Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5959bf8d4d-599mq Total loading time: 0.279 Render date: 2022-12-08T05:36:14.912Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loads present in environments impacted by alternative poultry processing operations utilized in pasture-raised poultry production

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2015

Corliss A. O'Bryan
Affiliation:
Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 N Young Ave, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA.
Philip Crandall
Affiliation:
Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 N Young Ave, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA.
Divya Jaroni
Affiliation:
Department of Animal Science, Oklahoma State University, 310 N Monroe, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.
Steven C. Ricke
Affiliation:
Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 N Young Ave, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA.
Kristen E. Gibson*
Affiliation:
Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 N Young Ave, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA.
*
*Corresponding author: keg005@uark.edu

Abstract

Pasture-raised poultry (PP) production systems allow chickens, turkeys or other poultry types to be raised entirely on pasture or in small, open-air moveable pens with access to fresh pasture daily. With an increase in consumer demand for poultry products produced using more humane and potentially environmentally sustainable practices, PP production systems are regaining popularity among farmers across the USA. The majority of research on PP is related to meat quality and forage conditions while the environmental effects have remained largely unstudied. The rotation of poultry on pasture is one of the primary best management practices (BMP) used to avoid over grazing and buildup of excess nutrients and pathogens; however, BMPs for handling and processing of the associated wastes (i.e., wastewater, feathers, offal) related to on-farm processing and mobile poultry processing units (MPPU) are not as well established. Therefore, a study with PP growers in the southern USA was initiated to provide important baseline information on the potential environmental impacts of processing methods used by PP production systems. Here, three farms utilizing on-farm processing were sampled over a 9-month period and two farms utilizing a MPPU pilot plant were sampled over a 3-month period. Soil, compost and wastewater samples were collected during each sampling date for on-farm processing while only wastewater was collected at the MPPU pilot plant. Soil samples (24-cm cores) were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), Mehlich-3 extractable phosphorus (M3-P) and moisture content. Compost derived from processing wastes was analyzed for TN, total phosphorus (TP), water extractable P and moisture content. Wastewaters were analyzed for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and TP. Soil TN levels (0.075–0.30%) reported here are comparable with TN levels reported for various soils in the Southeastern USA while M3-P was generally below levels found in agricultural soils subject to conventional poultry litter application based on previously published data. Conversely, TN and TP levels—0.3 to 1.3 and <0.4%, respectively—in compost were well below recommended values (i.e., approximately 2% each of N and P) for compost highlighting an opportunity for PP growers to create a more useful compost for land application. Last, wastewater collected from both, on-farm processing and the MPPU measure TKN and TP levels were much less than conventional processing. Overall, the present study provided baseline data on soil and compost nutrients related to on-farm poultry processing as well as wastewater composition for on-farm processing and MPPUs.

Type
Research Papers
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 Sossidou, E.N., Dal Bosco, A., Elson, H.A., and Fontes, C.M.G.A. 2011. Pasture-based systems for poultry production: Implications and perspectives. World's Poultry Science Journal 67:4758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2 USDA/ERS 2011. USDA Small Farm Definitions. Available at Web site http://www.extension.org/pages/13823/usda-small-farm-definitions (verified 31 October 2014).Google Scholar
3 Sales, J. 2014. Effects of access to pasture on performance, carcass composition, and meat quality in broilers: A meta-analysis. Poultry Science 93:15231533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4 Oberholtzer, L., Greene, C., and Lopez, E. 2006. Organic Poultry and Eggs Capture High Price Premiums and Growing Share of Specialty Markets. Outlook report. December 2006. USDA, ERS, Washington, DC. Available at Web site http://webarchives.cdlib.org/sw1tx36512/http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ldp/2006/12dec/ldpm15001/ (verified 08 October 2014).Google Scholar
5 Van Loo, E.J., Caputo, V., Nayga, R.M. Jr, Meullenet, J.F., and Ricke, S.C. 2011. Consumers’ willingness to pay for organic chicken breast: Evidence from choice experiment. Food Quality and Preference 22:603613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6 USDA/NASS 2012. 2012 Census of Agriculture. Available at Web site http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2012/#full_report Google Scholar
7 CIAS (Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems), University of Wisconsin—Madison (UW-M) 2003. Large-scale pastured poultry farming in the U.S. (Research Brief #63). Available at Web site http://www.cias.wisc.edu/large-scale-pastured-poultry-farming-in-the-us/ (verified 10 October 2015).Google Scholar
8 Pierson, S.T., Cabrera, M.L., Evanylo, G.K., Kuykendall, H.A., Hoveland, C.S., McCann, M.A., and West, L.T. 2001. Phosphorus and ammonium concentrations in surface runoff from grasslands fertilized with broiler litter. Journal of Environmental Quality 30:17841789.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9 Sharpley, A.N., Kleinman, P.J.A., Heathwaite, A.L., Gburek, W.J., Weld, J.L., and Folmar, G.J. 2008. Integrating contributing areas and indexing phosphorus loss from agricultural watersheds. Journal of Environmental Quality 37:14881496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10 Pew Environmental Group 2011. Big Chicken: Pollution and Industrial poultry production in America. Pew Charitable Trusts, Washington, DC. Available at Web site http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/reports/2011/07/26/big-chicken-pollution-and-industrial-poultry-production-in-america (verified 8 October 2014).Google Scholar
11 Sims, J.T. 1997. Agricultural and environmental issues in the management of poultry wastes: Recent innovations and long-term challenges. In Rechcigl, J., and MacKinnon, H.C. (eds). Uses of by-products and wastes in agriculture. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
12 Slaton, N.A., Brye, K.R., Daniels, M.B., Daniel, T.C., Norman, R.J., and Miller, D.M. 2004. Nutrient input and removal trends for agricultural soils in nine geographic regions in Arkansas. Journal of Environmental Quality 33:16061615.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13 O'Bryan, C.A., Gibson, K.E., Crandall, P.G., and Ricke, S.C. 2012. Slaughter Options for Organic Meat Producers in the United States. In Ricke, S.C., Johnson, M., O'Bryan, C.A., and Van Loo, E. (eds). Organic Meat Production and Processing. IFT Press, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ. p. 201208.Google Scholar
14 CIAS (Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems), University of Wisconsin—Madison (UW-M) 2001. Raising poultry on pasture (Research Brief #57). Available at Web site http://www.cias.wisc.edu/crops-and-livestock/raising-poultry-on-pasture/ (verified 30 August 2011).Google Scholar
15 Trimble, L.M., Alali, W.Q., Gibson, K.E., Ricke, S.C., Crandall, P., Jaroni, D., and Habteselassie, M.Y. 2013. Prevalence and concentration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the processing environment of small-scale pastured broiler farms. Poultry Science 34:30603066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16 Burkholder, J., Libra, B., Weyer, P., Heathcote, S., Kolpin, D., Thorne, P.S., and Wichman, M. 2007. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality. Environmental Health Perspectives 115:308312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17 O'Bryan, C.A., Crandall, P.G., Davis, M.L., Kostandini, G., Gibson, K.E., Alali, W.Q., Jaroni, D., Ricke, S.C., and Marcy, J.A. 2014. Mobile processing units: A safe and cost-effective poultry processing option for the small-scale farmer. World's Poultry Science Journal 70:787802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18 Fukumoto, G.K. and Replogle, J.R. 1999. Pastured Poultry Production: An Evaluation of its Sustainability in Hawaii. Livestock Management, College of Tropical Agriculture & Human Resources, University of Hawaii. April 1999, LM-1. Available at Web site http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/lm-1.pdf (verified 8 October 2014).Google Scholar
19 Boggia, A., Paolotti, L., and Castellini, C. 2010. Environmental impact evaluation of conventional, organic and organic-plus poultry production systems using life cycle assessment. World's Poultry Science Journal 66:95114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20 Hu, Q.H., Zhang, L.X., and Wang, C.B. 2012. Energy-based analysis of two chicken farming systems: A perception of organic production model in China. Procedia Environmental Sciences 13:445454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21 NRCS 2014. Major land resource areas in Georgia. Available at Web site http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/ga/soils/ (verified 13 December 2014).Google Scholar
22 Trimble, L.M., Alali, W.Q., Gibson, K.E., Ricke, S.C., Crandall, P., Jaroni, D., and Berrang, M. 2013. Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence and concentration on pasture-raised broilers processed on-farm, in a Mobile Processing Unit, and at small USDA-inspected facilities. Food Control 34:177182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23 Fanatico, A.C. 2006. Alternative Poultry Production Systems and Outdoor Access. ATTRA Publication. National Center for Appropriate Technology, Fayetteville, AR.Google Scholar
24 USDA/NRCS 2010. Composting. Chapter 2 in Part 637 Environmental Engineering National Engineering Handbook. Available at Web site ftp://ftp.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/wntsc/AWM/neh637c2.pdf (verified 30 March 2014).Google Scholar
25 Miller, R. and Sonon, L. 2014. Nitrate-nitrogen. In Sikora, F.J. and Moore, K.P. (eds). Soil Test Methods from the Southeastern United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 419. Southern Extension and Research Activity Information Exchange Group - 6. p. 138146. Available at Web site http://www.clemson.edu/sera6/MethodsManualFinalSERA6.pdf (verified 8 December 2015).Google Scholar
26 Mehlich, A. 1984. Mehlich 3 soil extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Sciences and Plant Analysis. 15:14091416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27 Gardner, W.H. 1965. Water content. In Black, C.A. (ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Properties, including Statistics of Measurement and Sampling. Agronomy Monograph 9.1. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. p. 82127.Google Scholar
28 Peters, J., Combs, S., Hoskins, B., Jarman, J., Kovar, J., Watson, M., Wolf, A., and Wolf, N. 2003. Recommended Methods of Manure Analysis. University of Wisconsin-Extension, Madison, WI. A3769Google Scholar
29 Kleinman, P.J.A., Sullivan, D., Wolf, A., Brandt, R., Dou, Z., Elliott, H., Kovar, J., Leytem, A., Maguire, R., Moore, P., Saporito, L., Sharpley, A., Shober, A., Sims, T., Toth, J., Toor, G., Zhang, H., and Zhang, T. 2007. Selection of a water extractable phosphorus test for manures and biosolids as an indicator of runoff loss potential. Journal of Environmental Quality 36:13571367.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30 American Public Health Association (APHA) 2012. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 22nd ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC. Google ScholarPubMed
31 Schnürer, J., Clarholm, M., Boström, S., and Rosswall, T. 1986. Effects of moisture on soil microorganisms and nematodes: A field experiment. Microbial Ecology 12:217230.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32 Espinoza, L., Norman, R., Slaton, N., and Daniels, M. 2013. The nitrogen and phosphorus cycle in soils. University of Arkansas-Extension. FSA-2148. Available at Web site http://www.uaex.edu/publications/pdf/FSA-2148.pdf (verified 13 February 2015).Google Scholar
33 Sharpley, A.N., Smith, S.J., and Bain, W.R. 1993. Nitrogen and phosphorus fate from long-term poultry litter applications to Oklahoma soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57:11311137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34 Sharpley, A.N. and Smith, S.J. 1995. Nitrogen and phosphorus forms in soils receiving manure. Soil Science 159:253258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35 Craft, C.B. and Chiang, C. 2002. Forms and amounts of soil nitrogen and phosphorus across a longleaf pine–depressional wetland landscape. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66:17131721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36 Watson, M. and Mullen, R. 2007. Understanding Soil Tests for Plant-Available Phosphorus. Ohio State University-Extension. Columbus, OH, June 2007—3373.Google Scholar
