Skip to main content Accessibility help

CEA-EXPO: A facility exposure matrix to assess passed exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides of nuclear workers

  • M. Telle-Lamberton (a1) (a2), P. Bouville (a1), D. Bergot (a1), M. Gagneau (a1), S. Marot (a1), J. M. Giraud (a3) and J. M. Gelas (a4)...


A “Facility-Exposure Matrix” (FEM) is proposed to assess exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides in a cohort of nuclear workers. Exposures are to be attributed in the following way: a worker reports to an administrative unit and/or is monitored for exposure to ionising radiation in a specific workplace. These units are connected with a list of facilities for which exposure is assessed through a group of experts. The entire process of the FEM applied in one of the nuclear centres included in the study shows that the FEM is feasible: exposure durations as well as groups of correlated exposures are presented but have to be considered as possible rather than positive exposures. Considering the number of facilities to assess (330), ways to simplify the method are proposed: (i) the list of exposures will be restricted to 18 chemical products retained from an extensive bibliography study; (ii) for each of the following classes of facilities: nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication, high-activity laboratories and radiation chemistry, accelerators and irradiators, waste treatment, biology, reprocessing, fusion, occupational exposure will be deduced from the information already gathered by the initial method. Besides taking into account confusion factors in the low doses epidemiological study of nuclear workers, the matrix should help in the assessment of internal contamination and chemical exposures in the nuclear industry.



Hide All
[1] Ahrens, W., Jockel, K.H., Brochard, P., Bolm-Audorff, U., Grossgarten, K., Iwatsubo, Y., Orlowski, E., Pohlabeln, H., Berrino, F. (1993) Retrospective assessment of asbestos exposure – I. Case-control analysis in a study of lung cancer: efficiency of job-specific questionnaires and job exposure matrices, Int. J. Epidemiol. 22, S83S95.
[2] Baysson, H., Laurier, D., Tirmarche, M., Valenty, M., Giraud, J.M. (2000) Epidemiological response to a suspected excess of cancer among a group of workers exposed to multiple radiological and chemical hazards, Occup. Environ. Med. 57, 188-194.
[3] Beral, V., Fraser, P., Carpenter, L., Booth, M., Brown, A., Rose, G. (1988) Mortality of employees of the Atomic Weapons Establishment, 1951-82, Br. Med. J. 297, 757-770.
[4] Bouyer, J., Hemon, D. (1993) Comparison of three methods of estimating odds ratios from a job exposure matrix in occupational case-control studies, Am. J. Epidemiol. 137, 472-481.
[5] Bouyer, J., Hemon, D. (1994) Job exposure matrices, Rev. Epidemiol. Sant. Publ. 42, 235-245.
[6] Burstyn, I. (2004) Principal Component Analysis is a powerful instrument in occupational hygiene inquiries, Ann. Occup. Hyg. 48, 655-661.
[7] Cardis, E., Gilbert, E.S., Carpenter, L., Howe, G., Kato, I., Armstrong, B.K., Beral, V., Cowper, G., Douglas, A., Fix, J., et al. (1995) Effects of low doses and low dose rates of external ionizing radiation: cancer mortality among nuclear industry workers in three countries, Radiat. Res. 142, 117-132.
[8] Carpenter, L., Higgins, C., Douglas, A., Fraser, P., Beral, V., Smith, P. (1994) Combined analysis of mortality in three United Kingdom nuclear industry workforces, 1946-1988, Radiat. Res. 138, 224-238.
[9] Goldberg, M., Kromhout, H., Guenel, P., Fletcher, A.C., Gerin, M., Glass, D.C., Heederik, D., Kauppinen, T., Ponti, A. (1993) Job exposure matrices in industry, Int. J. Epidemiol. 22, S10-S15.
[10] Gribbin, M.A., Weeks, J.L., Howe, G.R. (1993) Cancer mortality (1956-1985) among male employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited with respect to occupational exposure to external low- linear-energy-transfer ionizing radiation, Radiat. Res. 133, 375-380.
[11] Guenel, P., Nicolau, J., Imbernon, E., Warret, G., Goldberg, M. (1993) Design of a job exposure matrix on electric and magnetic fields: selection of an efficient job classification for workers in thermoelectric power production plants, Int. J. Epidemiol. 22, S16-S21.
[12] Heineman, E.F., Cocco, P., Gomez, M.R., Dosemeci, M., Stewart, P.A., Hayes, R.B., Zahm, S.H., Thomas, T.L., Blair, A. (1994) Occupational exposure to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and risk of astrocytic brain cancer, Am. J. Ind. Med. 26, 155-169.
[13] IARC (1998) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic riks to humans, List of IARC evaluations.
[14] Imbernon, E., Goldberg, M., Bonenfant, S., Chevalier, A., Guenel, P., Vatre, R., Dehaye, J. (1995) Occupational respiratory cancer and exposure to asbestos: a case- control study in a cohort of workers in the electricity and gas industry, Am. J. Ind. Med. 28, 339-352.
[15] Iwasaki, T., Murata, M., Ohshima, S. (2003) Second analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1986-1997, Radiat. Res. 159, 228-38.
[16] Jéjati, H., Laurier, D., Tirmarche, M., Valenty, M., Giraud, J. (1998) Étude de cohorte en milieu professionnel: utilisation des fiches de nuisances et de la mémoire collective afin de reconstituer des expositions multiples., Rev. Méd. Trav. 25, 51.
[17] Kauppinen, T., Partanen, T. (1988) Use of plant- and period-specific job-exposure matrices in studies on occupational cancer, Scand. J. Work. Environ. Health 14, 161-167.
[18] Kelsh, M.A., Kheifets, L., Smith, R. (2000) The impact of work environment, utility, and sampling design on occupational magnetic field exposure summaries, Am. Industr. Hyg. Ass. J. 61, 174-182.
[19] Moulin, J.J., Romazini, S., Lasfargues, G., Peltier, A., Bozec, C., Deguerry, P., Pellet, F., Wild, P., Perdrix, A. (1997) Development of a job-exposure matrix in the heavy-metal industry in France, Rev. Epidemiol. Sant. Publ. 45, 41-51.
[20] Muirhead, C.R., Goodill, A.A., Haylock, R.G., Vokes, J., Little, M.P., Jackson, D.A., O'Hagan, J.A., Thomas, J.M., Kendall, G.M., Silk, T.J., Bingham, D., Berridge, G.L. (1999) Occupational radiation exposure and mortality: second analysis of the National Registry for Radiation Workers, J. Radiol. Prot. 19, 3-26.
[21] Omar, R.Z., Barber, J.A., Smith, P.G. (1999) Cancer mortality and morbidity among plutonium workers at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels, Br. J. Cancer. 79, 1288-1301.
[22] Orlowski, E., Pohlabeln, H., Berrino, F., Ahrens, W., Bolm-Audorff, U., Grossgarten, K., Iwatsubo, Y., Jockel, K.H., Brochard, P. (1993) Retrospective assessment of asbestos exposure – II. At the job level: complementarity of job-specific questionnaire and job exposure matrices, Int. J. Epidemiol. 22, S96-S105.
[23] Ritz, B. (1999) Radiation exposure and cancer mortality in uranium processing workers, Epidemiology 10, 531-538.
[24] Ritz, B., Morgenstern, H., Froines, J., Young, B.B. (1999) Effects of exposure to external ionizing radiation on cancer mortality in nuclear workers monitored for radiation at Rocketdyne/Atomics International, Am. J. Ind. Med. 35, 21-31.
[25] Ruttenber, A.J., McCrea, J.S., Wade, T.D., Schonbeck, M.F., LaMontagne, A.D., Van Dyke, M.V., Martyny, J.W. (2001) Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility, Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 16, 192-200.
[26] Saporta G. (1990) Probabilités, analyse des données et statistique. Paris, Éditions Technip.
[27] Stengel, B., Pisani, P., Limasset, J.C., Bouyer, J., Berrino, F., Hemon, D. (1993) Retrospective evaluation of occupational exposure to organic solvents: questionnaire and job exposure matrix, Int. J. Epidemiol. 22, S72-S82.
[28] Straus A. (1996) Pré-étude concernant l’INB 57 (communication personnelle).
[29] Telle M.A., Bergot D., Bard D. (1996) Effects of protracted exposures to low doses of ionising radiations: reconstructing exposures of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) workforce, 9th International Congress on Radiation Protection, 14-16 May 1996, Vienne.
[30] Telle-Lamberton M., Samson E., Caër S., Bergot D., Bard D., Bermann F., Gélas J.M., Giraud J.M., Hill C., Hubert P., Néron M.O., Quesne B., Tirmarche M. (2004) External radiation exposure and cancer mortality among French CEA and COGEMA workers. EPICOH – Seventeenth Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health. Melbourne, Australia, October, Occup. Environ. Med. 61, e18.
[31] Wiggs, L.D., Cox-DeVore, C.A., Wilkinson, G.S., Reyes, M. (1991) Mortality among workers exposed to external ionizing radiation at a nuclear facility in Ohio, J. Occup. Med. 33, 632-637.
[32] Zablotska, L.B., Ashmore, J.P., Howe, G.R. (2004) Analysis of mortality among Canadian nuclear power industry workers after chronic low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation, Radiat. Res. 161, 633-641.


CEA-EXPO: A facility exposure matrix to assess passed exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides of nuclear workers

  • M. Telle-Lamberton (a1) (a2), P. Bouville (a1), D. Bergot (a1), M. Gagneau (a1), S. Marot (a1), J. M. Giraud (a3) and J. M. Gelas (a4)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed