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Selection and Treatment of Data for Radiocarbon Calibration: An Update to the International Calibration (IntCal) Criteria

  • Paula J Reimer (a1), Edouard Bard (a2), Alex Bayliss (a3), J Warren Beck (a4), Paul G Blackwell (a5), Christopher Bronk Ramsey (a6), David M Brown (a1), Caitlin E Buck (a5), R Lawrence Edwards (a7), Michael Friedrich (a8) (a9), Pieter M Grootes (a10), Thomas P Guilderson (a11) (a12), Haflidi Haflidason (a13), Irka Hajdas (a14), Christine Hatté (a15), Timothy J Heaton (a5), Alan G Hogg (a16), Konrad A Hughen (a17), K Felix Kaiser (a18) (a19), Bernd Kromer (a9), Sturt W Manning (a20), Ron W Reimer (a1), David A Richards (a21), E Marian Scott (a22), John R Southon (a23), Christian S M Turney (a24) and Johannes van der Plicht (a25) (a26)...


High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.

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