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Intervention and dreams of exogenous statebuilding: the application of Liberal Peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq

  • TOBY DODGE

Abstract

The central thesis of this article is that when faced with state collapse, rising violence, and a complex stabilisation effort, the US, UN, and NATO in Afghanistan and the US and Britain in Iraq, deployed the dominant, if not only, international approach available, Liberal Peacebuilding. The article traces the rise of Liberal Peacebuilding across the 1990s. It argues that four units of analysis within neoliberal ideology, the individual, the market, the role of the state and democracy, played a key role within Liberal Peacebuilding, allowing it to identify problems and propose solutions to stabilise post-conflict societies. It was these four units of analysis that were taken from the Liberal Peacebuilding approach and applied in Afghanistan and Iraq. The application of a universal template to two very different countries led directly to the fierce but weak states that exist today.

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2 See Condoleezza Rice, ‘Campaign 2000: Promoting the National Interest’, Foreign Affairs (January/February 2000).

3 Bush quoted at a National Security Council meeting on 15 October 2001, Woodward, Bush at War, p. 229.

4 On neo-conservative understandings of international relations and their relationship to neoliberalism see Dodge, Toby, ‘The ideological roots of failure; the application of kinetic neo-liberalism to Iraq’, International Affairs, 86:6 (November 2010), pp. 1273–6.

5 Paul Wolfowitz, Remarks delivered at the American Jewish Congress, Westin Fairfax Hotel, Washington DC (22 October, 2001), available at: {http://avalon.law.yale.edu/sept11/dod_brief96.asp}.

6 See The President's State of the Union Address, The United States Capitol Washington, DC (29 January 2002), available at: {http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/stateoftheunion/2002/}.

7 See Litwak, Robert S., ‘The New Calculus of Pre-emption’, Survival, 44:4 (Winter 2002–3); and The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (September 2002, available at: {http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.html}.

8 See Remarks by the President at 2002 Graduation Exercise of the United States Military Academy West Point, New York (1 June 2002), available at: {https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bush/westpoint.htm}; The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, Richard N. Haass, Director, Policy Planning Staff, ‘The 2002 Arthur Ross Lecture, Remarks to Foreign Policy Association New York, April 22, 2002’, available at: {http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/p/rem/9632.htm}; and Ikenberry, G. John, ‘America's Imperial Ambition’, Foreign Affairs (September/October 2002), p. 52.

9 Quoted by Leman, Nicholas, ‘After Iraq: The Plan to remake the Middle East’, The New Yorker (17 February 2003), available at: {http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2003/02/17/030217fa_fact}.

10 See Berdal, Mats and Zaum, Dominik, ‘Introduction’, in Berdal, Mats and Zaum, Dominik (eds), Power After Peace: the Political Economy of Post-Conflict State Building (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012).

11 Tansey, Oisín, ‘Debate: Reply and Response to Jahn's “Tragedy of Liberal Diplomacy”’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 2:1 (2008), p. 91.

12 Zaum, Dominik, ‘Review essay; beyond the “Liberal Peace”’, Global Governance, 18 (2011), p. 122.

13 See Susan L. Woodward, ‘The IFIs and post-conflict political economy’, in Mats Berdal and Dominik Zaum, ‘Introduction’, in Berdal and Zaum (eds), The Political Economy of State Building; Power after Peace, pp. 143–4.

14 See Berdal and Zaum, ‘Introduction’; Mastanduno, Michael, ‘Models, markets and power: political economy and the Asia-Pacific, 1989–1999’, Review of International Studies, 26:4 (2000), pp. 493507; and Williams, David, ‘Aid and sovereignty: quasi-states and the international financial institutions’, Review of International Studies, 26:4 (2000), pp. 557–73.

15 Newman, Edward, Paris, Roland, and Richmond, Oliver P., ‘Introduction’, in Newman, Edward, Paris, Roland, and Richmond, Oliver P. (eds), New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding (Tokyo: United Nations Press, 2009), pp. 510.

16 Richmond, Oliver P., The Transformation of Peace (Houndsmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007), p. 86.

17 See Bush, George and Scowcroft, Brent, A World Transformed (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), pp. 400, 490, 491.

18 Paris, Roland and Sisk, Timothy D., ‘Understanding the contradictions of postwar statebuilding’, in Paris, Roland and Sisk, Timothy D. (eds), The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations (Abingdon: Routledge, 2009), p. 1.

19 See Brown, Chris, ‘Selective humanitarianism: in defence of inconsistency’, in Chatterjee, Deen K. and Scheid, Don E. (eds), Ethics and Foreign Intervention (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 32.

20 See Annan, Kofi with Mousavizadeh, Nader, Interventions; a Life of War and Peace (London: Allen Lane, 2012), pp. 95, 357–8.

21 Bellamy tracks this process from the intervention in Bosnia, through Somalia to Haiti. He sees Kosovo as a watershed moment because Russia and China who, up to this moment, had allowed Security Council resolutions to pass refused in this instance. See Bellamy, Alex, ‘Responsibility to protect or Trojan horse? The crisis in Darfur and humanitarian intervention after Iraq’, Ethics & International Affairs, 19:2 (2005), p. 34.

22 Annan, Interventions, pp. 84, 90, 97, 116.

23 Richmond, The Transformation of Peace, p. 86.

24 Menkhaus, Ken, ‘State failure and ungoverned space’, in Berdal, Mats and Wennmann, Achim (eds), Ending Wars, Consolidating Peace; Economic Perspectives (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010), p. 175.

25 See Annan, Interventions, pp. ix and 84, Weiss, Thomas G., Humanitarian Intervention (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2012), pp. 66110; Scholte, Jan Aart, Globalization: a Critical Introduction (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000); and Kaldor, Mary, New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999).

26 Richmond, The Transformation of Peace, p. 14.

27 George, Alexander L., ‘The “Operational Code”: a Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-Making’, International Studies Quarterly, 13:2 (June 1969), p. 200.

28 Rosati, Jerel A., ‘The Power of Human Cognition in the Study of World Politics’, International Studies Review, 2:3 (Autumn 2000), p. 51.

29 See, for example, Larson, Deborah Welch, ‘The Role of Belief Systems and Schemas in Foreign Policy Decision-Making’, Political Psychology, 15:1 (March, 1994), p. 27.

30 George, ‘The “Operational Code”’, pp. 199, 212, 221.

31 See Laffey, Mark and Weldes, Jutta, ‘Beyond Belief: Ideas and Symbolic Technologies in the Study of International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations, 3:3 (1997), pp. 193237.

32 Macridis, Roy C., Contemporary Political Ideologies; Movements and Regimes (London: Harper Collins, 1992), p. 9.

33 Gramsci, Antonio, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, trans. and ed. Hores, Quintin and Smith, Geoffrey Nowell (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1998), pp. 330 and 419.

34 Hindess, Barry, ‘Neo-liberal citizenship’, Citizenship Studies, 6:2 (2002), p. 134; Williams, David, The World Bank and Social Transformation in International Politics; Liberalism, Governance and Sovereignty (London: Routledge, 2008), p. 1.

35 Ryan, Alan, The Making of Modern Liberalism (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012), p. 9.

36 Walzer, Michael, ‘Liberalism and the Art of Separation’, Political Theory, 12:3 (August 1984), p. 135.

37 Williams, The World Bank and Social Transformation, p. 25; Macridis, Contemporary Political Ideologies, p. 25; Latham, Robert, The Liberal Moment; Modernity; Security and the Making of Post-War International Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), p. 17.

38 Gamble, Andrew, ‘The free market economy and the strong state: the rise of the social market economy’, Socialist Register, 16 (1979), p. 9.

39 Williams, The World Bank and Social Transformation, p. 20; Foucault, Michel, The Birth of Biopolitics’ Lectures at the College de France, 1978–1979, trans. Buchell, Graham, ed. Senellart, Michel (New York: Picador, 2004), p. 252.

40 Ryan, The Making of Modern Liberalism, pp. 23, 35, 36.

41 Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics, pp. 163; Hindess, ‘Neo-Liberal citizenship’, p. 135.

42 Agnew, John and Corbridge, Stuart, Mastering Space: Hegemony, Territory and International Political Economy (London: Routledge, 1995), pp. 199200; Gamble, ‘The free market economy and the strong state: the rise of the social market economy’, p. 9.

43 Williams, The World Bank and Social Transformation, p. 13.

44 Gamble, ‘The free market economy and the strong state’, p. 7.

45 Smith, Tony, A Pact with the Devil. Washington's Bid for World Supremacy and the Betrayal if the American Promise (New York: Routledge, 2007), pp. 80, 95.

46 United Nations, An Agenda for Peace; Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping, A/47/277–S/24111 (7 June 1992), available at: {http://www.un-documents.net/a47-277.htm}.

47 Annan, Interventions, pp. 84, 90, 97, 116.

48 United Nations, Comprehensive Review of the Whole Question of Peacekeeping Operations in all their Aspects, A/55/305–S/2000/809 (21 August 2000), available at: {http://www.un.org/peace/reports/peace_operations/docs/full_report.htm}.

49 See An Agenda for Peace, pp. 2–4; and the National Security Strategy of the United States of America, pp. 1–2.

50 An Agenda for Peace, p. 4; Comprehensive Review, pp. 3, 7.

51 An Agenda for Peace, pp. 4, 12; Comprehensive Review, pp. 3, 13–14.

52 Comprehensive Review, pp. 3, 7.

53 Paris and Sisk, ‘Understanding the contradictions of postwar statebuilding’, p. 11; Edward Newman, ‘“Liberal” peacebuilding debates’, p. 33.

54 Weiss, Humanitarian Intervention, p. 142; Bellamy, ‘Responsibility to protect or Trojan horse?’, p. 39.

55 See Bush quoted in Annan, Interventions, p. 348; Wheeler, Nicholas J. and Morris, Justin, ‘Justifying the Iraq war as a humanitarian intervention: the cure is worse than the disease’, in Thakur, Ramesh and Siduh, Waheguru Pal Singh (eds), The Iraq Crisis and World Order: Structural, Institutional and Normative Challenges (Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2006); Dodge, Toby, ‘Coming face to face with bloody reality: Liberal common sense and the ideological failure of the Bush Doctrine in Iraq’, International Politics, 46:2/3 (2009), pp. 253–75; and Toby Dodge, ‘The ideological roots of failure’.

56 Roland Paris, ‘Does liberal peacebuilding have a future?’, in New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding, p. 105.

57 Ignatieff, Michael, Empire Lite: Nation-Building in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan (London: Vintage, 2003), p. 23; Robert Muggah, ‘Stabilising Fragile States and the Humanitarian Space’, in Mats Berdal and Achim Wennmann (eds), Ending Wars, Consolidating Peace, p. 43.

58 Dobbins, James, McGinn, John G., Crane, Keith, Jones, Seth G., Lal, Rollie, Rathmell, Andrew, Swanger, Rachel, and Timilsina, Anga, America's Role in Nation-Building; from Germany to Iraq (Santa Monica: RAND, 2003), pp. xivxv.

59 See, for example, Rice, ‘Campaign 2000: Promoting the national interest’.

60 Woodward, Bush at War, p. 191.

61 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Douglas Feith, in discussions with Donald Rumsfled in late 2001, quoted in Jones, Seth G., In the Graveyard of Empires; America's War in Afghanistan (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2009), p. 112.

62 See Rashid, Ahmed, Descent into Chaos; The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia (New York: Viking, 2008), pp. 63, 99, 129.

63 Jones, In the Graveyard of Empires, p. 118; Suhrke, Astri, When More is Less; the International Project in Afghanistan (London: Hurst & Company, 2011), pp. 2932.

64 Donald Rumsfeld, ‘Beyond nation building’, New York City (14 February 2003), available at: {http://www.defense.gov/speeches/speech.aspx?speechid=337}.

65 See Dodge, ‘The ideological roots of failure’, p. 1278.

66 See United States Government Accountability Office, Report to Congressional Committees, Afghanistan Reconstruction; Despite Some Progress, Deteriorating Security and Other Obstacles Continue to Threaten Achievement of U.S. Goals (July 2005), available at: {http://www.gao.gov/assets/250/247264.pdf}, p. 10; S. Frederick Starr, ‘U.S. Afghanistan Policy: It's Working’, Policy Paper produced by the Central Asia-Caucasus Institute; Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, available at: {http://www.silkroadstudies.org/CACI/Starr_Afghanistan.pdf}, p. 3; and David Rohde and David E. Sanger, ‘How a “Good War” in Afghanistan Went Bad’, New York Times (12 August, 2007), available at: {http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/12/world/asia/12afghan.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0}.

67 Rohde and Sanger, ‘How a “Good War” in Afghanistan Went Bad’.

68 Zalmay Khalilzad, speech at the Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Washington DC (4 April, 2004), available at: {http://csis.org/files/media/csis/events/040405_afghanistan_transcript.pdf}. See also, Starr, ‘U.S. Afghanistan Policy: It's Working’, p. 6.

69 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1510 (13 October 2003), available at: {http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N03/555/55/PDF/N0355555.pdf?OpenElement}.

70 Suhrke, When More is Less, p. 85.

71 See Rashid, Descent into Chaos, p. 189; Rohde and Sanger, ‘How a “good war” in Afghanistan went bad’; Jones, In the Graveyard of Empires, pp. 139–40.

72 Doug Sample, ‘New Afghan Ambassador to help Country “stand on its own feet”’, USA American Forces Press Service (20 November, 2003), available at: {http://www.defense.gov/News/NewsArticle.aspx?ID=27744}.

73 Phillips, David L., Losing Iraq. Inside the Post-War Reconstruction Fiasco (Boulder: Westview Press, 2005), p. 135.

74 Diamond, Larry, Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq (New York: Times Books, 2005), p. 282; Packer, George, Assassins’ Gate: America in Iraq (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), p. 139; Dobbins, James, Jones, Seth G., Runkle, Benjamin, and Mohandas, Siddharth, Occupying Iraq; A History of the Coalition Provisional Authority (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2009), p. 111.

75 Bremer, Paul quoted in Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Hard Lessons; the Iraq Reconstruction Experience (Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 2009), p. 69.

76 ‘Letter dated 8 May 2003, from the Permanent Representatives of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council’, S/2003/538, available at: {http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/Iraq%20S2003538.pdf}.

77 L. Paul Bremer III, ‘Iraq's Path to Sovereignty’, The Washington Post (8 September 2003), available at: {http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/yeariniraq/documents/bremerplan.html}.

78 Williams, M. J., The Good War; NATO and the Liberal Conscience in Afghanistan (Houndsmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2011), p. 104.

79 Barak Obama, ‘Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on the Way Forward in Afghanistan and Pakistan’, United States Military Academy at West Point, New York (1 December 2009), available at: {http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-address-nation-way-forward-afghanistan-and-pakistan}.

80 See Ian S. Livingston and Michael O'Hanlon, Afghan Index, Brooking (19 March 2003), p. 17, available at: {http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Programs/foreign%20policy/afghanistan%20index/index20130319.pdf}.

81 See ‘The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan’, available at: {http://www.embassyofafghanistan.org/constitution.html}.

82 See Ahmed Rashid, Descent into chaos, p. 216.

83 Barfield, Thomas, Afghanistan; a Cultural and Political History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), p. 332.

84 Suhrke, When More is Less, p. 170.

85 Ibid.

86 See Chandrasekaran, Rajiv, Little America: the War within the War for Afghanistan (London: Bloomsbury, 2012), p. 103.

87 See Younossi, Obaid, Thruelsen, Peter Dahl, Vaccaro, Jonathan, Sollinger, Jerry M., and Grady, Brian, The Long March: Building an Afghan National Army (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2009), pp. 1217; and International Crisis Group, ‘A Force in Fragments: Reconstituting the Afghan National Army’, Asia Report, 190 (2010), p. 7, available at: {http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-asia/afghanistan/190%20A%20Force%20in%20Fragments%20-%20Reconstituting%20the%20Afghan%20National%20Army.pdf}.

88 Phillips, Losing Iraq, pp. 145–6; Bremer, Paul III with McConnell, Malcolm, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006), p. 40; Packer, Assassins’ Gate, p. 191.

89 Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Quarterly Report (30 April 2012), pp. 17, 24, available at: {http://www.sigir.mil/files/quarterlyreports/April2012/Report_-_April_2012.pdf#view=fit}.

90 Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 39 (CPA/ORD/19 September 2003/39), available at: {http://www.cpa-iraq.org/regulations/20031220_CPAORD_39_Foreign_Investment_.pdf}.

91 See CPA Order Number 39.

92 Antonia Juhasz, ‘The hand-over that wasn't: how the occupation of Iraq continues’, LeftTurn Magazine (September/October 2004), available at: {www.lefturn.org}.

93 See ‘Letter from L. Paul Bremer to George W. Bush’ (22 May 2003), subsequently published in the New York Times, available at: {http://www.nytimes.com/ref/washington/04bremer-text1.html?ref=washington}.

94 See Chandrasekaran, Rajiv, Imperial Life in the Emerald City. Inside Baghdad's Green Zone (London: Bloomsbury, 2007), p. 85.

95 See Eric Schmitt, ‘US plans Iraqi force for civil defence’, International Herald Tribune (21 July 2003).

96 See Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Hard Lessons, p. 133.

97 See Sabrina Tavernise and John F. Burns, ‘As Iraqi Army trains, word in the field is it may take years’, The New York Times (13 June 2005), available at: {http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/13/international/middleeast/13training.html?pagewanted=all}.

98 Ricks, Thomas E., The Gamble. General Petraeus and the Untold Story of the American Surge in Iraq, 2006–2008 (London: Penguin Books, 2009), p. 199.

99 Anthony Cordesman, Iraqi Force Development: A Progress Report Working Draft, Center for Strategic and International Studies (23 August 2007), available at: {http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/070823_iraqi_force_development.pdf}, p. 8; Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to the United States Congress (30 July 2011), available at: {http://www.sigir.mil/files/quarterlyreports/}, p. 70.

100 Martine van Bijlert, ‘What the US Senate's report on Afghanistan does and doesn't say’, Afghanistan Analysts Network (13 June, 2011), available at: {http://aan-afghanistan.com/index.asp?id=1788}.

101 Aunohita Mojumdar, ‘Afghan citizens paid $1bn in bribes for public services last year, study finds’, The Guardian (8 July 2010), available at: {http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/08/afghanistan-bribes-corruption-taliban}.

102 See Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, Quarterly Report to the United States Congress (January 2013), pp. 116 and 152, available at: {http://www.sigar.mil/pdf/quarterlyreports/2013-01-30qr.pdf}.

103 Ibid., p. 144; Julian Gorger, ‘Afghanistan faces $4bn defence funding shortfall’, The Guardian (1 December 2011), available at: {http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/dec/01/afghanistan-faces-defence-funding-shortfall?INTCMP=SRCH}.

104 Associated Press, ‘Quarter of Afghan election ballots thrown out for fraud’, The Guardian (20 October 2010), available at: {http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/20/afghanistan-election-fraud}.

105 Martine Van Bijlert, ‘Afghanistan's elections: let's talk turnout’, Foreign Policy (20 September 2010), available at: {http://afpak.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2010/09/20/afghanistans_elections_lets_talk_turnout}.

106 See Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, Quarterly Report (January 2013).

107 See Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Quarterly Report (30 January 2011), p. 98; (30 April), p. 119; and (30 January 2012), p. 76.

108 Allawi, Ali A., The Occupation of Iraq. Winning the War, Losing the Peace (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), pp. 257–8.

109 Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Hard Lessons, p. 152.

110 Iraq Knowledge Network, ‘essential services fact sheet’ (December 2011), available at: {http://www.iauiraq.org/documents/1583/ServicesFactsheet-English.pdf}.

111 Campbell Robertson, ‘Iraq private sector falters; rolls of Government soar’, New York Times (10 August, 2008), available at: {http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/11/world/middleeast/11baghdad.html?_r=1&hp}.

112 See Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index 2011, available at: {http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2011/results/}.

113 Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to the United States Congress (30 January 2012), p. 9, available at: {http://www.sigir.mil/files/quarterlyreports/January2012/Report_-_January_2012.pdf}.

114 The Ministry of Defence employs a total of 271,400 personnel, spread between the Iraqi army (193,421), the air force (5,053), and subsidiary organisations. The Ministry of Interior employs 531,000. The Iraqi police has 302,000 on its payroll, the Facilities Protection Service, 95,000, Border Enforcement 60,000, Iraqi Federal Police 44,000, and Oil Police 30,000. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Quarterly Report, p. 75.

115 Cordesman, Anthony H. with Mausner, Adam and Derby, Lena, Iraq and the United States Creating a Strategic Partnership (Washington: Centre for Strategic and International Studies, June, 2010), p. 312.

116 Dobbins, James, Jones, Seth G., Carne, Keith, and DeGrasse, Beth Cole, The Beginner's Guide to Nation-Building (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2007).

117 Allin, Dana H. and Jones, Erik, Weary Policeman: American Power in an Age of Austerity (Abingdon: Routledge for International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2012), pp. 76–7.

118 Dobbins, Jones, Carne and Cole DeGrasse, The Beginner's Guide to Nation-Building, p. 45.

119 Smith, A Pact with the Devil.

120 Williams, The World Bank and Social Transformation, p. 20.

121 Barfield, Thomas and Nojumi, Neamatollah, ‘Bringing More Effective Governance to Afghanistan: 10 Pathways to Stability’, Middle East Policy, XVII:4 (Winter 2010), pp. 4052.

122 See Ryan Lizza, ‘The Consequentialist: How the Arab Spring remade Obama's foreign policy’, The New Yorker (2 May 2011), available at: {http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/05/02/110502fa_fact_lizza?printable=true#ixzz1KWzFQym6}; and Thom Shanker and Eric Schmitt, ‘Seeing Limits to “New” Kind of War in Libya’, New York Times (21 October 2011), available at: {http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/22/world/africa/nato-war-in-libya-shows-united-states-was-vital-to-toppling-qaddafi.html}.

* Earlier versions of this article were presented at the House of Commons, All Party Group on Global Security, the Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Westminster, the ‘Intervention and the Modern International Order’ workshop at the London School of Economics and the British International Studies Association conference in Birmingham. I would like to thank the participants in each of these events for their comments and suggestions. I would also like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive criticism. In addition, I am very grateful for the extended advice and input of the editors of this Special Issue: Richard Little, John MacMillan, and especially George Lawson. Finally, I would like to thank Clare Day for reading and commenting on the numerous drafts of this article.

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Intervention and dreams of exogenous statebuilding: the application of Liberal Peacebuilding in Afghanistan and Iraq

  • TOBY DODGE

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