1Reuters. 2009. American Medical Association Passes Resolution Supporting Sustainable Food System. US Newswire, Wednesday, June 17, 5:59 PM EDT.
2Diamond, A. and Soto, R. 2009. Facts on Direct-to-Consumer Food Marketing: Incorporating Data from the 2007 Census of Agriculture. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Washington, DC.
3Darby, K., Batte, M.T., Ernst, S., and Roe, B. 2008. Decomposing local: a conjoint analysis. American Agricultural Economics Association 90:476–486.
5Allen, P. and Hinrichs, C. 2007. Buying into ‘Buy local’: engagement of United States local food initiatives. In Maye, D., Holloway, L., and Kneafsey, M. (eds). Alternative Food Geographies: Representation and Practice. Elsevier, Oxford, UK. p. 255–272.
6Peters, C.J., Bills, N.L., Wilkins, J.L., and Fick, G.W. 2008. Foodshed analysis and its relevance to sustainability. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 24:1–7.
7Duram, L. 2010. Geography. In World Book Encyclopedia. World Book Inc., Chicago IL. Availabe at Web site www.worldbook.com (accessed 23 July 2009).
8Allen, P. 2008. Mining for justice in the food system: perceptions, practices and possibilities. Journal of Agriculture and Human Values 25:157–161.
9DuPuis, M.E. and Goodman, D. 2005. Should we go home to eat?: toward a reflexive politics of localism. Journal of Rural Studies 21:359–371.
10Anderson, M.D. 2008. Rights-based food systems and the goals of food systems reform. Journal of Agriculture and Human Value 25:593–698.
11Hassanein, N. 2003. Practicing food democracy: a pragmatic politics of transformation. Journal of Rural Studies 19:77–86.
12Feenstra, G. 1997. Local food systems and sustainable communities. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 12(1):28–36.
13Hinrichs, C.C. 2002. The practice and politics of food system localization. Journal of Rural Studies 19(1):33–45.
14Kloppenburg, J., Hendrickson, J., and Stevenson, G.W. 1996. Coming into the foodshed. Agriculture and Human Values 13(3):33–42.
15Murdoch, J., Marsden, T., and Banks, J. 2000. Quality, nature, and embeddedness: Some theoretical considerations in the context of the food sector. Economic Geography 76(2):107–125.
16Winter, M. 2003. Embeddedness, the new food economy and defensive localism. Journal of Rural Studies 19(1):23–32.
17Clancy, K. 1997. Reconnecting farmers and citizens in the food system. In Lockeretz, W. (ed.). Visions of American Agriculture. Iowa State University, Ames, IA.
18Lyson, T.A. 2000. Moving toward civic agriculture. Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm and Resource Issues 3:42–45.
19Delind, L. 2002. Place, work and civic agriculture: common fields for cultivation. Agriculture and Human Values 19:217–224.
20Duram, L.A. 2005. Good Growing: Why Organic Farming Works. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.
21Follett, J.R. 2009. Choosing a food future: differentiating among alternative food options. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22:31–51.
22Selfa, T. and Qazi, J. 2005. Place, taste, or face to face? Understanding producer-consumer networks in ‘local’ food systems in Washington State. Agriculture and Human Values 22(4):451–464.
23Marsden, T. and Smith, E. 2005. Ecological entrepreneurship: sustainable development in local communities through quality food production and local branding. Geoforum 36:440–451.
24Sage, C. 2003. Social embeddedness and relations of regard: alternative ‘Good Food’ networks in South-West Ireland. Journal of Rural Studies 19:47–60.
25Lobb, A.E. and Mazzocchi, M. 2007. Domestically produced food: consumer perceptions of origin, safety and the issue of trust. Food Economics 4:3–12.
26Fonte, M. 2008. Knowledge, food and place. A way of producing, a way of knowing . Sociologia Ruralis 3rd Series 48:200–222.
27Morris, C. and Buller, H. 2003. The local food sector: a preliminary assessment of its impact in Gloucestershire. British Food Journal 105(8):559–566.
28Smeding, F. and Joenje, W. 1999. Farm–nature plan: landscape ecology based farm planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 46:109–115.
29Boody, G., Vondracek, B., Andow, D.A., Krinke, M., Westra, J., Zimmerman, J., and Welle, P. 2005. Multifunctional agriculture in the United States. BioScience 55:27–38.
30Mäder, P., Fließbach, A., Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P., and Niggli, U. 2002. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296:1694–1697.
31Henderson, E. 2000. Rebuilding local food systems from the grass-roots up. In Magdoff, F., Foster, J., and Buttel, F. (eds). Hungry for Profit: The Agribusiness Threat to Farmers, Food and the Environment. Monthly Review Press, New York. p. 175–188.
32Horrigan, L., Lawrence, R.S., and Walker, P. 2002. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(5):445–456.
33Smithers, J., Lamarche, J., and Joseph, A.E. 2008. Unpacking the terms of engagement with local food at the farmers' market: Insights from Ontario. Journal of Rural Studies 24(3):337–350.
34Pirog, R. 2004. Food miles and consumer perceptions of locally grown foods. In Society for Nutrition Education Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, 17–21 July 2004.
35The Hartman Group. 2008. Consumer Understanding of Buying Local. Bellevue, WA.
36Wilson, E.O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. W.W. Norton, New York.
37Bengtsson, J., Ahnstrom, J., and Weibull, A. 2005. The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:261–269.
38Brush, S.B. 1989. Rethinking crop genetic resource conservation. Conservation Biology 3:1–11.
39Goland, C. and Bauer, S. 2004. When the apple falls close to the tree: Local food systems and the preservation of diversity. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 19:228–236.
40Allan, J.A. 1998. Virtual water: a strategic resource global solutions to regional deficits. Ground Water 36(4):545–546.
41Chapagain, A.K. and Hoekstra, A.Y. 2004. Water Footprints of Nations. Value of Water Research Report Series of UNESCO-IHE, No. 16. Delft, Netherlands.
42US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. 2004. Briefing rooms: irrigation and water use. US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC. Available at Web site http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/WaterUse/ (accessed 16 March 2010).
43Pimentel, D., Berger, B., Filiberto, D., Newton, M., Wolfe, B., Karabinakis, B., Clark, S., Poon, E., Albert, E., and Nandagopal, S. 2004. Water resources: agricultural and environmental issues. BioScience 54:10909–10918.
44Shoemaker, R., McGranahan, D., and McBride, B. 2006. Agriculture and rural communities are resilient to high energy costs: rising energy prices may prompt farmers and rural residents to make tradeoffs in their production practices and daily lives. Amber Waves 4(2):18–21.
45Hellegers, P., Ziberman, D., Seduto, P., and McCornick, P. 2008. Interaction between water, energy, food, and environment: evolving perspectives and policy issues. Water Policy 10(1):1–10.
46Playan, E. and Mateos, L. 2006. Modernization and optimization of irrigation systems to increase water productivity. Agricultural Water Management 80:100–116.
47Urban, M.A. 2005. Values and ethical beliefs regarding agricultural drainage in Central Illinois, USA. Society and Natural Resources 18:173–189.
49Gliessman, S.R. 2006. Agroecology: The Ecology of Sustainable Food Systems. 2nd ed.CRC, Boca Rotan, FL.
51Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H.L. (eds).2007. Climate Change 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, New York.
53US Department of Agriculture, Office of the Chief Economist and Economic Research Service. 2009. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of HR 2454 on U.S. Agriculture. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
55Puckett, L.J. 2008. Nonpoint and Point Sources of Nitrogen in Major Watersheds of the United States. US Geological Survey. Water-Resources Investigations Report 94–4001. Available at Web site http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri944001/wri944001.html (accessed 16 March 2010).
57Schoof, J.T. and Therrell, M. 2009. Climate change. In Duram, L. (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Organic, Sustainable, and Local Food. Praeger/ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA/Oxford, England. p. 82–84.
58Robertson, G.P., Paul, E.A., and Harwood, R.A. 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289:1922–1925.
59Weber, C.L. and Matthews, S.H. 2008. Food-miles and the relative climate impacts of food choices in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology 42(10):3508–3513.
60Battisti, D.S. and Naylor, R. 2009. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat. Science 323:240–244.
61US Climate Change Science Program. 2008. The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
62Marris, E. 2004. Climate modellers go local to target California's politicians. Nature 430(7002):818.
63Hayhoea, K., Cayanc, D., Fieldd, C.B., Frumhoffe, P.C., Maurerf, E.P., Millerg, N.L., Moserh, S.C., Schneideri, S.H., Cahilld, K.N., Clelandd, E.E., Daleg, L., Drapekj, R., Hanemannk, R.M., Kalksteinl, L.S., Lenihanj, J., Lunchd, C.K., Neilsonj, R.P., Sheridanm, S.C., and Vervillee, J.H. 2004. Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101(34):12422–12427.
64Schoof, J.T. 2009. Historical and projected changes in the length of the frost-free season. In Pryor, S.C. (ed.). Understanding Climate Change: Climate Variability, Predictability, and Change in the Midwestern United States. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN. p. 42–54.
65Coley, D., Howard, M., and Winters, M. 2009. Local food, food miles and carbon emissions: a comparison of farm shop and mass distribution approaches. Food Policy 34:150–155.
66Edwards-Jones, G., Milà i Canals, L., Hounsome, N., Truninger, M., Koerber, G., Hounsome, B., Cross, P., York, E.H., Hospido, A., Plassmann, K., Harris, I.M., Edwards, R.T., Day, G.A.S., Deri Tomos, A., Cowell, S.J., and Jones, D.L. 2008. Testing the assertion that ‘local food is best’: the challenges of an evidence-based approach. Trends in Food Science and Technology 19:265–274.
67Jones, A. 2002. An environmental assessment of food supply chains: a case study on dessert apples. Environmental Assessment 30:560–576.
68Pirog, R. and Benjamin, A. 2003. Checking the Food Odometer: Comparing Food Miles for Local Versus Conventional Produce Sales to Iowa Institutions. Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Ames, IA.
69Pimentel, D., Williamson, S., Alexander, C.E., Gonzalez-Pagan, O., Kontak, C., and Mulkey, S.E. 2008. Reducing energy inputs in the US food system. Human Ecology 36:459–471.
70Sirieix, L., Grolleau, G., and Schaer, B. 2008. Do consumers care about food miles? An empirical analysis in France. International Journal of Consumer Studies 32:508–515.
71Blanke, M.M. and Burdick, B. 2005. Food (miles) for thought: energy balance for locally-grown versus imported apple fruit. Environmental Science and Pollution Resource 12:125–127.
72Hospido, A., Canals, L., MacLaren, S., Truninger, M., Edwards-Jones, G., and Clift, R. 2009. The role of seasonality in lettuce consumption: a case study of environmental and social aspects. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 14:381–391.
73Saunders, C., Barber, A. and Taylor, G. 2006. Food Miles: Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand's Agriculture Industry. Report 285. Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit. Lincoln University, New Zealand. Available at Web site http:www.lincoln.ac.nz/story9430.html (accessed 24 July 2009). 74Wilson, T. 2007. The ‘Food Miles’ Fallacy. Institute of Public Affairs, Australia. Available at Web site http://www.ipa.org.au (accessed 23 July 2009).
75Foster, C., Green, K., Bleda, M., Dewick, P., Evans, B., Flynn, A., and Mylan, J. 2006. Environmental Impacts of Food Production and Consumption: a Report to the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Manchester Business School, DEFRA, London.
76Pretty, J.N., Ball, A.S., Lang, T., and Morison, J.I.L. 2005. Farm costs and food miles: an assessment of the full cost of the UK weekly food basket. Food Policy 30:1–19.
77Schlich, E.H. and Fleissner, U. 2005. The ecology of scale: assessment of regional energy turnover and comparison with global food. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(3):219–223.
78Jungbluth, N. and Demmeler, M. 2005. Letters to the Editor. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(3):168–170.
79LaTrobe, H.L. and Acott, T.G. 2000. Localising the global food system. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 7:309–320.
80Jarosz, L. 2008. The city in the country: growing alternative food networks in metropolitan areas. Journal of Rural Studies 24:231–244.
81DeLind, L.B. and Bingen, J. 2008. Place and civic culture: re-thinking the context for local agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21:127–151.
82Reganold, J.P., Glover, J.D., Andrews, P.K., and Hinman, H.R. 2001. Sustainability of three apple production systems. Nature 410:929–930.
84Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L., and Johnson, C.L. 2002. Prevalence and trends in obesity among U.S. adults, 1999–2000. Journal of the American Medical Association 288(14):1723–1727.
85Carlsson-Kanyama, A., Ekstrom, M.P., and Shanahan, H. 2003. Food and life cycle energy inputs: consequences of diet and ways to increase efficiency. Ecological Economics 44:293–307.
86Pimentel, D. and Pimentel, M. 1996. Food, Energy and Society. Colorado University Press, Niwot, CO.
87Reijnders, L. and Soret, S. 2003. Quantification of the environmental impact of different dietary protein choices. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 78(3):664S–668S.
88Pimentel, D. 2006. Impacts of Organic Farming on the Efficiency of Energy Use in Agriculture: State of Science Report. Organic Center, Bolder, CO.
89Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M., and de Haan, C. 2006. Livestock's Long Showdown: Environmental Issues and Options. United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, Italy. Available at Web site ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a0701e/A0701E00.pdf (accessed 8 February 2010).
90Peters, C.J., Bills, N.L., Lembo, A.J., Wilkins, J.L., and Fick, G.W. 2008. Mapping potential foodsheds in New York State: a spatial model for evaluating the capacity to localize food production. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 24:72–84.
91Timmons, D., Wang, Q., and Lass, D. 2008. Local foods: estimating capacity. Journal of Extension 46:1–11.
92Howden, S.M., Soussana, J.F., Tubiello, F.N., Chhetri, N., Dunlop, M., and Meinke, H. 2007. Adapting agriculture to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104:19691–19696.
93Francis, C.A., Lieblein, G., Breland, T.A., and Salomonsson, L. 2008. Transdisciplinary research for a sustainable agriculture and food sector. Agronomy Journal 100:771–776.
94King, C.A. 2008. Community resilience and contemporary agri-ecological systems: reconnecting people and food, and people with people. System Research and Behavioral Science 25:111–124.
95Duram, L.A. 2009. The Encyclopedia of Organic, Sustainable, and Local Food. Praeger/ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA/Oxford, England.
96Mayer, H. and Knox, P.L. 2006. Slow cities: sustainable places in a fast world. Journal of Urban Affairs 4th Series 28:321–334.