Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-sbc4w Total loading time: 0.459 Render date: 2021-03-01T19:06:31.787Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Juglans regia (walnut) in temperate arable agroforestry systems: effects on soil characteristics, arthropod diversity and crop yield

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 May 2019

P. Pardon
Affiliation:
Department of Environment, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode, Belgium Department of Plants and Crops, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000Ghent, Belgium Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Burgemeester Van Gansberghelaan 109, 9820Merelbeke, Belgium
J. Mertens
Affiliation:
Department of Environment, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode, Belgium
B. Reubens
Affiliation:
Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Burgemeester Van Gansberghelaan 109, 9820Merelbeke, Belgium
D. Reheul
Affiliation:
Department of Plants and Crops, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000Ghent, Belgium
T. Coussement
Affiliation:
Soil Service of Belgium, Willem de Croylaan 48, 3001Leuven, Belgium
A. Elsen
Affiliation:
Soil Service of Belgium, Willem de Croylaan 48, 3001Leuven, Belgium
V. Nelissen
Affiliation:
Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Burgemeester Van Gansberghelaan 109, 9820Merelbeke, Belgium
K. Verheyen
Affiliation:
Department of Environment, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode, Belgium
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Agroforestry (AF) is considered to be a sustainable land use practice as it combines agricultural production with multiple beneficial effects such as carbon sequestration, enhanced nutrient cycling and increased biodiversity. Quantification of these beneficial effects in temperate arable fields is still limited, however, and most studies focus on one sole parameter (i.e., impact on crop productivity, soil quality, biodiversity, etc.). Combined effects are only rarely considered, resulting in a lack of integrated quantification. Here we assess the effect of rows of walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) on soil organic carbon (SOC), soil nutrient status, the presence of potentially beneficial ground-dwelling arthropods and on the yield and quality of neighboring arable crops. Significantly higher SOC and soil nutrient concentrations were found near the trees, which is assumed to be primarily a result of tree leaf litter input. Abundance of macro-detritivorous arthropods was increased in and near the tree rows, whereas only limited effects of tree presence were found on the presence of the predatory arthropod taxa under study. The yield of all crops under study was reduced as a result of tree presence, with the strongest reductions observed for grain maize and sugar beet near the trees (<10 m). In addition, alteration of crop quality was observed near tree rows with decreased dry matter concentration of grain samples and increased crude protein concentration of winter cereals.

Type
Research Paper
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Adams, WA (1973) The effect of organic matter on the bulk and true densities of some uncultivated podzolic soils. Journal of Soil Science 24, 1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altieri, MA, Nicholls, CI, Henao, A and Lana, MA (2015) Agroecology and the design of climate change-resilient farming systems. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35, 869890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andersen, A (1997) Densities of overwintering carabids and staphylinids (Col., Carabidae and Staphylinidae) in cereal and grass fields and their boundaries. Journal of Applied Entomology 121, 7780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anjum-zubair, M, Entling, MH, Bruckner, A, Drapela, T and Frank, T (2015) Differentiation of spring carabid beetle assemblages between semi-natural habitats and adjoining winter wheat. Agricultural Entomology 17, 355365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Artru, S (2017) Impact of spatio-temporal shade on crop growth and productivity, perspectives for temperate agroforestry (Doctoral thesis). University of Liège, 169pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Artru, S, Garré, S, Dupraz, C, Hiel, MP, Blitz-Frayret, C and Lassois, L (2016) Impact of spatio-temporal shade dynamics on wheat growth and yield, perspectives for temperate agroforestry. European Journal of Agronomy 82, 6070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bambrick, AD, Whalen, JK, Bradley, RL, Cogliastro, A, Gordon, AM, Olivier, A and Thevathasan, NV (2010) Spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon in tree-based intercropping systems in Quebec and Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry Systems 79, 343353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bennett, EM, Garry, D and Gordon, LJ (2009) Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services. Ecology Letters 12, 13941404.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berg, MP, Soesbergen, M, Tempelman, D and Wijnhoven, H (2008) Verspreidingsatlas Nederlandse landpissebedden, duizendpoten en miljoenpoten (Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda). Leiden: European Invertebrate Study––The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Bianchi, FJJA, Van Wingerden, WKRE, Griffioen, AJ, Van Der Veen, M, Van Der Straten, MJJ, Wegman, RMA and Meeuwsen, HAM (2005) Landscape factors affecting the control of Mamestra brassicae by natural enemies in Brussels sprout. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 107, 145150. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2004.11.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bianchi, FJJ, Booij, CJ and Tscharntke, T (2006) Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273, 17151727.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bosgroepen (2018) Prijsvergelijking houtveiling [WWW Document]. Available at https://bosgroepen.nl/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Prijsvergelijking-houtveiling-tot-en-met-2018_alle-soorten.pdf (Accessed 15 February 2019).Google Scholar
Buringh, P (1984) The role of terrestrial vegetation in the global carbon cycle: measurement by remote sensing. Chapter 3: organic carbon in soils of the world. In Woodwell, GM (ed.), Scope. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, pp. 91109.Google Scholar
Cardinael, R, Chevallier, T, Barthès, BG, Saby, NPA, Parent, T, Dupraz, C, Bernoux, M and Chenu, C (2015) Impact of alley cropping agroforestry on stocks, forms and spatial distribution of soil organic carbon—a case study in a Mediterranean context. Geoderma 259–260, 288299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cardinael, R, Chevallier, T, Cambou, A, Béral, C, Barthès, BG, Dupraz, C, Durand, C, Kouakoua, E and Chenu, C (2017) Increased soil organic carbon stocks under agroforestry: a survey of six different sites in France. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 236, 243255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauhan, SK, Gupta, N, Walia, R, Yadav, S, Chauhan, R and Mangat, PS (2011) Biomass and carbon sequestration potential of poplar-wheat inter-cropping system in irrigated agro-ecosystem in India. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 1, 575586.Google Scholar
Chauhan, SK, Brar, MS and Sharma, R (2012) Performance of poplar (populus deltoides bartr.) and its effect on wheat yield under agroforestry system in irrigated agro-ecosystem, India. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science 10, 5360.Google Scholar
Cleugh, HA (1998) Effect of windbreaks on air-flow, microclimate and productivity. Agroforestry Systems 41, 5584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cui, C, Cai, J, Jiang, Z and Zhang, S (2011) Effects of walnut (Juglans regia L.) root exudates on germination, seedling growth and enzymatic activities of turnip (Brassica rapa L.). Allelopathy Journal 28, 237250.Google Scholar
Dennis, P, Thomas, MB and Sotherton, NW (1994) Structural features of field boundaries which influence the overwintering densities of beneficial arthropod predators. Journal of Applied Ecology 31, 361370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Desender, K (1989) Dispersievermogen en ecologie van loopkevers (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in België: een evolutionaire benadering. Brussels, Belgium, 136 pp.Google Scholar
Dias, ATC, Krab, EJ, Mariën, J, Zimmer, M, Cornelissen, JHC, Ellers, J, Wardle, DA and Berg, MP (2013) Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods. Oecologia 172, 667677.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dufour, L, Metay, A, Talbot, G and Dupraz, C (2013) Assessing light competition for cereal production in temperate agroforestry systems using experimentation and crop modelling. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 199, 217227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edney, EB (1977) Water Balance in Land Arthropods. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 282pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egnér, H, Riehm, H and Domingo, WR (1960) Untersuchungen uber die chemische Bodenanalyse als Grundlage fur die Beurteilung des Nährstoffzustandes der Böden. II. Chemische Extraktionsmethoden zur Phosphor- und Kaliumbestimmung. Kungliga Lantbrukshögskolans Annaler 26, 199215.Google Scholar
Fagerholm, N, Torralba, M, Burgess, PJ and Plieninger, T (2016) A systematic map of ecosystem services assessments around European agroforestry. Ecological Indicators 62, 4765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foley, JA, Defries, R, Asner, GP, Barford, C, Bonan, G, Carpenter, SR, Chapin, FS, Coe, MT, Daily, GC, Gibbs, HK, Helkowski, JH, Holloway, T, Howard, EA, Kucharik, CJ, Monfreda, C, Patz, JA, Prentice, IC, Ramankutty, N and Snyder, PK (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309, 570575.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fournier, E and Loreau, M (2001) Respective roles of recent hedges and forest patch remnants in the maintenance of ground-beetle (coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity in an agricultural landscape. Landscape Ecology 16, 1732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garratt, MPD, Senapathi, D, Coston, DJ, Mortimer, SR and Potts, SG (2017) The benefits of hedgerows for pollinators and natural enemies depends on hedge quality and landscape context. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 247, 363370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geiger, F, Wäckers, FL and Bianchi, FJJA (2009) Hibernation of predatory arthropods in semi-natural habitats. BioControl 54, 529535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gill, RIS, Singh, B and Kaur, N (2009) Productivity and nutrient uptake of newly released wheat varieties at different sowing times under poplar plantation in north-western India. Agroforestry Systems 76, 579590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gillespie, AR, Jose, S, Mengel, DB, Hoover, WL, Pope, PE, Seifert, RJ, Biehle, DJ, Stall, T and Benjamin, TJ (2000) Defining competition vectors in a temperate alley cropping system in the midwestern USA; 1. Production physiology. Agroforestry Systems 48, 2540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graves, AR, Burgess, PJ, Palma, JHN, Herzog, F, Moreno, G, Bertomeu, M, Dupraz, C, Liagre, F, Keesman, K, van der Werf, W, de Nooy, AK and van den Briel, JP (2007) Development and application of bio-economic modelling to compare silvoarable, arable, and forestry systems in three European countries. Ecological Engineering 29, 434449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grechka, DA, Berezin, SB, Emmott, S, Lyutsarev, V, Smith, MJ and Purves, DW (2016) Universal, easy access to geotemporal information: FetchClimate. Ecography (Cop.) 39, 904911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harvey, JA, Putten, WH, Van Der, , Turin, H, Wagenaar, R and Bezemer, TM (2008) Effects of changes in plant species richness and community traits on carabid assemblages and feeding guilds. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 127, 100106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, JM and Luff, ML (2000) The effects of agricultural practices on Carabidae in temperate agroecosystems. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 5, 109129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jose, S (2009) Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview. Agroforestry Systems 76, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jose, S and Gillespie, A (1998) Allelopathy in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) alley cropping. II. Effects of juglone on hydroponically grown corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) growth and physiology. Plant and Soil 203, 199205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jose, S, Gillespie, AR, Seifert, JR, Mengel, DB and Pope, PE (2000) Defining competition vectors in a temperate alley cropping system in the midwestern USA; 3. Competition for nitrogen and litter decomposition dynamics. Agroforestry Systems 48, 6177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jose, S, Gillespie, AR and Pallardy, SG (2004) Interspecific interactions in temperate agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems 61, 237255.Google Scholar
Kennedy, TF (1994) The ecology of Bembidion obtusum (Ser.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in winter wheat fields in Ireland. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 94, 3340.Google Scholar
KMI (2019 a) Huidig klimaat België [WWW Document]. Available at https://www.meteo.be/meteo/view/nl/6042923-Huidig+klimaat+Belgie.html (Accessed 15 February 2019).Google Scholar
KMI (2019 b) Klimatologisch overzicht [WWW Document]. Available at https://www.meteo.be/nl/klimaat/klimatologisch-overzicht/2017/zomer-2017 (Accessed 21 February 2019).Google Scholar
Landis, DA, Wratten, SD and Gurr, GM (2000) Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pest in agriculture. Annual Review of Entomology 45, 175201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liebman, M and Schulte-Moore, LA (2015) Enhancing agroecosystem performance and resilience through increased diversification of landscapes and cropping systems. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 3, 000041.Google Scholar
Lin, BB (2011) Resilience in agriculture through crop diversification: adaptive management for environmental change. Bioscience 61, 183193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luedeling, E, Smethurst, PJ, Baudron, F, Bayala, J, Huth, NI, van Noordwijk, M, Ong, CK, Mulia, R, Lusiana, B, Muthuri, C and Sinclair, FL (2016) Field-scale modeling of tree-crop interactions: challenges and development needs. Agricultural Systems 142, 5169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malézieux, E, Crozat, Y, Dupraz, C, Laurans, M, Makowski, D, Ozier-Lafontaine, H, Rapidel, B, de Tourdonnet, S and Valantin-Morison, M (2009) Review article. Mixing plant species in cropping systems: concepts , tools and models. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29, 4362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mann, LK (1986) Changes in soil carbon storage after cultivation. Soil Science 142, 279288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marrec, R, Badenhausser, I, Bretagnolle, V, Börger, L, Roncoroni, M, Guillon, N and Gauffre, B (2015) Crop succession and habitat preferences drive the distribution and abundance of carabid beetles in an agricultural landscape. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 199, 282289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mast, B, Hönninger, SG and Claupein, W (2012) Evaluation of carabid beetle diversity in different bioenergy cropping systems. Sustainable Agriculture Research 1, 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matson, PA, Parton, WJ, Power, AG and Swift, M (1997) Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277, 504509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MEA (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press, 155pp.Google Scholar
Meiresonne, L, De Schrijver, A and De Vos, B (2007) Nutrient cycling in a poplar plantation (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides ‘Beaupre’) on former agricultural land in northern Belgium. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37, 141155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, AW and Pallardy, SG (2001) Resource competition across the crop-tree interface in a maize-silver maple temperate alley cropping stand in Missouri. Agroforestry Systems 53, 247259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mirck, J, Kanzler, M, Boehm, C and Freese, D (2016) Sugar beet yields and soil moisture measurements in an alley cropping system, in: 3rd European Agroforestry Conference, Book of Abstracts. Montpellier, pp. 282284.Google Scholar
Mosquera-Losada, MR, McAdam, JH, Romero-Franco, R, Santiago-Freijanes, JJ and Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A (2009) Definitions and components of agroforestry practices in Europe. In Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A, McAdam, J and Mosquera-Losada, MR (eds), Agroforestry in Europe Current Status and Future Prospects. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media B.V, p. 319.Google Scholar
Nair, PKR, Kumar, BM and Nair, VD (2009) Agroforestry as a strategy for carbon sequestration. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 172, 1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oosterbaan, A (2015) Walnoot+ Een Boom Voor Iedereen. Sinderen: Boekengilde.Google Scholar
Pardon, P, Reubens, B, Reheul, D, Mertens, J, De Frenne, P, Coussement, T, Janssens, P and Verheyen, K (2017) Trees increase soil organic carbon and nutrient availability in temperate agroforestry systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 247, 98111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pardon, P, Reheul, D, Mertens, J, Reubens, B, De Frenne, P and De Smedt, P (2018 a) Gradients in abundance and diversity of ground dwelling arthropods as a function of distance to tree rows in temperate arable agroforestry systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 270–271, 114128.Google Scholar
Pardon, P, Reubens, B, Mertens, J, Verheyen, K, De Frenne, P, De Smet, G, Van Waes, C and Reheul, D (2018 b) Effects of temperate agroforestry on yield and quality of different arable intercrops. Agricultural Systems 166, 135151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peichl, M, Thevathasan, NV, Gordon, AM, Huss, J and Abohassan, RA (2006) Carbon sequestration potentials in temperate tree-based intercropping systems, southern Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry Systems 66, 243257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peng, RK, Incoll, LD, Sutton, SL, Wright, C and Chadwick, A (1993) Diversity of airborne arthropods in a silvoarable agroforestry system. Journal of Applied Ecology 30, 551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peng, X, Zhang, Y, Cai, J, Jiang, Z and Zhang, S (2009) Photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean and maize in a tree-based agroforestry intercropping system on the Loess Plateau. Agroforestry Systems 76, 569577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pfiffner, L and Luka, H (2000) Overwintering of arthropods in soils of arable fields and adjacent semi-natural habitats. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 78, 215222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Power, AG (2010) Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365, 29592971.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quinkenstein, A, Wöllecke, J, Böhm, C, Grünewald, H, Freese, D, Schneider, BU and Hüttl, RF (2009) Ecological benefits of the alley cropping agroforestry system in sensitive regions of Europe. Environmental Science & Policy 12, 11121121. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2009.08.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R Development Core Team (2016) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
Reisner, Y, de Filippi, R, Herzog, F and Palma, J (2007) Target regions for silvoarable agroforestry in Europe. Ecological Engineering 29, 401418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, PE, Simpson, JA, Thevathasan, NV and Gordon, AM (2007) Effects of tree competition on corn and soybean photosynthesis, growth, and yield in a temperate tree-based agroforestry intercropping system in southern Ontario, Canada. Ecological Engineering 29, 362371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riedel, W (1991) Overwintering and spring dispersal of Bembidion lampros (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from established hibernation sites in a winter wheat field in Denmark. In Behaviour and Impact of Aphidophaga. The Hague: Academic Publishing BV, pp. 221226.Google Scholar
Smith, J, Potts, S and Eggleton, P (2008a) The value of sown grass margins for enhancing soil macrofaunal biodiversity in arable systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 127, 119125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, J, Potts, SG, Woodcock, BA and Eggleton, P (2008b) Can arable field margins be managed to enhance their biodiversity, conservation and functional value for soil macrofauna? Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 269278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, J, Pearce, BD and Wolfe, MS (2012a) A European perspective for developing modern multifunctional agroforestry systems for sustainable intensification. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 27, 323332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, J, Pearce, BD and Wolfe, MS (2012b) Reconciling productivity with protection of the environment: Is temperate agroforestry the answer? Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 28, 8092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Souty-Grosset, C, Badenhausser, I, Reynolds, JD and Morel, A (2005) Investigations on the potential of woodlice as bioindicators of grassland habitat quality. European Journal of Soil Biology 41, 109116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sunderland, KD and Vickerman, GP (1980) Aphid feeding by some polyphagous predators in relation to aphid density in cereal fields. Journal of Applied Ecology 17, 389396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terzi, I (2008) Allelopathic effects of Juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on muskmelon and cucumber seed germination and seedling growth. African Journal of Biotechnology 7, 18701874.Google Scholar
Thevathasan, NV and Gordon, AM (2004) Ecology of tree intercropping systems in the North temperate region: experiences from southern Ontario, Canada: new visit as in agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems 61, 257268.Google Scholar
Thomas, CF, Parkinson, L and Marshall, EJ (1998) Isolating the components of activity-density for the carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius in farmland. Oecologia 116, 103112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomas, CFG, Parkinson, L, Griffiths, GJK, Fernandez Garcia, A and Marschall, EJP (2001) Aggregation and temporal stability of carabid beetle distributions in field and hedgerow habitats. Journal of Applied Ecology 38, 100116.Google Scholar
Thomas, CFG, Holland, JM and Brown, NJ (2002) The spatial distribution of carabid beetles in agricultural landscapes. In The Agroecology of Carabid Beetles. Andover, UK: Intercept limited, pp. 305344.Google Scholar
Torralba, M, Fagerholm, N, Burgess, PJ, Moreno, G and Plieninger, T (2016) Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services? A meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 230, 150161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trigalet, S, Chartin, C, Kruger, I, Carnol, M, Van Oost, K and van Wesemael, B (2017) Soil organic carbon fractionation for improving agricultural soil quality assessment––a case study in Southern Belgium (Wallonia). Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment 21, 191–200.Google Scholar
Tscharntke, T, Klein, AM, Kruess, A, Steffan-Dewenter, I and Thies, C (2005) Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity––ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters 8, 857874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsonkova, P, Böhm, C, Quinkenstein, A and Freese, D (2012) Ecological benefits provided by alley cropping systems for production of woody biomass in the temperate region: a review. Agroforestry Systems 85, 133152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsonkova, P, Quinkenstein, A, Böhm, C, Freese, D and Schaller, E (2014) Ecosystem services assessment tool for agroforestry (ESAT-A): an approach to assess selected ecosystem services provided by alley cropping systems. Ecological Indicators 45, 285299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turin, H (2000) De Nederlandse Loopkevers, Verspreiding en Oecologie (Coleoptera: Carabidae)––Nederlandse Fauna 3. Leiden: Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Publishing & EIS-Netherlands.Google Scholar
Vandendriessche, H, Bries, J and Geypens, M (1996) Experience with fertilizer expert systems for balanced fertilizer recommendations. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 27, 11991209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
VLM (2014) Norms and Guidelines. Brussels, Belgium: Denys, 18p.Google Scholar
Wang, Q, Xu, Z, Hu, T, Rehman, H, Chen, H, Li, Z, Ding, B and Hu, H (2014) Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut–winter vegetable agroforestry system. Natural Product Research 28, 20172020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wotherspoon, A, Thevathasan, NV, Gordon, AM and Voroney, RP (2014) Carbon sequestration potential of five tree species in a 25-year-old temperate tree-based intercropping system in southern Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry Systems 88, 631643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, P. 1999. Nutrient inputs from trees via throughfall, stemflow and litterfall in an intercropping system (M.Sc. dissertation). University of Guelph. 120p.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 45
Total number of PDF views: 127 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 07th May 2019 - 1st March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Juglans regia (walnut) in temperate arable agroforestry systems: effects on soil characteristics, arthropod diversity and crop yield
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Juglans regia (walnut) in temperate arable agroforestry systems: effects on soil characteristics, arthropod diversity and crop yield
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Juglans regia (walnut) in temperate arable agroforestry systems: effects on soil characteristics, arthropod diversity and crop yield
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *