Abbasi, M.K., Tahir, M.M., and Rahim, N. 2013. Effect of N fertilizer source and timing on yield and N use efficiency of rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) in Kashmir–Pakistan. Geoderma 195:87–93.
Ahrens, T., Lobell, D., Ortiz-Monasterio, J., Li, Y., and Matson, P. 2010. Narrowing the agronomic yield gap with improved nitrogen use efficiency: A modeling approach. Ecological Applications 20:91–100.
Alva, A., Fan, M., Qing, C., Rosen, C., and Ren, H. 2011. Improving nutrient-use efficiency in Chinese potato production: Experiences from the United States. Journal of Crop Improvement 25:46–85.
Amanullah, , Iqbal, A., Ali, A., Fahad, S., and Parmar, B. 2016. Nitrogen source and rate management improve maize productivity of smallholders under semiarid climates. Frontiers in Plant Science 7:1773. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.01773.
Amiri, A. and Rafiee, M. 2013. Effect of soil inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter bacteria on nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic characteristics of corn. Annals of Biological Research 4:77–79.
Amlinger, F., Götz, B., Dreher, P., Geszti, J., and Weissteiner, C. 2003. Nitrogen in biowaste and yard waste compost: Dynamics of mobilisation and availability—a review. European Journal of Soil Biology 39:107–116.
Amossé, C., Jeuffroy, M.-H., and David, C. 2013. Relay intercropping of legume cover crops in organic winter wheat: Effects on performance and resource availability. Field Crops Research 145:78–87.
Amossé, C., Jeuffroy, M.-H., Mary, B., and David, C. 2014. Contribution of relay intercropping with legume cover crops on nitrogen dynamics in organic grain systems. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 98:1–14.
An, D., Su, J., Liu, Q., Zhu, Y., Tong, Y., Li, J., Jing, R., Li, B., and Li, Z. 2006. Mapping QTLs for nitrogen uptake in relation to the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant and Soil 284:73–84.
Anbessa, Y., Juskiw, P., Good, A., Nyachiro, J., and Helm, J. 2009. Genetic variability in nitrogen use efficiency of spring barley. Crop Science 49:1259–1269.
Andrews, M., Raven, J., and Sprent, J. 2001. Environmental effects on dry matter partitioning between shoot and root of crop plants: Relations with growth and shoot protein concentration. Annals of Applied Biology 138:57–68.
Andrews, M., Lea, P.J., Raven, J., and Lindsey, K. 2004. Can genetic manipulation of plant nitrogen assimilation enzymes result in increased crop yield and greater N-use efficiency? An assessment. Annals of Applied Biology 145:25–40.
Askegaard, M., Olesen, J.E., Rasmussen, I.A., and Kristensen, K. 2011. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 142:149–160.
Aslam, M., Travis, R.L., and Huffaker, R.C. 1992. Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings. Plant Physiology 99:1124–1133.
Ata-Ul-Karim, S.T., Yao, X., Liu, X., Cao, W., and Zhu, Y. 2014a. Determination of critical nitrogen dilution curve based on stem dry matter in rice. PLoS ONE 9:e104540.
Ata-Ul-Karim, S.T., Zhu, Y., Yao, X., and Cao, W. 2014b. Determination of critical nitrogen dilution curve based on leaf area index in rice. Field Crops Research 167:76–85.
Aulakh, M., Rennie, D., and Paul, E. 1982. Gaseous nitrogen losses from cropped and summer-fallowed soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 62:187–196.
Badaruddin, M. and Meyer, D. 1994. Grain legume effects on soil nitrogen, grain yield, and nitrogen nutrition of wheat. Crop Science 34:1304–1309.
Baethgen, W.E., Christianson, C.B., and Lamothe, A.G. 1995. Nitrogen fertilizer effects on growth, grain yield, and yield components of malting barley. Field Crops Research 43:87–99.
Bai, C., Liang, Y., and Hawkesford, M.J. 2013. Identification of QTLs associated with seedling root traits and their correlation with plant height in wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany 64:1745–1753.
Bancal, P. 2009. Decorrelating source and sink determinism of nitrogen remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Annals of Botany 103:1315–1324.
Bao, A., Zhao, Z., Ding, G., Shi, L., Xu, F., and Cai, H. 2015. The stable level of glutamine synthetase 2 plays an important role in rice growth and in carbon–nitrogen metabolic balance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16:12713–12736.
Barbieri, P.A., Echeverría, H.E., Saínz Rozas, H.R., and Andrade, F.H. 2008. Nitrogen use efficiency in maize as affected by nitrogen availability and row spacing. Agronomy Journal 100:1094–1100.
Barth, G., Von Tucher, S., and Schmidhalter, U. 2001. Influence of soil parameters on the effect of 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole-phosphate as a nitrification inhibitor. Biology and Fertility of Soils 34:98–102.
Basra, A.S. and Goyal, S.S. 2002. Mechanisms of improved nitrogen-use efficiency in cereals. In M.S. Kang (ed.). Quantitative Genetics, Genomics, and Plant Breeding. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK. p. 269–288.
Bassirirad, H. 2006. Root system characteristics and control of nitrogen uptake. Journal of Crop Improvement 15:25–51.
Behl, R., Tischner, R., and Raschke, K. 1988. Induction of a high-capacity nitrate-uptake mechanism in barley roots prompted by nitrate uptake through a constitutive low-capacity mechanism. Planta 176:235–240.
Benbi, D.K. and Richter, J. 2002. A critical review of some approaches to modelling nitrogen mineralization. Biology and Fertility of Soils 35:168–183.
Bernard, S.M., Møller, A.L.B., Dionisio, G., Kichey, T., Jahn, T.P., Dubois, F., Baudo, M., Lopes, M.S., Tercé-Laforgue, T., and Foyer, C.H. 2008. Gene expression, cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Molecular Biology 67:89–105.
Boeckx, P., Xu, X., and Van Cleemput, O. 2005. Mitigation of N2O and CH4 emission from rice and wheat cropping systems using dicyandiamide and hydroquinone. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 72:41–49.
Cabrera, M., Kissel, D., and Vigil, M. 2005. Nitrogen mineralization from organic residues. Journal of Environmental Quality 34:75–79.
Cai, G.X., Chen, D.L., Ding, H., Pacholski, A., Fan, X.H., and Zhu, Z.L. 2002. Nitrogen losses from fertilizers applied to maize, wheat and rice in the North China Plain. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 63:187–195.
Camargo, F.D.O., Gianello, C., and Vidor, C. 1997. Comparative study of five hydrolytic methods in the determination of soil organic nitrogen compounds. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 28:1303–1309.
Cassman, K., Gines, G., Dizon, M., Samson, M., and Alcantara, J. 1996. Nitrogen-use efficiency in tropical lowland rice systems: Contributions from indigenous and applied nitrogen. Field Crops Research 47:1–12.
Christophe, S., Jean-Christophe, A., Annabelle, L., Alain, O., Marion, P., and Anne-Sophie, V. 2011. Plant n fluxes and modulation by nitrogen, heat and water stresses: A review based on comparison of legumes and non legume plants. Abiotic Stress in Plants–Mechanisms and Adaptations. Intech Open Access Publisher, Rijeka, Croatia. p. 79–118.
Chun, L., Mi, G., Li, J., Chen, F., and Zhang, F. 2005. Genetic analysis of maize root characteristics in response to low nitrogen stress. Plant and Soil 276:369–382.
Constantin, J., Mary, B., Laurent, F., Aubrion, G., Fontaine, A., Kerveillant, P., and Beaudoin, N. 2010. Effects of catch crops, no till and reduced nitrogen fertilization on nitrogen leaching and balance in three long-term experiments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 135:268–278.
Coque, M. and Gallais, A. 2007. Genetic variation for nitrogen remobilization and postsilking nitrogen uptake in maize recombinant inbred lines: Heritabilities and correlations among traits. Crop Science 47:1787–1796.
Coque, M., Martin, A., Veyrieras, J., Hirel, B., and Gallais, A. 2008. Genetic variation for N-remobilization and postsilking n-uptake in a set of maize recombinant inbred lines. 3. QTL detection and coincidences. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 117:729–747.
Cormier, F., Faure, S., Dubreuil, P., Heumez, E., Beauchêne, K., Lafarge, S., Praud, S., and Le Gouis, J. 2013. A multi-environmental study of recent breeding progress on nitrogen use efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 126:3035–3048.
Crews, T.E. and Peoples, M.B. 2005. Can the synchrony of nitrogen supply and crop demand be improved in legume and fertilizer-based agroecosystems? A review. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 72:101–120.
Cui, Z., Zhang, F., Mi, G., Chen, F., Li, F., Chen, X., Li, J., and Shi, L. 2009. Interaction between genotypic difference and nitrogen management strategy in determining nitrogen use efficiency of summer maize. Plant and Soil 317:267–276.
Dabney, S.M., Delgado, J.A., Meisinger, J.J., Schomberg, H.H., Liebig, M.A., Kaspar, T., Mitchell, J., and Reeves, W. 2010. Using cover crops and cropping systems for nitrogen management. In Delgado, J.A. and Follett, R.F. (eds). Advances in Nitrogen Management for Water Quality. Soil and Water Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA. p. 231–282.
Dawson, J.C., Huggins, D.R., and Jones, S.S. 2008. Characterizing nitrogen use efficiency in natural and agricultural ecosystems to improve the performance of cereal crops in low-input and organic agricultural systems. Field Crops Research 107:89–101.
De Nobili, M., Contin, M., Mondini, C., and Brookes, P. 2001. Soil microbial biomass is triggered into activity by trace amounts of substrate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33:1163–1170.
Dechorgnat, J., Nguyen, C.T., Armengaud, P., Jossier, M., Diatloff, E., Filleur, S., and Daniel-Vedele, F. 2011. From the soil to the seeds: The long journey of nitrate in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 62:1349–1359.
Degenhardt, R., Martin, R., and Spaner, D. 2005. Organic farming in central alberta: Current trends, production constraints and research needs. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 27:153–173.
Dijkstra, F.A., Bader, N.E., Johnson, D.W., and Cheng, W. 2009. Does accelerated soil organic matter decomposition in the presence of plants increase plant n availability? Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41:1080–1087.
Doltra, J. and Olesen, J.E. 2013. The role of catch crops in the ecological intensification of spring cereals in organic farming under nordic climate. European Journal of Agronomy 44:98–108.
Doran, J., Elliott, E., and Paustian, K. 1998. Soil microbial activity, nitrogen cycling, and long-term changes in organic carbon pools as related to fallow tillage management. Soil and Tillage Research 49:3–18.
Douds, D.D. Jr, Pfeffer, P.E., and Shachar-Hill, Y. 2000. Carbon partitioning, cost, and metabolism of arbuscular mycorrhizas. In Kapulnik, Y. and Douds, D.D. Jr (eds.). Arbuscular Mycorrhizas: Physiology and Function. Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York. p. 107–129.
Drew, M. and Saker, L. 1975. Nutrient supply and the growth of the seminal root system in barley II. Localized, compensatory increases in lateral root growth and rates op nitrate uptake when nitrate supply is restricted to only part of the root system. Journal of Experimental Botany 26:79–90.
Drew, M., Saker, L., and Ashley, T. 1973. Nutrient supply and the growth of the seminal root system in barley. I. The effect of nitrate concentration on the growth of axes and laterals. Journal of Experimental Botany 24:1189–1202.
Drinkwater, L.E. 2004. Improving fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency through an ecosystem-based approach. In Mosier, A.R., Syers, J.K. and Freney, J.R. (eds.). Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle: Assessing the Impacts of Fertilizer use on Food Production and the Environment. Island Press, Washington. p. 93–102.
Eghball, B. and Gilley, J.E. 1999. Phosphorus and nitrogen in runoff following beef cattle manure or compost application. Journal of Environmental Quality 28:1201–1210.
Eriksen, J., Askegaard, M., and Kristensen, K. 2004. Nitrate leaching from an organic dairy crop rotation: The effects of manure type, nitrogen input and improved crop rotation. Soil Use and Management 20:48–54.
Fageria, N. and Baligar, V. 2005. Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Advances in Agronomy 88:97–185.
Figueiredo, M.D.V.B., Seldin, L., De Araujo, F.F., and Mariano, R.D.L.R. 2010. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Fundamentals and Applications. Plant growth and health promoting bacteria. Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Germany. p. 21–43.
Fontaine, J.-X., Ravel, C., Pageau, K., Heumez, E., Dubois, F., Hirel, B., and Le Gouis, J. 2009. A quantitative genetic study for elucidating the contribution of glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase and other nitrogen-related physiological traits to the agronomic performance of common wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 119:645–662.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. 2015. World Fertilizer Trends and Outlook to 2018. Rome.
Forde, B.G. and Lea, P.J. 2007. Glutamate in plants: Metabolism, regulation, and signalling. Journal of Experimental Botany 58:2339–2358.
Fraisier, V., Gojon, A., Tillard, P., and Daniel-Vedele, F. 2000. Constitutive expression of a putative high-affinity nitrate transporter in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia: Evidence for post-transcriptional regulation by a reduced nitrogen source. The Plant Journal 23:489–496.
Franzluebbers, A. 2004. Tillage and residue management effects on soil organic matter. In Magdoff, F. and Weil, R.R. (eds.). Soil Organic Matter in Sustainable Agriculture. CRC Press, Washington, DC. p. 227–268.
Frink, C.R., Waggoner, P.E., and Ausubel, J.H. 1999. Nitrogen fertilizer: Retrospect and prospect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96:1175–1180.
Gabriel, J., Alonso-Ayuso, M., García-González, I., Hontoria, C., and Quemada, M. 2016. Nitrogen use efficiency and fertiliser fate in a long-term experiment with winter cover crops. European Journal of Agronomy 79:14–22.
Gaju, O., Allard, V., Martre, P., Snape, J., Heumez, E., Legouis, J., Moreau, D., Bogard, M., Griffiths, S., and Orford, S. 2011. Identification of traits to improve the nitrogen-use efficiency of wheat genotypes. Field Crops Research 123:139–152.
Gallais, A. and Hirel, B. 2004. An approach to the genetics of nitrogen use efficiency in maize. Journal of Experimental Botany 55:295–306.
Gan, Y., Hamel, C., O'donovan, J.T., Cutforth, H., Zentner, R.P., Campbell, C.A., Niu, Y., and Poppy, L. 2015. Diversifying crop rotations with pulses enhances system productivity. Scientific Reports 5.
Gan, Y., Mooleki, S., Lemke, R.L., Zentner, R.P., and Ruan, Y. 2016. Durum wheat productivity in response to soil water and soil residual nitrogen associated with previous crop management. Agronomy Journal 108:1468–1478.
Gholamhoseini, M., Aghaalikhani, M., Sanavy, S.M., and Mirlatifi, S. 2013. Interactions of irrigation, weed and nitrogen on corn yield, nitrogen use efficiency and nitrate leaching. Agricultural Water Management 126:9–18.
Gianfreda, L., Rao, M., and Mora, M. 2011. Enzymatic activity as influenced by soil mineral and humic colloids and its impact on biogeochemical processes. In Huang, P.M., Li, Y. and Sumner, M.E. (eds.). Handbook of Soil Science Resource of Management and Environmental Impacts. CRC Press, New York. p. 1–24.
Gilmour, J.T. and Mauromoustakos, A. 2011. Nitrogen mineralization from soil organic matter: A sequential model. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75:317–323.
Gioacchini, P., Nastri, A., Marzadori, C., Giovannini, C., Antisari, L.V., and Gessa, C. 2002. Influence of urease and nitrification inhibitors on N losses from soils fertilized with urea. Biology and Fertility of Soils 36:129–135.
Glibert, P.M., Harrison, J., Heil, C., and Seitzinger, S. 2006. Escalating worldwide use of urea–a global change contributing to coastal eutrophication. Biogeochemistry 77:441–463.
Gooding, M.J., Gregory, P.J., Ford, K.E., and Pepler, S. 2005. Fungicide and cultivar affect post-anthesis patterns of nitrogen uptake, remobilization and utilization efficiency in wheat. Journal of Agricultural Science 143:503–518.
Gorny, A. and Garczyński, S. 2008. Nitrogen and phosphorus efficiency in wild and cultivated species of wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition 31:263–279.
Graham, J. 2000. Assessing costs of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in agroecosystems. In Podila, G.K. and Douds, D.D. Jr (eds.) Current Advances in Mycorrhizae Research. The American Phytophathological Society Press, St. Paul. p. 111–126.
Greenwood, D., Lemaire, G., Gosse, G., Cruz, P., Draycott, A., and Neeteson, J. 1990. Decline in percentage n of C3 and C4 crops with increasing plant mass. Annals of Botany 66:425–436.
Griffith, W. and Murphy, L. 1991. The Development of Crop Production Systems Using Best Management Practices. Potash & Phosphate Institute, Norcross, USA.
Habash, D., Massiah, A., Rong, H., Wallsgrove, R., and Leigh, R. 2001. The role of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in wheat. Annals of Applied Biology 138:83–89.
Habash, D.Z., Bernard, S., Schondelmaier, J., Weyen, J., and Quarrie, S.A. 2007. The genetics of nitrogen use in hexaploid wheat: N utilisation, development and yield. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114:403–419.
Hamilton Iii, E.W. and Frank, D.A. 2001. Can plants stimulate soil microbes and their own nutrient supply? Evidence from a grazing tolerant grass. Ecology 82:2397–2402.
Hansen, E.M. and Djurhuus, J. 1997. Nitrate leaching as influenced by soil tillage and catch crop. Soil and Tillage Research 41:203–219.
Havlin, J.L., Tisdale, S.L., Nelson, W.L., and Beaton, J.D. 2014. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Hawkesford, M.J. 2014. Reducing the reliance on nitrogen fertilizer for wheat production. Journal of Cereal Science 59:276–283.
Hawkins, H.J. and George, E. 1999. Effect of plant nitrogen status on the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to plant nitrogen uptake. Physiologia Plantarum 105:694–700.
Hawkins, H.-J., Johansen, A., and George, E. 2000. Uptake and transport of organic and inorganic nitrogen by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil 226:275–285.
Herridge, D.F., Peoples, M.B., and Boddey, R.M. 2008. Global inputs of biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems. Plant and Soil 311:1–18.
Herrmann, A. and Taube, F. 2004. The range of the critical nitrogen dilution curve for maize (Zea mays L.) can be extended until silage maturity. Agronomy Journal 96:1131–1138.
Hirel, B., Bertin, P., Quilleré, I., Bourdoncle, W., Attagnant, C., Dellay, C., Gouy, A., Cadiou, S., Retailliau, C., and Falque, M. 2001. Towards a better understanding of the genetic and physiological basis for nitrogen use efficiency in maize. Plant Physiology 125:1258–1270.
Hong-Bo, L., Zhang, F.-S., and Jian-Bo, S. 2012. Contribution of root proliferation in nutrient-rich soil patches to nutrient uptake and growth of maize. Pedosphere 22:776–784.
Hoogmoed, M. 2015. Development of nitrogen dilution curves for current Australian wheat varieties. In AcuñA, T., Moeller, C., Parsons, D. and Harrison, M. (eds.). Building Productive, Diverse and Sustainable Landscapes: Proceedings of the 17th Australian Agronomy Conference 2015., 21–24 September 2015, Hobart, Tas.
Horrigan, L., Lawrence, R.S., and Walker, P. 2002. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:445.
Hörtensteiner, S. and Feller, U. 2002. Nitrogen metabolism and remobilization during senescence. Journal of Experimental Botany 53:927–937.
House, G.J., Stinner, B.R., Crossley, D., Odum, E.P., and Langdale, G.W. 1984. Nitrogen cycling in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems in the southern piedmont. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 39:194–200.
Huggins, D. and Pan, W. 1993. Nitrogen efficiency component analysis: An evaluation of cropping system differences in productivity. Agronomy Journal 85:898–905.
Huggins, D. and Pan, W. 2003. Key indicators for assessing nitrogen use efficiency in cereal-based agroecosystems. Journal of Crop Production 8:157–185.
Isfan, D. 1993. Genotypic variability for physiological efficiency index of nitrogen in oats. Plant and Soil 154:53–59.
Jain, V., Khetarpal, S., Das, R., and Abrol, Y.P. 2011. Nitrate assimilation in contrasting wheat genotypes. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 17:137–144.
Jeranyama, P., Hesterman, O.B., and Sheaffer, C.C. 1998. Medic planting date effect on dry matter and nitrogen accumulation when clear-seeded or intercropped with corn. Agronomy Journal 90:616–622.
Jin, H., Liu, J., Liu, J., and Huang, X. 2012. Forms of nitrogen uptake, translocation, and transfer via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A review. Science China Life Sciences 55:474–482.
Jing, J., Zhang, F., Rengel, Z., and Shen, J. 2012. Localized fertilization with P plus N elicits an ammonium-dependent enhancement of maize root growth and nutrient uptake. Field Crops Research 133:176–185.
Justes, E., Mary, B., Meynard, J.-M., Machet, J.-M., and Thelier-Huché, L. 1994. Determination of a critical nitrogen dilution curve for winter wheat crops. Annals of Botany 74:397–407.
Kalinova, S., Kostadinova, S., and Hristoskov, A. 2014. Nitrogen use efficiency and maize yield response to nitrogen rate and foliar fertilizing. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 20:178–181.
Kayser, M., Müller, J., and Isselstein, J. 2010. Nitrogen management in organic farming: Comparison of crop rotation residual effects on yields, N leaching and soil conditions. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 87:21–31.
Kessavalou, A., Mosier, A.R., Doran, J.W., Drijber, R.A., Lyon, D.J., and Heinemeyer, O. 1998. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane in grass sod and winter wheat–fallow tillage management. Journal of Environmental Quality 27:1094–1104.
Khalil, M., Rosenani, A., Van Cleemput, O., Boeckx, P., Shamshuddin, J., and Fauziah, C. 2002. Nitrous oxide production from an ultisol of the humid tropics treated with different nitrogen sources and moisture regimes. Biology and Fertility of Soils 36:59–65.
Khalil, M., Buegger, F., Schraml, M., Gutser, R., Richards, K., and Schmidhalter, U. 2009a. Gaseous nitrogen losses from a cambisol cropped to spring wheat with urea sizes and placement depths. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73:1335–1344.
Khalil, M.I., Gutser, R., and Schmidhalter, U. 2009b. Effects of urease and nitrification inhibitors added to urea on nitrous oxide emissions from a loess soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science/Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 172:651.
Khosla, R., Fleming, K., Delgado, J., Shaver, T., and Westfall, D. 2002. Use of site-specific management zones to improve nitrogen management for precision agriculture. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 57:513–518.
Kichey, T., Hirel, B., Heumez, E., Dubois, F., and Le Gouis, J. 2007. In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), post-anthesis nitrogen uptake and remobilisation to the grain correlates with agronomic traits and nitrogen physiological markers. Field Crops Research 102:22–32.
Laperche, A., Brancourt-Hulmel, M., Heumez, E., Gardet, O., and Le Gouis, J. 2006. Estimation of genetic parameters of a DH wheat population grown at different n stress levels characterized by probe genotypes. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 112:797–807.
Lavelle, P. and Spain, A. 2001. Soil Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Le Gouis, J., Béghin, D., Heumez, E., and Pluchard, P. 2000. Genetic differences for nitrogen uptake and nitrogen utilisation efficiencies in winter wheat. European Journal of Agronomy 12:163–173.
Lemaire, G. and Meynard, J. 1997. Use of the nitrogen nutrition index for the analysis of agronomical data. In Lemaire, G. (ed.). Diagnosis of the Nitrogen Status in Crops. Springer, Heidelberg. p. 45–55.
Lemaire, G., Van Oosterom, E., Sheehy, J., Jeuffroy, M.H., Massignam, A., and Rossato, L. 2007. Is crop N demand more closely related to dry matter accumulation or leaf area expansion during vegetative growth? Field Crops Research 100:91–106.
Léran, S., Varala, K., Boyer, J.-C., Chiurazzi, M., Crawford, N., Daniel-Vedele, F., David, L., Dickstein, R., Fernandez, E., and Forde, B. 2014. A unified nomenclature of nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family members in plants. Trends in Plant Science 19:5–9.
Li, P., Chen, F., Cai, H., Liu, J., Pan, Q., Liu, Z., Gu, R., Mi, G., Zhang, F., and Yuan, L. 2015. A genetic relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and seedling root traits in maize as revealed by QTL analysis. Journal of Experimental Botany 66:3175–3188.
Liao, M., Fillery, I.R., and Palta, J.A. 2004. Early vigorous growth is a major factor influencing nitrogen uptake in wheat. Functional Plant Biology 31:121–129.
Liao, M., Palta, J.A., and Fillery, I.R. 2006. Root characteristics of vigorous wheat improve early nitrogen uptake. Crop and Pasture Science 57:1097–1107.
Lim, S.L., Wu, T.Y., Lim, P.N., and Shak, K.P.Y. 2015. The use of vermicompost in organic farming: Overview, effects on soil and economics. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 95:1143–1156.
Lima, J.E., Kojima, S., Takahashi, H., and Von Wirén, N. 2010. Ammonium triggers lateral root branching in Arabidopsis in an ammonium transporter 1; 3-dependent manner. The Plant Cell 22:3621–3633.
Limaux, F., Recous, S., Meynard, J.-M., and Guckert, A. 1999. Relationship between rate of crop growth at date of fertiliser N application and fate of fertiliser N applied to winter wheat. Plant and Soil 214:49–59.
Limon-Ortega, A. and Villaseñor-Mir, E. 2006. Nitrogen fertilizer management and recommendations for wheat production in Central Mexico. Crop Management. doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0525-01-RS.
Liu, C., Cutforth, H., Chai, Q., and Gan, Y. 2016. Farming tactics to reduce the carbon footprint of crop cultivation in semiarid areas. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 36:69.
López-Bellido, R. and López-Bellido, L. 2001. Efficiency of nitrogen in wheat under Mediterranean conditions: Effect of tillage, crop rotation and N fertilization. Field Crops Research 71:31–46.
López-Bellido, L., López-Bellido, R.J., and Redondo, R. 2005. Nitrogen efficiency in wheat under rainfed Mediterranean conditions as affected by split nitrogen application. Field Crops Research 94:86–97.
Luce, M.S., Grant, C.A., Zebarth, B.J., Ziadi, N., O'donovan, J.T., Blackshaw, R.E., Harker, K.N., Johnson, E.N., Gan, Y., and Lafond, G.P. 2015. Legumes can reduce economic optimum nitrogen rates and increase yields in a wheat–canola cropping sequence in western Canada. Field Crops Research 179:12–25.
Luce, M.S., Grant, C.A., Ziadi, N., Zebarth, B.J., O'donovan, J.T., Blackshaw, R.E., Harker, K.N., Johnson, E.N., Gan, Y., and Lafond, G.P. 2016. Preceding crops and nitrogen fertilization influence soil nitrogen cycling in no-till canola and wheat cropping systems. Field Crops Research 191:20–32.
Lupwayi, N., Clayton, G., O'donovan, J., Harker, K., Turkington, T., and Soon, Y. 2006. Soil nutrient stratification and uptake by wheat after seven years of conventional and zero tillage in the northern grain belt of Canada. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 86:767–778.
Lynch, J. 1995. Root architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiology 109:7.
Mäder, P., Fliessbach, A., Dubois, D., Gunst, L., Fried, P., and Niggli, U. 2002. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming. Science 296:1694–1697.
Malhi, S., Soon, Y., Grant, C., Lemke, R., and Lupwayi, N. 2010. Influence of controlled-release urea on seed yield and n concentration, and N use efficiency of small grain crops grown on dark gray luvisols. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 90:363–372.
Mano, H. and Morisaki, H. 2008. Endophytic bacteria in the rice plant. Microbes and Environments 23:109–117.
Marriott, E.E. and Wander, M.M. 2006. Total and labile soil organic matter in organic and conventional farming systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:950–959.
Martin, A., Lee, J., Kichey, T., Gerentes, D., Zivy, M., Tatout, C., Dubois, F., Balliau, T., Valot, B., and Davanture, M. 2006. Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms of maize are specifically involved in the control of grain production. The Plant Cell 18:3252–3274.
Masclaux-Daubresse, C., Daniel-Vedele, F., Dechorgnat, J., Chardon, F., Gaufichon, L., and Suzuki, A. 2010. Nitrogen uptake, assimilation and remobilization in plants: Challenges for sustainable and productive agriculture. Annals of Botany 105:1141–1157.
Masclaux, C., Quilleré, I., Gallais, A., and Hirel, B. 2001. The challenge of remobilisation in plant nitrogen economy. A survey of physio-agronomic and molecular approaches. Annals of Applied Biology 138:69–81.
Masunga, R.H., Uzokwe, V.N., Mlay, P.D., Odeh, I., Singh, A., Buchan, D., and De Neve, S. 2016. Nitrogen mineralization dynamics of different valuable organic amendments commonly used in agriculture. Applied Soil Ecology 101:185–193.
Matson, P.A., Naylor, R., and Ortiz-Monasterio, I. 1998. Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management. Science 280:112–115.
Mckenzie, R., Bremer, E., Middleton, A., Pfiffner, P., and Dowbenko, R. 2007. Controlled-release urea for winter wheat in southern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 87:85–91.
Mckenzie, R.H., Middleton, A., Pfiffner, P., and Bremer, E. 2010. Evaluation of polymer-coated urea and urease inhibitor for winter wheat in southern Alberta. Agronomy Journal 102:1210–1216.
Meisinger, J., Bandel, V., Stanford, G., and Legg, J. 1985. Nitrogen utilization of corn under minimal tillage and moldboard plow tillage. I. Four-year results using labeled N fertilizer on an Atlantic coastal plain soil. Agronomy Journal 77:602–611.
Miflin, B. and Lea, P. 1977. Amino acid metabolism. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 28:299–329.
Miflin, B.J. and Habash, D.Z. 2002. The role of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation and possibilities for improvement in the nitrogen utilization of crops. Journal of Experimental Botany 53:979–987.
Moll, R., Kamprath, E., and Jackson, W. 1982. Analysis and interpretation of factors which contribute to efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Agronomy Journal 74:562–564.
Muruganandam, S., Israel, D.W., and Robarge, W.P. 2009. Activities of nitrogen-mineralization enzymes associated with soil aggregate size fractions of three tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 73:751–759.
Muruganandam, S., Israel, D.W., and Robarge, W.P. 2010. Nitrogen transformations and microbial communities in soil aggregates from three tillage systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74:120–129.
Muurinen, S., Slafer, G.A., and Peltonen-Sainio, P. 2006. Breeding effects on nitrogen use efficiency of spring cereals under northern conditions. Crop Science 46:561–568.
Muurinen, S., Kleemola, J., and Peltonen-Sainio, P. 2007. Accumulation and translocation of nitrogen in spring cereal cultivars differing in nitrogen use efficiency. Agronomy Journal 99:441–449.
Nacry, P., Bouguyon, E., and Gojon, A. 2013. Nitrogen acquisition by roots: Physiological and developmental mechanisms ensuring plant adaptation to a fluctuating resource. Plant and Soil 370:1–29.
Namai, S., Toriyama, K., and Fukuta, Y. 2009. Genetic variations in dry matter production and physiological nitrogen use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Breeding Science 59:269–276.
Nielsen, R.L.B. 2006. N loss mechanisms and nitrogen use efficiency. Purdue Nitrogen Management Workshops, Purdue University.
O'donovan, J.T., Grant, C.A., Blackshaw, R.E., Harker, K.N., Johnson, E., Gan, Y., Lafond, G.P., May, W.E., Turkington, T.K., and Lupwayi, N.Z. 2014. Rotational effects of legumes and non-legumes on hybrid canola and malting barley. Agronomy Journal 106:1921–1932.
Obara, M., Kajiura, M., Fukuta, Y., Yano, M., Hayashi, M., Yamaya, T., and Sato, T. 2001. Mapping of QTLs associated with cytosolic glutamine synthetase and NADH-glutamate synthase in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 52:1209–1217.
Obara, M., Ishimaru, T., Abiko, T., Fujita, D., Kobayashi, N., Yanagihara, S., and Fukuta, Y. 2014. Identification and characterization of quantitative trait loci for root elongation by using introgression lines with genetic background of indica-type rice variety IR64. Plant Biotechnology Reports 8:267–277.
Okon, Y. and Labandera-Gonzalez, C.A. 1994. Agronomic applications of Azospirillum: An evaluation of 20 years worldwide field inoculation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26:1591–1601.
Ondersteijn, C., Beldman, A., Daatselaar, C., Giesen, G., and Huirne, R. 2002. The Dutch mineral accounting system and the European nitrate directive: Implications for N and P management and farm performance. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 92:283–296.
Orsel, M., Filleur, S., Fraisier, V., and Daniel-Vedele, F. 2002. Nitrate transport in plants: Which gene and which control? Journal of Experimental Botany 53:825–833.
Ortiz-Monasterio, R., Sayre, K., Rajaram, S., and Mcmahon, M. 1997. Genetic progress in wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency under four nitrogen rates. Crop Science 37:898–904.
Pathak, R.R., Ahmad, A., Lochab, S., and Raghuram, N. 2008. Molecular physiology of plant nitrogen use efficiency and biotechnological options for its enhancement. Current Science 94:1394.
Pathak, R., Lochab, S., and Raghuram, N. 2011. Plant systems|improving plant nitrogen-use efficiency. In Moo-Young, M. (ed.). Comprehensive Biotechnology, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam. p. 209–218.
Pimentel, D., Hepperly, P., Hanson, J., Douds, D., and Seidel, R. 2005. Environmental, energetic, and economic comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems. BioScience 55:573–582.
Plett, D., Toubia, J., Garnett, T., Tester, M., Kaiser, B.N., and Baumann, U. 2010. Dichotomy in the NRT gene families of dicots and grass species. PLoS ONE 5:e15289.
Poorter, H. and Nagel, O. 2000. The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: A quantitative review. Functional Plant Biology 27:1191–1191.
Porter, L.K., Follett, R.F., and Halvorson, A.D. 1996. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery in a no-till wheat–sorghum–fallow–wheat sequence. Agronomy Journal 88:750–757.
Presterl, T., Groh, S., Landbeck, M., Seitz, G., Schmidt, W., and Geiger, H. 2002. Nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of European maize hybrids developed under conditions of low and high nitrogen input. Plant Breeding 121:480–486.
Quilleré, I., Dufossé, C., Roux, Y., Foyer, C.H.F., Caboche, M., and Morot-Gaudry, J.-F. 1994. The effects of deregulation of NR gene expression on growth and nitrogen metabolism of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 45:1205–1211.
Raun, W.R. and Johnson, G.V. 1999. Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agronomy Journal 91:357–363.
Reid, T.A., Yang, R.-C., Salmon, D.F., and Spaner, D. 2009. Should spring wheat breeding for organically managed systems be conducted on organically managed land? Euphytica 169:239–252.
Reilly, K., Cullen, E., Lola-Luz, T., Stone, D., Valverde, J., Gaffney, M., Brunton, N., Grant, J., and Griffiths, B.S. 2013. Effect of organic, conventional and mixed cultivation practices on soil microbial community structure and nematode abundance in a cultivated onion crop. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93:3700–3709.
Robertson, G.P. 1997. Nitrogen use efficiency in row-crop agriculture: Crop nitrogen use and soil nitrogen loss. In Jackson, L.E. (ed.). Ecology in Agriculture. Academic Press, New York. p. 347–365.
Robinson, D. 2001. Root proliferation, nitrate inflow and their carbon costs during nitrogen capture by competing plants in patchy soil. Plant and Soil 232:41–50.
Ruidisch, M., Bartsch, S., Kettering, J., Huwe, B., and Frei, S. 2013. The effect of fertilizer best management practices on nitrate leaching in a plastic mulched ridge cultivation system. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 169:21–32.
Sainju, U.M., Caesar-Tonthat, T., Lenssen, A.W., Evans, R.G., and Kolberg, R. 2009. Tillage and cropping sequence impacts on nitrogen cycling in dryland farming in eastern Montana, USA. Soil and Tillage Research 103:332–341.
San Francisco, S., Urrutia, O., Martin, V., Peristeropoulos, A., and Garcia-Mina, J.M. 2011. Efficiency of urease and nitrification inhibitors in reducing ammonia volatilization from diverse nitrogen fertilizers applied to different soil types and wheat straw mulching. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91:1569–1575.
Sandhu, K., Arora, V., Chand, R., Sandhu, B., and Khera, K. 2000. Optimizing time distribution of water supply and fertilizer nitrogen rates in relation to targeted wheat yields. Experimental Agriculture 36:115–125.
Scharf, P.C., Kitchen, N.R., Sudduth, K.A., Davis, J.G., Hubbard, V.C., and Lory, J.A. 2005. Field-scale variability in optimal nitrogen fertilizer rate for corn. Agronomy Journal 97:452–461.
Schenk, M. 1996. Regulation of nitrogen uptake on the whole plant level. Plant and Soil 181:131–137.
Shanahan, J., Kitchen, N., Raun, W., and Schepers, J.S. 2008. Responsive in-season nitrogen management for cereals. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 61:51–62.
Sheehy, J., Dionora, M., Mitchell, P., Peng, S., Cassman, K., Lemaire, G., and Williams, R. 1998. Critical nitrogen concentrations: Implications for high-yielding rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars in the tropics. Field Crops Research 59:31–41.
Shen, J., Li, C., Mi, G., Li, L., Yuan, L., Jiang, R., and Zhang, F. 2013. Maximizing root/rhizosphere efficiency to improve crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency in intensive agriculture of china. Journal of Experimental Botany 64:1181–1192.
Sherrard, J., Lambert, R., Below, F., Dunand, R., Messmer, M., Willman, M., Winkels, C., and Hageman, R. 1986. Use of physiological traits, especially those of nitrogen metabolism for selection in maize. Biochemical Basis of Plant Breeding 2:109–130.
Simpson, R.J., Lambers, H., and Dalling, M.J. 1982. Translocation of nitrogen in a vegetative wheat plant (Triticum aestivum). Physiologia Plantarum 56:11–17.
Sinebo, W., Gretzmacher, R., and Edelbauer, A. 2004. Genotypic variation for nitrogen use efficiency in Ethiopian barley. Field Crops Research 85:43–60.
Snyder, C. and Spaner, D. 2010. The sustainability of organic grain production on the Canadian prairies—a review. Sustainability 2:1016–1034.
Sowers, K.E., Pan, W.L., Miller, B.C., and Smith, J.L. 1994. Nitrogen use efficiency of split nitrogen applications in soft white winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 86:942–948.
Spargo, J.T., Alley, M.M., Follett, R.F., and Wallace, J.V. 2008. Soil nitrogen conservation with continuous no-till management. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 82:283–297.
Spiertz, J. and De Vos, N. 1983. Agronomical and physiological aspects of the role of nitrogen in yield formation of cereals. Plant and Soil 75:379–391.
Stopes, C., Lord, E., Philipps, L., and Woodward, L. 2002. Nitrate leaching from organic farms and conventional farms following best practice. Soil Use and Management 18:256–263.
Struik, P. and Yin, X. 2009. QTL × E× M: Combining crop physiology and genetics. In Østergård, H., Lammerts Van Bueren, E. and Bouwman-Smiths, L. (eds.). Proceedings of the Bioexploit/Eucarpia Workshop on the Role of Marker Assisted Selection in Breeding Varieties for Organic Agriculture. BioExploit, Wageningen, The Netherlands. p. 18–21.
Sun, Y., Ma, J., Sun, Y., Xu, H., Yang, Z., Liu, S., Jia, X., and Zheng, H. 2012. The effects of different water and nitrogen managements on yield and nitrogen use efficiency in hybrid rice of china. Field Crops Research 127:85–98.
Swain, E.Y., Rempelos, L., Orr, C.H., Hall, G., Chapman, R., Almadni, M., Stockdale, E.A., Kidd, J., Leifert, C., and Cooper, J.M. 2014. Optimizing nitrogen use efficiency in wheat and potatoes: Interactions between genotypes and agronomic practices. Euphytica 199:119–136.
Sylvester-Bradley, R. and Kindred, D.R. 2009. Analysing nitrogen responses of cereals to prioritize routes to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency. Journal of Experimental Botany 60:1939–1951.
Syswerda, S., Basso, B., Hamilton, S., Tausig, J., and Robertson, G. 2012. Long-term nitrate loss along an agricultural intensity gradient in the upper Midwest USA. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 149:10–19.
Tabuchi, M., Sugiyama, K., Ishiyama, K., Inoue, E., Sato, T., Takahashi, H., and Yamaya, T. 2005. Severe reduction in growth rate and grain filling of rice mutants lacking OSGS1; 1, a cytosolic glutamine synthetase1; 1. The Plant Journal 42:641–651.
Tanji, K., Broadbent, F., Mehran, M., and Fried, M. 1979. An extended version of a conceptual model for evaluating annual nitrogen leaching losses from croplands. Journal of Environmental Quality 8:114–120.
Tinker, P.B. and Nye, P.H. 2000. Solute Movement in the Rhizosphere. Oxford University Press, New York.
Tonitto, C., David, M., and Drinkwater, L. 2006. Replacing bare fallows with cover crops in fertilizer-intensive cropping systems: A meta-analysis of crop yield and n dynamics. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 112:58–72.
Trachsel, S., Kaeppler, S., Brown, K., and Lynch, J. 2013. Maize root growth angles become steeper under low N conditions. Field Crops Research 140:18–31.
Van Bueren, E.L., Backes, G., De Vriend, H., and Østergård, H. 2010. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture. Euphytica 175:51–64.
Van Der Heijden, M.G., Bardgett, R.D., and Van Straalen, N.M. 2008. The unseen majority: Soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters 11:296–310.
Van Sanford, D. and Mackown, C. 1986. Variation in nitrogen use efficiency among soft red winter wheat genotypes. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 72:158–163.
Van Vuuren, M., Robinson, D., and Griffiths, B. 1996. Nutrient inflow and root proliferation during the exploitation of a temporally and spatially discrete source of nitrogen in soil. Plant and Soil 178:185–192.
Vance, C.P. 2001. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation and phosphorus acquisition. Plant nutrition in a world of declining renewable resources. Plant Physiology 127:390–397.
Veresoglou, S.D., Chen, B., and Rillig, M.C. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and soil nitrogen cycling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 46:53–62.
Vidmar, J.J., Zhuo, D., Siddiqi, M.Y., Schjoerring, J.K., Touraine, B., and Glass, A.D. 2000. Regulation of high-affinity nitrate transporter genes and high-affinity nitrate influx by nitrogen pools in roots of barley. Plant Physiology 123:307–318.
Walch-Liu, P., Ivanov, I.I., Filleur, S., Gan, Y., Remans, T., and Forde, B.G. 2006a. Nitrogen regulation of root branching. Annals of Botany 97:875–881.
Walch-Liu, P., Liu, L.-H., Remans, T., Tester, M., and Forde, B.G. 2006b. Evidence that l-glutamate can act as an exogenous signal to modulate root growth and branching in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology 47:1045–1057.
Wang, X. and Below, F.E. 1992. Root growth, nitrogen uptake, and tillering of wheat induced by mixed-nitrogen source. Crop Science 32:997–1002.
Wang, X., Wei, Y., Shi, L., Ma, X., and Theg, S.M. 2015. New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Experimental Botany 66:6827–6834.
Watkins, N. and Barraclough, D. 1996. Gross rates of N mineralization associated with the decomposition of plant residues. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28:169–175.
Weber, A., Gutser, R., Michel, H., Wozniak, H., Chen, G., Xu, H., and Niclas, H. 2004. Dicyandiamide and 1h-1, 2, 4-triazole–a new effective nitrification inhibitor for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated land. In Weiske, A. (ed.). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture–Mitigation Options and Strategies. Leipzig, Germany. p. 273–275.
Wiesler, F. and Horst, W. 1994. Root growth and nitrate utilization of maize cultivars under field conditions. Plant and Soil 163:267–277.
Wu, J., Bernardo, D., Mapp, H., Geleta, S., Teague, M., Watkins, K., Sabbagh, G., Elliott, R., and Stone, J. 1997. An evaluation of nitrogen runoff and leaching potential in the high plains. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 52:73–80.
Yadav, R., Singh, V., Dwivedi, B., and Shukla, A.K. 2003. Wheat productivity and n use-efficiency as influenced by inclusion of cowpea as a grain legume in a rice–wheat system. The Journal of Agricultural Science 141:213–220.
Yanai, J., Kosaki, T., Nakano, A., and Kyuma, K. 1997. Application effects of controlled-availability fertilizer on dynamics of soil solution composition. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:1781–1786.
Yang, W., Xiang, Z., Ren, W., and Wang, X. 2005. Effect of S-3307 on nitrogen metabolism and grain protein content in rice. Chinese Journal of Rice Science 19:63–67.
Yienger, J. and Levy, H. 1995. Empirical model of global soil-biogenic NOx emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100:11447–11464.
Zebarth, B., Drury, C., Tremblay, N., and Cambouris, A. 2009. Opportunities for improved fertilizer nitrogen management in production of arable crops in eastern Canada: A review. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 89:113–132.
Zhao, G., Hörmann, G., Fohrer, N., Li, H., Gao, J., and Tian, K. 2011. Development and application of a nitrogen simulation model in a data scarce catchment in south China. Agricultural Water Management 98:619–631.
Zhou, C., Cai, Z., Guo, Y., and Gan, S. 2009. An Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, MKK9-MPK6, plays a role in leaf senescence. Plant Physiology 150:167–177.
Ziadi, N., Bélanger, G., Claessens, A., Lefebvre, L., Cambouris, A.N., Tremblay, N., Nolin, M.C., and Parent, L.-É. 2010. Determination of a critical nitrogen dilution curve for spring wheat. Agronomy Journal 102:241–250.