37 Sharpley, A.N., McDowell, R.W., Weld, J.L., and Kleinman, P.J.A. 2001. Assessing site vulnerability to phosphorus loss in an agricultural watershed. Journal of Environmental Quality 30:20262036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38 Pace, M.G., Miller, B.E., and Farrell-Poe, K.L. 1995. The Composting Process. Utah State University-Extension. AG-WM 01. Available at Web site http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/extension_histall/48 (verified 27 February 2015).Google Scholar
39 Goyal, S., DHull, S.K., and Kapoor, K.K. 2005. Chemical and biological changes during composting of different organic wastes and assessment of compost maturity. Bioresource Technology 96:15841591.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
40 Murphy, D.W. and Handwerker, T.S. 1988. Preliminary Investigations of Composting as a Method of Dead Bird Disposal. Proceedings of the National Poultry Waste Management Symposium, Department of Poultry Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, p. 6572.Google Scholar
41 Carpenter, S.R., Caraco, N.F., Correll, D.L., Howarth, R.W., Sharpley, A.N., and Smith, V.H. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8:559568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42 Brandt, R.C., and Elliott, H.A. 2003. Phosphorus Runoff Losses from Surface- Applied Biosolids and Dairy Manure. Joint Residuals and Biosolids Management Conference. 19–22 February, Water Environment Federation, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
43 Kleinman, P.J.A., and Sharpley, A.N. 2003. Effect of broadcast manure on runoff phosphorus concentrations over successive rainfall events. Journal of Environmental Quality 32:10721081.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44 Kleinman, P.J.A., Sharpley, A.N., Veith, T.L., Maguire, R.O., and Vadas, P.A. 2004. Evaluation of phosphorus transport in surface runoff from packed soil boxes. Journal of Environmental Quality 33:14131423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
45 Maguire, R.O., Sims, J.T., and Applegate, T.J. 2005. Phytase supplementation and reduced-phosphorus turkey diets reduce phosphorus loss in runoff following litter application. Journal of Environmental Quality 34:359369.Google ScholarPubMed
46 Kiepper, B.H. 2009. Effects of tertiary microsieving on the composition of poultry processing wastewater. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 18:716724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47 USPEA 2015. Wastewater Operators Manual/Poultry Processing Facilities. Available at Web site https://www.uspoultry.org/environment/docs/ProcessOverview.pdf (verified 27 February 2015).Google Scholar
48 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2002. Development Document for Proposed Effluent Limitations, Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Poultry Segment of the Meat Product and Rendering Process Point Source Category (40 CFR 432). EPA-821-B-01-007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
49 Plumber, H.S. and Kiepper, B.H. 2011. Impact of poultry processing by-products on wastewater generation, treatment, and discharges. Proceedings of the 2011 Georgia Water Resources Conference, April 11–13, 2011, at the University of Georgia.Google Scholar
50 Williams, C.M., Barker, J.C., and Sims, J.T. 1999. Management and utilization of poultry wastes. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 162:105157.Google ScholarPubMed
51 Kiepper, B.H., Merka, W.C., and Fletcher, D.L. 2008. Proximate composition of poultry processing wastewater particulate matter from broiler slaughter plants. Poultry Science 87:16331636.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52 Kiepper, B.H., Plumber, H.S., and Ritz, C.W. 2013. Modeling flume transport of broiler offal to predict the environmental effect on poultry processing wastewater: I. Feathers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 22:715722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loads present in environments impacted by alternative poultry processing operations utilized in pasture-raised poultry production
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loads present in environments impacted by alternative poultry processing operations utilized in pasture-raised poultry production
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus loads present in environments impacted by alternative poultry processing operations utilized in pasture-raised poultry production
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *