine kinase-1-dependent activation of endothelial α5β1 integrin. Am J Pathol 2010; 177: 436–46.
5Semerad, CL, Liu, F, Gregory, AD, Stumpf, K, Link, DC. G-CSF is an essential regulator of neutrophil trafficking from the bone marrow to the blood. Immunity 2002; 17: 413–23.
6Chelvarajan, RL, Liu, Y, Popa, D, Getchell, ML, Getchell, TV, Stromberg, AJ, Bondada, S. Molecular basis of age associated cytokine dysregulation in LPS stimulated macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 2006; 79: 1314–27.
7Sebastián, C, Herrero, C, Serra, M, Lloberas, J, Blasco, MA, Celada, A. Telomere shortening and oxidative stress in aged macrophages results in impaired STAT5a phosphorylation. J Immunol 2009; 183: 2356–64.
8van Duin, D, Allore, HG, Mohanty, S, Ginter, S, Newman, FK, Belshe, RB, Medzhitov, R, Shaw, AC. Prevaccine determination of the expression of costimulatory B7 molecules in activated monocytes predicts influenza vaccine responses in young and older adults. J Infect Dis 2007; 195: 1590–97.
9Dale, DC, Boxer, L, Liles, WC. The phagocytes: neutrophils and monocytes. Blood 2008; 112: 935–45.
10Kobayashi, SD, Voyich, JM, Whitney, AR, DeLeo, FR. Spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis and regulation of cell survival by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. J Leukoc Biol 2005; 78: 1408–18.
11Singh, A, Zarember, KA, Kuhns, DB, Gallin, JI. Impaired priming and activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase in patients with IRAK4 or NEMO deficiency. J Immunol 2009; 182: 6410–17.
12Jin, T, Xu, X, Fang, J, Isik, N, Yan, J, Brzostowski, JA, Hereld, D. How human leukocytes track down and destroy pathogens: lessons learned from the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. Immunol Res 2009; 43: 118–27.
13Weisel, KC, Bautz, F, Seitz, G, Yildirim, S, Kanz, L, Möhle, R. Modulation of CXC chemokine receptor expression and function in human neutrophils during aging in vitro suggests a role in their clearance from circulation. Mediators Inflamm 2009; 2009: 790174.
14Fortin, CF, Larbi, A, Dupuis, G, Lesur, O, Fülöp, T Jr. GM-CSF activates the Jak/STAT pathway to rescue polymorphonuclear neutrophils from spontaneous apoptosis in young but not elderly individuals. A: Biogerontology 2007; 8: 173–87.
15Tortorella, C, Simone, O, Piazzolla, G, Stella, I, Cappiello, V, Antonaci, S. Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways in granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor failure to delay fas-induced neutrophil apoptosis in elderly humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2006; 61: 1111–18.
16Fortin, CF, Larbi, A, Lesur, O, Douziech, N, Fulop, T Jr. Impairment of SHP-1 down-regulation in the lipid rafts of human neutrophils under GM-CSF stimulation contributes to their age-related, altered functions. J Leukoc Biol 2006; 79: 1061–72.
17Fortin, CF, Lesur, O, Fulop, T Jr.Effects of aging on triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1-induced PMN functions. B: FEBS Lett 2007; 581: 1173–78.
18Rosenstiel, P, Derer, S, Till, A, Häsler, R, Eberstein, H, Bewig, B, Nikolaus, S, Nebel, A, Schreiber, S. Systematic expression profiling of innate immune genes defines a complex pattern of immunosenescence in peripheral and intestinal leukocytes. Genes Immun 2008; 9: 103–14.
19Butcher, SK, Chahal, H, Nayak, L, Sinclair, A, Henriquez, NV, Sapey, E, O'Mahony, D, Lord, JM. Senescence in innate immune responses: reduced neutrophil phagocytic capacity and CD16 expression in elderly humans. J Leukoc Biol 2001; 70: 881–86.
20Panda, A, Qian, F, Mohanty, S, van Duin, D, Newman, FK, Zhang, L, Chen, S, Towle, V, Belshe, RB, Fikrig, E, Allore, HG, Montgomery, RR, Shaw, AC. Age-associated decrease in TLR function in primary human dendritic cells predicts influenza vaccine response. J Immunol 2010; 184: 2518–27.
21Della Bella, S, Bierti, L, Presicce, P, Arienti, R, Valenti, M, Saresella, M, Vergani, C, Villa, ML. Peripheral blood dendritic cells and monocytes are differently regulated in the elderly. Clin Immunol 2007; 122: 220–28.
22Canaday, DH, Amponsah, NA, Ramachandra, L. The Geriatric adults have a significant defect in interferon-alpha production in response to influenza. J Immunol 2009; 182: 133.50.
23Grolleau-Julius, A, Harning, EK, Abernathy, LM, Yung, RL. Impaired dendritic cell function in aging leads to defective antitumor immunity. Cancer Res 2008; 68: 6341–49.
24Lazuardi, L, Jenewein, B, Wolf, AM, Pfister, G, Tzankov, A, Grubeck-Loebenstein, B. Age-related loss of naïve T cells and dysregulation of T cell/B cell interactions in human lymph nodes. Immunology 2005; 114: 37–43.
25Banerjee, M, Mehr, R, Belelovsky, A, Spencer, J, Dunn-Walters, DK. Age- and tissue-specific differences in human germinal center B cell selection revealed by analysis of IgVH gene hypermutation and lineage trees. Eur J Immunol 2002; 32: 1947–57.
26Banerjee, M, Sanderson, JD, Spencer, J, Dunn-Walters, DK. Immunohistochemical analysis of ageing human B and T cell populations reveals an age-related decline of CD8 T cells in spleen but not gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Mech Ageing Dev 2000; 115: 85–99.
27Rossi, DJ, Bryder, D, Seita, J, Nussenzweig, A, Hoeijmakers, J, Weissman, IL. Deficiencies in DNA damage repair limit the function of haematopoietic stem cells with age. Nature 2007; 447: 725–29.
28Rossi, DJ, Bryder, D, Zahn, JM, Ahlenius, H, Sonu, R, Wagers, AJ, Weissman, IL. Cell intrinsic alterations underlie hematopoietic stem cell aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 9194–99.
29Nijnik, A, Woodbine, L, Marchetti, C et al. DNA repair is limiting for haematopoietic stem cells during ageing. Clin Immunol 2008; 127: 107–18.
30Song, Z, Wang, J, Guachalla, LM, Terszowski, G, Rodewald, HR, Ju, Z, Rudolph, KL. Alterations of the systemic environment are the primary cause of impaired B and T lymphopoiesis in telomere-dysfunctional mice. Blood 2010; 115: 1481–89.
31Mazzoccoli, G, De Cata, A, Carughi, S, Greco, A, Inglese, M, Perfetto, F, Tarquini, R. A possible mechanism for altered immune response in the elderly. In Vivo 2010; 24: 471–87.
32Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, M, Lee, WW, Cui, D, Hiruma, Y, Lamar, DL, Yang, ZZ, Ouslander, JG, Weyand, CM, Goronzy, JJ. T cell subset-specific susceptibility to aging. Clin Immunol 2008; 127: 107–18.
33Naylor, K, Li, G, Vallejo, AN, Lee, WW, Koetz, K, Bryl, E, Witkowski, J, Fulbright, J, Weyand, CM, Goronzy, JJ. The influence of age on T cell generation and TCR diversity. J Immunol 2005; 174: 7446–52.
34Haynes, L, Eaton, SM. The effect of age on the cognate function of CD4+ T cells. Immunol Rev 2005; 205: 220–28.
35Jiang, J, Bennett, AJ, Fisher, E, Williams-Bey, Y, Shen, H, Murasko, DM. Limited expansion of virus-specific CD8 T cells in the aged environment. Mech Ageing Dev 2009; 130: 713–21.
36Ahmed, M, Lanzer, KG, Yager, EJ, Adams, PS, Johnson, LL, Blackman, MA. Clonal expansions and loss of receptor diversity in the naive CD8 T cell repertoire of aged mice. J Immunol 2009; 182: 784–92.
37McElhaney, JE, Ewen, C, Zhou, X, Kane, KP, Xie, D, Hager, WD, Barry, MB, Kleppinger, A, Wang, Y, Bleackley, RC. Granzyme B: Correlates with protection and enhanced CTL response to influenza vaccination in older adults. Vaccine 2009; 27: 2418–25.
38Kuhn, A, Beissert, S, Krammer, PH. CD4(+)CD25 (+) regulatory T cells in human lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol Res 2009; 301: 71–81.
39Lages, CS, Suffia, I, Velilla, PA, Huang, B, Warshaw, G, Hildeman, DA, Belkaid, Y, Chougnet, C. Functional regulatory T cells accumulate in aged hosts and promote chronic infectious disease reactivation. J Immunol 2008; 181: 1835–48.
40Listì, F, Candore, G, Modica, MA, Russo, M, Di Lorenzo, G, Esposito-Pellitteri, M, Colonna-Romano, G, Aquino, A, Bulati, M, Lio, D, Franceschi, C, Caruso, C. A study of serum immunoglobulin levels in elderly persons that provides new insights into B cell immunosenescence. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006; 1089: 487–95.
41Lescale, C, Dias, S, Maës, J, Cumano, A, Szabo, P, Charron, D, Weksler, ME, Dosquet, C, Vieira, P, Goodhardt, M. Reduced EBF expression underlies loss of B-cell potential of hematopoietic progenitors with age. Aging Cell 2010; 9: 410–19.
42Gibson, KL, Wu, YC, Barnett, Y, Duggan, O, Vaughan, R, Kondeatis, E, Nilsson, BO, Wikby, A, Kipling, D, Dunn-Walters, DK. B-cell diversity decreases in old age and is correlated with poor health status. Aging Cell 2009; 8: 18–25.
43Flad, HD, Brandt, E. Platelet-derived chemokines: pathophysiology and therapeutic aspects. Cell Mol Life Sci 2010; 67: 2363–86.
44Sprague, AH, Khalil, RA. Inflammatory cytokines in vascular dysfunction and vascular disease. Biochem Pharmacol 2009; 78: 539–52.
45Larbi, A, Franceschi, C, Mazzatti, D, Solana, R, Wikby, A, Pawelec, G. Aging of the immune system as a prognostic factor for human longevity. Physiology (Bethesda) 2008; 23: 64–74.
46McNerlan, SE, Armstrong, M, Ross, OA, Rea, IM. Cytokine expression and production changes in very old age. In Handbook on Immunosenescence, Fulop, T. et al. . (eds), 2009; pp. 771–779. Springer.
47McNerlan, SE, Rea, IM, Alexander, HD. A whole blood method for measurement of intracellular TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-2 expression in stimulated CD3+ lymphocytes: differences between young and elderly subjects. Exp Gerontol 2002; 37: 227–34.
48Rea, IM, McNerlan, SE, Alexander, HD. CD69, CD25, and HLA-DR activation antigen expression on CD3+ lymphocytes and relationship to serum TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and sIL-2R levels in aging. Exp Gerontol 1999; 34: 79–93.
49Rea, IM, McNerlan, SE, Alexander, HD. Total serum IL-12 and IL-12p40, but not IL-12p70, are increased in the serum of older subjects; relationship to CD3(+) and NK subsets. Cytokine 2000; 12: 156–59.
50Zhu, S, Patel, KV, Bandinelli, S, Ferrucci, L, Guralnik, JM. Predictors of interleukin-6 elevation in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009; 57: 1672–77.
51Hurme, M, Lehtimäki, T, Jylhä, M, Karhunen, PJ, Hervonen, A. Interleukin-6-174G/C polymorphism and longevity: a follow-up study. Mech Ageing Dev 2005; 126: 417–18.
52Alvarez, V, Mata, IF, González, P, Lahoz, CH, Martínez, C, Peña, J, Guisasola, LM, Coto, E. Association between the TNFalpha-308 A/G polymorphism and the onset-age of Alzheimer disease. Am J Med Genet 2002; 114: 574–77.
53Bruunsgaard, H, Skinhøj, P, Pedersen, AN, Schroll, M, Pedersen, BK. Ageing, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and atherosclerosis. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 121: 255–60.
54Forsey, RJ, Thompson, JM, Ernerudh, J, Hurst, TL, Strindhall, J, Johansson, B, Nilsson, BO, Wikby, A. Plasma cytokine profiles in elderly humans. Mech Ageing Dev 2003; 124: 487–93.
55Wikby, A, Nilsson, BO, Forsey, R, Thompson, J, Strindhall, J, Löfgren, S, Ernerudh, J, Pawelec, G, Ferguson, F, Johansson, B. The immune risk phenotype is associated with IL-6 in the terminal decline stage: Findings from the Swedish NONA immune longitudinal study of very late life functioning. Mech Ageing Dev 2006; 127: 695–704.
56Johansen, JS, Pedersen, AN, Schroll, M, Jørgensen, T, Pedersen, BK, Bruunsgaard, H. High serum YKL-40 level in a cohort of octogenarians is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Clin Exp Immunol 2008; 151: 260–66.
57Borlon, C, Weemaels, G, Godard, P, Debacq-Chainiaux, F, Lemaire, P, Deroanne, C, Toussaint, O. Expression profiling of senescent-associated genes in human dermis from young and old donors. Proof-of-concept study. Biogerontology 2008; 9: 197–208.
58Huang, MC, Liao, JJ, Bonasera, S, Longo, DL, Goetzl, EJ. Nuclear factor-κB-dependent reversal of aging-induced alterations in T cell cytokines. FASEB J 2008; 22: 2142–50.
59Rappl, G, Schmidt, A, Mauch, C, Hombach, AA, Abken, H. Extensive amplification of human regulatory T cells alters their functional capacities and targets them to the periphery. Rejuvenation Res 2008; 11: 915–33.
60Lim, SC, Doshi, V, Castasus, B, Lim, JK, Mamun, K. Factors causing delay in discharge of elderly patients in an acute care hospital. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2006; 35: 27–32.
61Girard, TD, Ely, EW. Bacteremia and sepsis in older adults. Clin Geriatr Med 2007; 23: 633–47.
62Caterino, JM. Evaluation and management of geriatric infections in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2008; 26: 319–43.
63Tal, S, Guller, V, Gurevich, A. Fever of unknown origin in older adults. Clin Geriatr Med 2007; 23: 649–68.
64Samaras, N, Chevalley, T, Samaras, D, Gold, G. Older patients in the emergency department: a review. Ann Emerg Med 2010; 56: 261–69.
65Trotter, CL, Stuart, JM, George, R, Miller, E. Increasing hospital admissions for pneumonia, England. Emerg Infect Dis 2008; 14: 727–33.
66Lim, WS, Baudouin, SV, George, RC, Hill, AT, Jamieson, C, Le Jeune, I, Macfarlane, JT, Read, RC, Roberts, HJ, Levy, ML, Wani, M, Woodhead, MA; Pneumonia Guidelines Committee of the BTS Standards of Care Committee. BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009. Pneumonia Guidelines Committee of the BTS Standards of Care Committee. Thorax 2009; 64 suppl 3: iii1–55.
67Lim, WS, Van Der Eerden, MM, Laing, R, Boersma, WG, Karalus, N, Town, GI, Lewis, SA, Macfarlane, JT. Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study. Thorax 2003; 58: 377–82.
68Teramoto, S, Yamamoto, H, Yamaguchi, Y, Hanaoka, Y, Ishii, M, Hibi, S, Kume, H, Ouchi, Y. Lower respiratory tract infection outcomes are predicted better by an age >80 years than by CURB-65. Eur Respir J 2008; 31: 477–78.
69Parsonage, M, Nathwani, D, Davey, P, Barlow, G. Evaluation of the performance of CURB-65 with increasing age. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15: 858–64.
70Ducharme, J, Neilson, S, Ginn, JL. Can urine cultures and reagent test strips be used to diagnose urinary tract infection in elderly emergency department patients without focal urinary symptoms? CJEM 2007; 9: 87–92.
71Arinzon, Z, Peisakh, A, Shuval, I, Shabat, S, Berner, YN. Detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in long-term care setting: Is the multireagent strip an adequate diagnostic tool? Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2009; 48: 227–31.
72Eriksson, I, Gustafson, Y, Fagerström, L, Olofsson, B. Urinary tract infection in very old women is associated with delirium. Int Psychogeriatr 2010; Aug 18: 1–7 [Epub ahead of print].
73Rhoads, J, Clayman, A, Nelson, S. The relationship of urinary tract infections and falls in a nursing home. Director 2007; 15: 22–26.
74Kamel, HK. The frequency and factors linked to a urinary tract infection coding in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2005; 6: 316–20.
75Gopal Rao, G, Patel, M. Urinary tract infection in hospitalized elderly patients in the United Kingdom: the importance of making an accurate diagnosis in the post broad-spectrum antibiotic era. J Antimicrob Chemother 2009; 63: 5–6.
76Stowe, RP, Kozlova, EV, Yetman, DL, Walling, DM, Goodwin, JS, Glaser, R. Chronic herpes virus reactivation occurs in aging. Exp Gerontol 2007; 42: 563–70.
77de la Hoz, RE, Stephens, G, Sherlock, C. Diagnosis and treatment approaches of CMV infections in adult patients. J Clin Virol 2002; 25 suppl 2: S1–12.
78Staras, SA, Dollard, SC, Radford, KW, Flanders, WD, Pass, RF, Cannon, MJ. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in the United States, 1988–1994. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: 1143–51.
79Schwanninger, A, Weinberger, B, Weiskopf, D, Herndler-Brandstetter, D, Reitinger, S, Gassner, C, Schennach, H, Parson, W, Würzner, R, Grubeck-Loebenstein, B. Age-related appearance of a CMV-specific high-avidity CD8+ T cell clonotype which does not occur in young adults. Immun Ageing 2008; 5: 14.
80Brunner, S, Herndler-Brandstetter, D, Weinberger, B, Grubeck-Loebenstein, B. Persistent viral infections and immune aging. Ageing Res Rev 2010; Aug 19 [Epub ahead of print].
81Naeger, DM, Martin, JN, Sinclair, E, Hunt, PW, Bangsberg, DR, Hecht, F, Hsue, P, McCune, JM, Deeks, SG. Cytomegalovirus-specific T cells persist at very high levels during long-term antiretroviral treatment of HIV disease. PLoS One 2010; 5: e8886.
83Mothe, B, Perez, I, Domingo, P, Podzamczer, D, Ribera, E, Curran, A, Viladés, C, Vidal, F, Dalmau, D, Pedrol, E, Negredo, E, Moltó, J, Paredes, R, Perez-Alvarez, N, Gatell, JM, Clotet, B. HIV-1 infection in subjects older than 70: a multicenter cross-sectional assessment in Catalonia. Spain Curr HIV Res 2009; 7: 597–600.
84Ruiz, M, Cefalu, C, Ogbuokiri, J. A dedicated screening program for geriatric HIV-infected patients integrating HIV and geriatric care. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic III) 2010; 9: 157–61.
85Goulet, JL, Fultz, SL, Rimland, D, Butt, A, Gibert, C, Rodriguez-Barradas, M, Bryant, K, Justice, AC. Aging and infectious diseases: do patterns of comorbidity vary by HIV status, age, and HIV severity? Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 1593–601.
86Gardner, EM, Gonzalez, EW, Nogusa, S, Murasko, DM. Age related changes in the immune response to influenza vaccination in a racially diverse, healthy elderly population. Vaccine 2006; 24: 1609–14.
87Michel, JP, Chidiac, C, Grubeck-Loebenstein, B, Johnson, RW, Lambert, PH, Maggi, S, Moulias, R, Nicholson, K, Werner, H. Advocating vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older in Western Europe: statement by the Joint Vaccine Working Group of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society and the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-European Region. Rejuvenation Res 2009; 12: 127–35.
88Goodwin, K, Viboud, C, Simonsen, L. Antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly: a quantitative review. Vaccine 2006; 24: 1159–69.
89Cagigi, A, Nilsson, A, Pensieroso, S, Chiodi, F. Dysfunctional B-cell responses during HIV-1 infection: implication for influenza vaccination and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet Infect Dis 2010; 10: 499–503.
90Weycker, D, Strutton, D, Edelsberg, J, Sato, R, Jackson, LA. Clinical and economic burden of pneumococcal disease in older US adults. Vaccine 2010; 28: 4955–60.
91Evers, SM, Ament, AJ, Colombo, GL, Konradsen, HB, Reinert, RR, Sauerland, D, Wittrup-Jensen, K, Loiseau, C, Fedson, DS. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in the elderly: an update for 10 Western European countries. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2007; 26: 531–40.
92Parsons, HK, Metcalf, SC, Tomlin, K, Read, RC, Dockrell, DH. Invasive pneumococcal disease and the potential for prevention by vaccination in the United Kingdom. J Infect 2007; 54: 435–38.
93Noakes, K, Pebody, RG, Gungabissoon, U, Stowe, J, Miller, E. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine uptake in England, 1989–2003, prior to the introduction of a vaccination programme for older adults. J Public Health (Oxf) 2006; 28: 242–47.
94Jardine, A, Menzies, RI, McIntyre, PB. Reduction in hospitalizations for pneumonia associated with the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccination schedule without a booster dose in Australia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010; 29: 607–12.
95Schenkein, JG, Park, S, Nahm, MH. Pneumococcal vaccination in older adults induces antibodies with low opsonic capacity and reduced antibody potency. Vaccine 2008; 26: 5521–26.
96Ongrádi, J, Kövesdi, V. Factors that may impact on immunosenescence: an appraisal. Immun Ageing 2010; 7: 7.
97Freeman, SL, Fisher, L, German, JB, Leung, PS, Prince, H, Selmi, C, Naguwa, SM, Gershwin, ME. Dairy proteins and the response to pneumovax in senior citizens: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Ann NY Acad Sci 2010; 1190: 97–103.
98Woods, JA, Keylock, KT, Lowder, T, Vieira, VJ, Zelkovich, W, Dumich, S, Colantuano, K, Lyons, K, Leifheit, K, Cook, M, Chapman-Novakofski, K, McAuley, E. Cardiovascular exercise training extends influenza vaccine seroprotection in sedentary older adults: the immune function intervention trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009; 57: 2183–91.
99Yang, Y, Verkuilen, J, Rosengren, KS, Mariani, RA, Reed, M, Grubisich, SA, Woods, JA. Effects of a Taiji and Qigong intervention on the antibody response to influenza vaccine in older adults. Am J Chin Med 2007; 35: 597–607.
100Edwards, KM, Campbell, JP, Ring, C, Drayson, MT, Bosch, JA, Downes, C, Long, JE, Lumb, JA, Merry, A, Paine, NJ, Burns, VE. Exercise intensity does not influence the efficacy of eccentric exercise as a behavioural adjuvant to vaccination. Brain Behav Immun 2010; 24: 623–30.
101Phillips, AC, Carroll, D, Burns, VE, Drayson, M. Cardiovascular activity and the antibody response to vaccination. J Psychosom Res 2009; 67: 37–43.
102Hasler, P, Zouali, M. Immune receptor signalling, aging, and autoimmunity. Cell Immunol 2005; 233: 102–8.
103Thewissen, M, Somers, V, Venken, K, Linsen, L, van Paassen, P, Geusens, P, Damoiseaux, J, Stinissen, P. Analyses of immunosenescent markers in patients with autoimmune disease. Clin Immunol 2007; 123: 209–18.
104Agrawal, A, Tay, J, Ton, S, Agrawal, S, Gupta, S. Increased reactivity of dendritic cells from aged subjects to self-antigen, the human DNA. J Immunol 2009; 182: 1138–45.
105Andersen-Ranberg, K, HØier-Madsen, M, Wiik, A, Jeune, B, Hegedus, L. High prevalence of autoantibodies among Danish centenarians. Clin Exp Immunol 2004; 138: 158–63.
106Rodríguez-Bayona, B, Ramos-Amaya, A, Pérez-Venegas, JJ, Rodríguez, C, Brieva, JA. Decreased frequency and activated phenotype of blood CD27 IgD IgM B lymphocytes is a permanent abnormality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Arthritis Res Ther 2010; 12: R108.
107Jacobi, AM, Reiter, K, Mackay, M, Aranow, C, Hiepe, F, Radbruch, A, Hansen, A, Burmester, GR, Diamond, B, Lipsky, PE, Dörner, T. Activated memory B cell subsets correlate with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: delineation by expression of CD27, IgD, and CD95. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58: 1762–73.
108Corcione, A, Ferlito, F, Gattorno, M, Gregorio, A, Pistorio, A, Gastaldi, R, Gambini, C, Martini, A, Traggiai, E, Pistoia, V. Phenotypic and functional characterization of switch memory B cells from patients with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2009; 11: R150.
109Colonna-Romano, G, Bulati, M, Aquino, A, Pellicanò, M, Vitello, S, Lio, D, Candore, G, Caruso, C. A double-negative (IgD-CD27-) B cell population is increased in the peripheral blood of elderly people. Mech Ageing Dev 2009; 130: 681–90.
110Pal, SK, Katheria, V, Hurria, A. Evaluating the older patient with cancer: understanding frailty and the geriatric assessment. CA: Cancer J Clin 2010; 60: 120–32.
111Fulop, T, Kotb, R, Fortin, CF, Pawelec, G, de Angelis, F, Larbi, A. Potential role of immunosenescence in cancer development. Ann NY Acad Sci 2010; 1197: 158–65.
112Smyth, MJ, Dunn, GP, Schreiber, RD. Cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting: the roles of immunity in suppressing tumor development and shaping tumor immunogenicity. Adv Immunol 2006; 90: 1–50.
113Pawelec, G, Derhovanessian, E, Larbi, A. Immunosenescence and cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2010; 75: 165–72.
114Buell, JF, Gross, TG, Woodle, ES. Malignancy after transplantation. Transplantation 2005; 80 (2 suppl): S254–64.
115Monforte, A, Abrams, D, Pradier, C, Weber, R, Reiss, P, Bonnet, F, Kirk, O, Law, M, De Wit, S, Friis-Møller, N, Phillips, AN, Sabin, CA, Lundgren, JD; Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study Group. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study Group. AIDS 2008; 22: 2143–53.
116Notarangelo, LD. PIDs and cancer: an evolving story. Blood 2010; 116: 1189–90.
117Ferrando-Martínez, S, Ruiz-Mateos, E, Hernández, A, Gutiérrez, E, Rodríguez-Méndez, MD, Ordoñez, A, Leal, M. Age-related deregulation of naive T cell homeostasis in elderly humans. Age (Dordr) 2010; Aug 11 [Epub ahead of print].
118Mocchegiani, E, Malavolta, M. NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence. Aging Cell 2004; 3: 177–84.
119Effros, RB, Cai, Z, Linton, PJ. CD8 T cells and aging. Crit Rev Immunol 2003; 23: 45–64.
120Trzonkowski, P, Szmit, E, Myśliwska, J, Myśliwski, A. CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells inhibit cytotoxic activity of CTL and NK cells in humans-impact of immunosenescence. Clin Immunol 2006; 119: 307–16.
121Wang, L, Pan, XD, Xie, Y, Zhang, GB, Jiang, M, Zheng, L, Wang, JH, Shi, JF, Zhang, XG. Altered CD28 and CD95 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elderly patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer. Chin Med J 2010; 123: 51–56.
122Sharma, S, Dominguez, AL, Hoelzinger, DB, Lustgarten, J. CpG-ODN but not other TLR-ligands restore the antitumor responses in old mice: the implications for vaccinations in the aged. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2008; 57: 549–61.
123Okazaki, T, Ebihara, S, Asada, M, Kanda, A, Sasaki, H, Yamaya, M. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor promotes tumor angiogenesis via increasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells and Gr1+CD11b+ cells in cancer animal models. Int Immunol 2006; 18: 1–9.
124Hao, JS, Shan, BE. Immune enhancement and anti-tumour activity of IL-23. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2006; 55: 1426–31.
125Knüpfer, H, Preiss, R. Serum interleukin-6 levels in colorectal cancer patients – a summary of published results. Int J Colorectal Dis 2010; 25: 135–40.
126Maitland, NJ, Collins, AT. Inflammation as the primary aetiological agent of human prostate cancer: a stem cell connection? J Cell Biochem 2008; 105: 931–39.
127Sportès, C, Babb, RR, Krumlauf, MC, Hakim, FT, Steinberg, SM, Chow, CK, Brown, MR, Fleisher, TA, Noel, P, Maric, I, Stetler-Stevenson, M, Engel, J, Buffet, R, Morre, M, Amato, RJ, Pecora, A, Mackall, CL, Gress, RE. Phase I study of recombinant human interleukin-7 administration in subjects with refractory malignancy. Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16: 727–35.
128Amor, S, Puentes, F, Baker, D, Van Der Valk, P. Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Immunology 2010; 129: 154–69.
129Palop, JJ, Mucke, L. Amyloid-beta-induced neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: from synapses toward neural networks. Nat Neurosci 2010; 13: 812–18.
130Nimmerjahn, A, Kirchhoff, F, Helmchen, F. Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 2005; 308: 1314–18.
131Mandrekar, S, Jiang, Q, Lee, CY, Koenigsknecht-Talboo, J, Holtzman, DM, Landreth, GE. Microglia mediate the clearance of soluble Aβ through fluid phase macropinocytosis. J Neurosci 2009; 29: 4252–62.
132Yan, P, Hu, X, Song, H et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 degrades amyloid-beta fibrils in vitro and compact plaques in situ. J Biol Chem 2006; 281: 24566–74.
133Miners, JS, Baig, S, Tayler, H, Kehoe, PG, Love, S. Neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme levels are increased in Alzheimer disease in relation to disease severity. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2009; 68: 902–14.
134Bacher, M, Deuster, O, Aljabari, B, Egensperger, R, Neff, F, Jessen, F, Popp, J, Noelker, C, Reese, JP, Al-Abed, Y, Dodel, R. The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in Alzheimer's disease. Mol Med 2010; 16: 116–21.
135Parachikova, A, Agadjanyan, MG, Cribbs, DH, Blurton-Jones, M, Perreau, V, Rogers, J, Beach, TG, Cotman, CW. Inflammatory changes parallel the early stages of Alzheimer disease. Neurobiol Aging 2007; 28: 1821–33.
136Fuhrmann, M, Bittner, T, Jung, CK, Burgold, S, Page, RM, Mitteregger, G, Haass, C, LaFerla, FM, Kretzschmar, H, Herms, J. Microglial Cx3cr1 knockout prevents neuron loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Nat Neurosci 2010; 13: 411–13.
137Comi, C, Carecchio, M, Chiocchetti, A, Nicola, S, Galimberti, D, Fenoglio, C, Cappellano, G, Monaco, F, Scarpini, E, Dianzani, U. Osteopontin is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease and its levels correlate with cognitive decline. J Alzheimers Dis 2010; 19: 1143–48.
138Hickman, SE, Allison, EK, El Khoury, J. Microglial dysfunction and defective beta-amyloid clearance pathways in aging Alzheimer's disease mice. J Neurosci 2008; 28: 8354–60.
139Hindle, JV. Ageing, neurodegeneration and Parkinson's disease. Age Ageing 2010; 39: 156–61.
140De Lella Ezcurra, AL, Chertoff, M, Ferrari, C, Graciarena, M, Pitossi, F. Chronic expression of low levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the substantia nigra elicits progressive neurodegeneration, delayed motor symptoms and microglia/macrophage activation. Neurobiol Dis 2010; 37: 630–40.
141Wang, JY, Wen, LL, Huang, YN, Chen, YT, Ku, MC. Dual effects of antioxidants in neurodegeneration: direct neuroprotection against oxidative stress and indirect protection via suppression of glia-mediated inflammation. Curr Pharm Des 2006; 12: 3521–33.
142Yan, ZQ, Hansson, GK. Innate immunity, macrophage activation, and atherosclerosis. Immunol Rev 2007; 219: 187–203.
143Gautier, EL, Jakubzick, C, Randolph, GJ. Regulation of the migration and survival of monocyte subsets by chemokine receptors and its relevance to atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2009; 29: 1412–18.
144Otsui, K, Inoue, N, Kobayashi, S, Shiraki, R, Honjo, T, Takahashi, M, Hirata, K, Kawashima, S, Yokoyama, M. Enhanced expression of TLR4 in smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Heart Vessels 2007; 22: 416–22.
145Yang, X, Coriolan, D, Murthy, V, Schultz, K, Golenbock, DT, Beasley, D. Proinflammatory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells: role of efficient Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005; 289: H1069–76.
146Miller, YI, Choi, SH, Fang, L, Harkewicz, R. Trends Toll-like receptor-4 and lipoprotein accumulation in macrophages. Cardiovasc Med 2009; 19: 227–32.
147Paulson, KE, Zhu, SN, Chen, M, Nurmohamed, S, Jongstra-Bilen, J, Cybulsky, MI. Resident intimal dendritic cells accumulate lipid and contribute to the initiation of atherosclerosis. Circ Res 2010; 106: 383–90.
148Kikuchi, T, El Shikh, MM, El Sayed, RM, Purkall, DB, Elaasser, MM, Sarraf, A, Barbour, SE, Schenkein, HA, Tew, JG. Anti-phosphorylcholine-opsonized low-density lipoprotein promotes rapid production of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and natural killer cells. J Periodontal Res 2010; 45: 720–30.
149Bobryshev, YV. Dendritic cells and their role in atherogenesis. Lab Invest 2010; 90: 970–84.
150Hermansson, A, Ketelhuth, DF, Strodthoff, D, Wurm, M, Hansson, EM, Nicoletti, A, Paulsson-Berne, G, Hansson, GK. Inhibition of T cell response to native low-density lipoprotein reduces atherosclerosis. J Exp Med 2010; 207: 1081–93.
151Weng, NP, Akbar, AN, Goronzy, J. CD28(–) T cells: their role in the age-associated decline of immune function. Trends Immunol 2009; 30: 306–12.
152Liuzzo, G, Goronzy, JJ, Yang, H, Kopecky, SL, Holmes, DR, Frye, RL, Weyand, CM. Monoclonal T-cell proliferation and plaque instability in acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2000; 101: 2883–88.
153Gerli, R, Schillaci, G, Giordano, A, Bocci, EB, Bistoni, O, Vaudo, G, Marchesi, S, Pirro, M, Ragni, F, Shoenfeld, Y, Mannarino, E. CD4+CD28– T lymphocytes contribute to early atherosclerotic damage in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Circulation 2004; 109: 2744–48.
154Liuzzo, G, Biasucci, LM, Trotta, G, Brugaletta, S, Pinnelli, M, Digianuario, G, Rizzello, V, Rebuzzi, AG, Rumi, C, Maseri, A, Crea, F. Unusual CD4+CD28null T lymphocytes and recurrence of acute coronary events. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50: 1450–58.
155Simanek, AM, Dowd, JB, Aiello, AE. Persistent pathogens linking socioeconomic position and cardiovascular disease in the US. Int J Epidemiol 2009; 38: 775–87.
156Roberts, ET, Haan, MN, Dowd, JB, Aiello, AE. Cytomegalovirus antibody levels, inflammation, and mortality among elderly Latinos over 9 years of follow-up. Am J Epidemiol 2010; 172: 363–71.
157Listì, F, Caruso, M, Incalcaterra, E, Hoffmann, E, Caimi, G, Balistreri, CR, Vasto, S, Scafidi, V, Caruso, C, Candore, G. Pro-inflammatory gene variants in myocardial infarction and longevity: implications for pharmacogenomics. Curr Pharm Des 2008; 14: 2678–85.
158Elhage, R, Jawien, J, Rudling, M, Ljunggren, HG, Takeda, K, Akira, S, Bayard, F, Hansson, GK. Reduced atherosclerosis in interleukin-18 deficient apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Cardiovasc Res 2003; 59: 234–40.
159Brånén, L, Hovgaard, L, Nitulescu, M, Bengtsson, E, Nilsson, J, Jovinge, S. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24: 2137–42.