Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Release and speciation of 14C during the corrosion of activated steel in deep geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste

  • J Mibus (a1), N Diomidis (a1), E Wieland (a2) and S W Swanton (a3)

Abstract

Carbon-14 (radiocarbon, 14C) is an important radionuclide in the inventory of radioactive waste in many disposal programs due to its significant dose contributions in safety assessments for geological repositories. Activated steels from nuclear reactors are one of the major sources of 14C. Knowledge of 14C release from steel wastes and its chemical form (speciation) is limited giving rise to uncertainty regarding the fate of 14C and a conservative treatment in assessment calculations. In this work, we summarize and make a synthesis of selected results from Work Package 2 of the EU CAST project aiming to improve understanding of 14C release related to steel corrosion under repository-relevant conditions. The outcome of the experiments is discussed in the context of the long-term evolution of a repository and its potential consequences for safety assessment.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Release and speciation of 14C during the corrosion of activated steel in deep geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Release and speciation of 14C during the corrosion of activated steel in deep geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Release and speciation of 14C during the corrosion of activated steel in deep geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. Email: nikitas.diomidis@nagra.ch.

Footnotes

Hide All

Selected Papers from the European Commission CAST (CArbon-14 Source Term) Project—A Summary of the Main Results from the Final Symposium

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Campbell, TJ, Burris, DR, Roberts, AL, Wells, JR. 1997. Trichloroethylene and tetrachoroethylene reduction in a metallic iron-water-vapour batch system. Env. Toxicol. Chem. 16:625630.
Cataldo, F. 2003. Organic matter formed from hydrolysis of metal carbides of the iron peak of cosmic elemental abundance. Int. J. Astrobiol. 2(1):5163.
Cvetković, B, Rothardt, J, Büttler, A, Kunz, D, Schlotterbeck, G, Wieland, E. 2018a. Formation of low molecular weight organic compounds during anoxic corrosion of zero-valent iron. Environmental Engineering Science 35:447461.
Cvetković, BZ, Salazar, G, Kunz, D, Szidat, S, Wieland, E. 2018b. Analysis of 14C-bearing compounds released by the corrosion of irradiated steel using accelerator mass spectrometry. Analyst 143:30593067.
Cvetković, BZ, Salazar, G, Kunz, D, Szidat, S, Wieland, E. 2018c. Quantification of dissolved organic 14C-containing compounds by accelerator mass spectrometry in a corrosion experiment with irradiated steel. Radiocarbon (this issue).
De Visser-Týnová, E, Stijkel, M, Swanton, S, Otlet, B, Walker, J. 2018. C-14 release and speciation from irradiated stainless steel under alkaline reducing conditions. CAST Report D.2.8 Issue 2.
Deng, B, Campbell, TJ, Burris, DR. 1997. Hydrocarbon formation in metallic iron/water systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31:11851190.
Diomidis, N. 2014. Scientific basis for the production of gas due to corrosion in a deep geological repository. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 14-21. Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.
Diomidis, N, Johnson, LH. 2014. Materials options and corrosion-related consideration in the design of spent fuel and high-level waste disposal canisters for a deep geological repository in Opalinus Clay. JOM 66:461470.
Diomidis, N, Cloet, V, Leupin, OX, Marschall, P, Poller, A, Stein, M. 2016. Production, consumption and transport of gases in deep geological repositories according to the Swiss disposal concept. Nagra Technical Report NTB 16-03. Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.
Hardy, LI, Gillham, RZ. 1996. Formation of hydrocarbons from the reduction of aqueous CO2 by zero-valent iron. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30:5765.
Herm, M. 2014. Description of the analytical procedure for gaseous and dissolved C-14 species. CAST Report D3.3.
Herm, M, González-Robles, E, Böttle, M, Müller, N, Bohnert, E, Dagan, R, Caruso, S, Kienzler, B, Metz, V. 2017a. Report on 14C release speciation from stainless steel under acidic conditions. CAST Report D2.11.
Herm, M, De Visser- Týnová, E, Heikola, T, Ollila, K, González -Robles, E, Böttle, M, Müller, N, Bohnert, E, Dagan, R, Caruso, S, Kienzler, B, Metz, V. 2017b. Final report on C-14 release from steels under low pH and acidic conditions. CAST Report D2.16.
Johnson, L, King, F. 2008. The effect of the evolution of environmental conditions on the corrosion evolutionary path in a repository for spent fuel and high-level waste in Opalinus Clay. Journal of nuclear Materials 379:915.
Juhas, MC, McRight, RD, Garrison, RE. 1984. Behaviour of stressed and unstressed 304L specimens in tuff repository environmental conditions. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report UCRL 91804.
Kaneko, S, Tanabe, H, Sasoh, M, Takahashi, R, Shibano, T, Tateyama, S. 2003. A study on the chemical forms and migration behaviour of carbon-14 leached from the simulated hull waste in the underground condition. MRS Symposium Proc. 757: paper II.3.8.
Leupin, OX, Smith, P, Marschall, P, Johnson, L, Savage, D, Cloet, V, Schneider, J Senger, R. 2016. Low- and intermediate-level waste repository-induced effects. Nagra Technical Report NTB 14-14. Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.
Mibus, J, Diomidis, N, Wieland, E, Swanton, S. 2018. Final synthesis report on results from WP2. CAST Report D2.18.
Nagra, . 2002 . Project Opalinus Clay – safety report. Nagra Technical Report NTB 02-05. Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.
Pastina, B, LaVerne, JA. 2001. Effect of molecular hydrogen on hydrogen peroxide in water radiolysis. J. Phys. Chem. A 105:93169322.
Rodríguez Alcalá, M, Magro, E, Gascón, JL, Piña, G, Lara, E, Sevilla, L, De Diego, G, Merino, S. 2017. CIEMAT final report on 14C release from steels under aerobic conditions. CAST Report D2.13.
Sakuragi, T, Yoshida, S, Kato, O, Tateishi, Y. 2016a. Study of stainless steel corrosion by hydrogen measurement under deoxygenated, low-temperature and basic repository conditions. Progress in Nuclear Energy 87:2631.
Sakuragi, T, Yoshida, S, Kinugasa, J, Kato, O, Tateishi, Y. 2016b. Corrosion kinetics of stainless steel by hydrogen measurement under deep geological repository condition. Proceedings of Waste Management 2016 Conference.
Sakuragi, T. 2017 . Report on corrosion behaviour of stainless steel. CAST Report D2 . 12 .
Sasoh, M. 2008. The study of the chemical forms of C-14 released from activated metals. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 08-22. Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland. p 19–21.
Schumann, D, Stowasser, T, Volmert, B, Guenther-Leopold, I, Linder, H, Wieland, E. 2014. Determination of the C-14 content in activated steel components from a neutron spallation source and a nuclear power plant. Analytical Chemistry 86(11):54485454.
Senior, N. 2017 . Anoxic corrosion of steel in a Swiss L/ILW repository environment. Nagra Arbeitsbericht NAB 17-19. Nagra, Wettingen, Switzerland.
Shock, EL. 1988. Organic-acid metastability in sedimentary basins. Geology 16(10):886890.
Smart, NR, Rance, AP, Winsley, RJ, Fennell, PAH, Reddy, B, Kursten, B. 2009. The effect of irradiation on the corrosion of carbon steel in alkaline media, presented at the NUCPERF 2009 conference on long-term performance of cementitious barriers and reinforced concrete in nuclear power plants and waste management (EFC event 317), Cadarache, France, 30 March–2 April 2009. RILEM Proceedings. PRO 64.
Smart, NR, Hoch, AR. 2010. A survey of steel and Zircaloy corrosion data for use in the SMOGG gas generation model. Serco Report SA/ENV-0841, Issue 3.
Swanton, SW, Baston, GMN, Smart, NR. 2015. Rates of steel corrosion and carbon-14 release from irradiated steels – state of the art review. CAST Report D2.1.
Swanton, SW, Swift, BT, Plews, M, Smart, NR. 2016. Carbon-14 Project Phase 2: irradiated steel wastes. AMEC Report AMEC/200047/005, Issue 1.
Thorstenson, DC. 1970. Equilibrium distribution of small organic molecules in natural waters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 34(7):745770.
Toth, LE. 1971. Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides. London: Academic Press.
Was, G. 2007. Fundamental of Radiation Materials Science. Springer-Verlag.
Was, G. 2012. Irradiation assisted corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking (IAC/IASCC) in nuclear reactor systems and components. Chapter 6. In: Feron D, editor. Nuclear Corrosion Science and Engineering. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.
Wieland, E, Cvetković, B. 2018. Corrosion of irradiated steel in alkaline conditions: First measurements of the carbon-14 speciation. CAST Report D2.19.
Wieland, E, Hummel, W. 2015. Formation and stability of carbon-14 containing organic compounds in alkaline iron-water systems: Preliminary assessment based on a literature survey and thermodynamic modelling. Mineralogical Magazine 79:12751286.
Wieland, E, Cvetković, B, Kunz, D, Tits, J. 2017. Corrosion of irradiated steel in anoxic alkaline conditions: development of the experimental set-up and first results. PSI Technical Report TM-44-17-01. Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.
Winsley, RJ, Smart, NR, Rance, AP, Fennell, PAH, Reddy, B, Kursten, B. 2011. Further studies on the effect of irradiation on the corrosion of carbon steel in alkaline media. Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology 46(2):111116.

Keywords

Release and speciation of 14C during the corrosion of activated steel in deep geological repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste

  • J Mibus (a1), N Diomidis (a1), E Wieland (a2) and S W Swanton (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed