Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Impact of Holocene Climate on the Development of Prehistoric Societies in Southern Siberia

  • Marianna Kulkova (a1) and Sergey Krasnienko (a2)

Abstract

Geochemical data of 10Be, 14C, δ18O obtained from natural archives (tree rings, ice sheets, varves, corals) indicates that the climate during the Holocene was not stable. The cosmogenic isotope fluctuations are bound by the periodicity on solar activity and climatic changes. The sharpest and most abrupt climatic deteriorations are registered in the Early and Middle Holocene at 8200, 5800, 5400, 4300, and 2800 cal BP. These events are characterized by cold conditions. The impact of climate on human communities in steppe depressions in southern Siberia (Nazarovo, Minusinsk, and Turano-Uyuk) was noticeable. The differences of local landscape-climatic conditions in these depressions were connected with global climatic changes to determine the processes of occupation, development, and migrations of ancient societies during the Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The chronology of archaeological cultures was also correlated with the local and global climatic changes during the Early and Middle Holocene in southern Siberia. Here, we generalize the literature data about Holocene climatic changes and archaeological cultures in the southern Siberia region.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The Impact of Holocene Climate on the Development of Prehistoric Societies in Southern Siberia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The Impact of Holocene Climate on the Development of Prehistoric Societies in Southern Siberia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The Impact of Holocene Climate on the Development of Prehistoric Societies in Southern Siberia
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Email: kulkova@mail.ru.

References

Hide All
Alekseev, AYu, Bokovenko, NA, Boltrik, Y, Chugunov, KV, Cook, G, Dergachev, VA, Kovalyukh, N, Possnert, G, van der Plicht, J, Scott, EM, Sementsov, AA, Skripkin, V, Vasiliev, S, Zaitseva, GI. 2001. A chronology of the Scythian antiquities of Eurasia based on new archaeological and 14C data. Radiocarbon 43(2B):1085–107.
Alekseev, AYu, Bokovenko, NA, Vasiliev, SS, Dergachev, VA, Zaitseva, GI, Kovalukh, NN, Cook, G, van der Plicht, J, Possnert, G, Sementsov, AA, Scott, EM, Chugunov, KV. 2005. Evrasia v Skifsky Period (Radiouglerodnaya i Arkheologicheskaya Khronologiya) [Eurasia in Scythian Period (Radiocarbon and Archaeological Chronology)]. St.Petersburg: Teza Publishers. 290 p.
An, C-B, Fenga, Z-D, Barton, L. 2006. Dry or humid? Mid-Holocene humidity changes in arid and semi-arid China. Quaternary Science Reviews 25(3–4):351–61.
Bard, E, Frank, M. 2006. Climate change and solar variability: What's new under the sun? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 248(1–2):114.
Bezrukova, EV, Belov, AV, Letunova, PP, Abzaeva, AA, Kulagina, NV, Fisher, EE, Orlova, LA, Sheifer, EV, Voronin, VI. 2008. Peat biostratigraphy and Holocene climate in the northwestern mountain periphery of Lake Baikal. Russian Geology and Geophysics 49:413–21.
Bokovenko, NA. 1997. Noviy tip pogrebalnih komplexov karasukskoy kulturi. [The new type of barrow complexes of Karasuk culture]. In: Masson, VM, editor. Novye Issledovaniya Arkheologov Rossii i SNG: Materiali Plenuma IIMK RAN 28-30 Aprelia 1997 g. St. Petersburg: Peterburgkomstat Publishers. p 2931.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: the OxCal program. Radiocarbon 37(2):425–30.
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program. Radiocarbon 43(2A):355–63.
Brooks, N. 2006. Cultural responses to aridity in the Middle Holocene and increased social complexity. Quaternary International 151(1):2949.
Bush, A. 2005. CO2/H2O and orbitally driven climate variability over Central Asia through the Holocene. Quaternary International 136:1523.
Chen, F-H, Cheng, B, Zhao, Y, Zhu, Y, Madsen, DB. 2006. Holocene environmental change inferred from a high-resolution pollen record, Lake Zhuyeze, arid China. The Holocene 16(5):675–84.
Chen, J, An, Z, Head, J. 1999. Variation of Rb/Sr ratios in the loess-paleosol sequences of central China during the last 130,000 years and their implications for monsoon paleoclimatology. Quaternary Research 51(3):215–9.
Chugunov, K, Nagler, A, Parzinger, H. 2001. The Golden Grave from Arzhan. Minerva 13(1):3942.
Chugunov, KV, Parzinger, H, Nagler, A. 2006. Der Goldschatz von Arzan. Fin Furstgrab der Skythenzeit in der sudsibirischen Steppe. Munich: Schirmer. 78 p.
Chugunov, K, Parzinger, H, Nagler, A. 2007. Der Furstenkurgan Arzan 2. In: Parzinger, H, editor. Zeichen des Goldenen Greifen. Konigsgraber der Scythen. New York: Prestel Publishers. p 6982.
Denton, GH, Karlén, W. 1973. Holocene climatic variations: their pattern and possible cause. Quaternary Research 3(2):155205.
Dergachev, VA, van Geel, B. 2004. Large-scale periodicity of climate change during Holocene. In: Scott, EM, Alekseev, AY, Zaitseva, GI, editors. Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. p 159–83.
Dergachev, VA, van Geel, B, Bokovenko, NA, Dirksen, VG, Kulkova, MA, van der Plicht, J, Zaitseva, GI. 2003. Climatic changes during the Holocene in the Eurasian steppe of Southern Siberia (Minusinsk and Uyuk hollows) and the development of archaeological cultures. Geophysical Research Abstracts 5:02738.
Dergachev, VA, Raspopov, OM, Damblon, F, Jungner, H, Zaitseva, GI. 2007. Natural climate variability during the Holocene. Radiocarbon 49(2):837–54.
Dirksen, VG, Chugunov, KV. 2007. Turano-Uyukskaya kotlovina Tuvi: izmeneniya prirodnykh uslovii i dinamika ee osvoeniya v drevnosti (opyt rekonstruktsii). [The Turanu-Uyuk depression of Tuva: changes of environmental conditions and the dynamic of occupation in prehistoric time (the reconstruction experience)]. In: Savinov, DG, Dluzhnevskay, GV, Lazarevskay, NA, editors. Kulturno-Ekologicheskie Oblasti: Vzaimodeistvie, Traditsii i Kulturogenez. St. Petersburg: SPb Gosudarstvennyi Universitet Publishers. p 139–65.
Dirksen, VG, van Geel, B, Bokovenko, NA, Chugunov, KV, Sementsov, AA, Zaitseva, GI, Cook, G, van der Plicht, J, Scott, M, Kulkova, MA, Lebedeva, LM, Burova, ND. 2007a. Izmeneniya prirodnoy sredy v golotsene i dinamika arkheologicheskikh kultur v gornykh kotlovinakh Yuzhnoy Sibiri [The changes of environment in Holocene and the dynamic of archaeological cultures in mountainous depressions of Southern Siberia]. In: Zaitseva, GI, Kulkova, MA, editors. Radiouglerod v Arkheologicheskikh i Paleoekologicheskikh Iissledovaniyakh. St. Petersburg: Teza Publishers. p 340–64.
Dirksen, VG, van Geel, B, Kulkova, MA, Zaitseva, GI, Sementsov, AA, Scott, EM, Cook, GT, van der Plicht, J, Lebedeva, LM, Bourova, ND, Bokovenko, NA. 2007b. Chronology of Holocene climate and vegetation changes and their connection to cultural dynamics in southern Siberia. Radiocarbon 49(2):1103–21.
Erlich, VA. 1999. Voprosi periodizatsii brozovogo veka Zapadnoy Sibiri v 1960 – seredine 1970 godov v otechestvennoi literature [The question of Bronze Age periodization in Western Siberia in Russian literature of the 1960s – mid-1970s]. Vestnik Omskogo Universiteta. Vypusk 2. p 5967.
Goosse, H, Renssen, H, Selten, FM, Haarsma, RJ, Opsteegh, JD. 2002. Potential causes of abrupt climate events: a numerical study with a three-dimensional climate model. Geophysical Research Letters 29:14.
Görsdorf, J, Parzinger, H, Nagler, A. 2001. New radiocarbon dates of the north Asian steppe zone and its consequences for the chronology. Radiocarbon 43(2B):1115–20.
Görsdorf, J, Parzinger, H, Nagler, A. 2004. 14C dating of the Siberian steppe zone from Bronze Age to Scythian time. In: Scott, EM, Alekseev, AY, Zaitseva, GI, editors. Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. p 83–9.
Gryaznov, MP. 1999. Afanasievskaya Kultura na Enisee. [The Afanasievo Culture on the Yenisei River]. St. Petersburg: Dmitry Bulanin. 136 p.
Heiri, O, Tinner, W, Lotter, AF. 2004. Evidence for cooler European summers during periods of changing melt-water flux to the North Atlantic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101(43):15,2858.
Herzschuh, U. 2006. Palaeo-moisture evolution in monsoonal Central Asia during the last 50,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews 25(1–2):163–78.
Hu, FS, Kaufman, D, Yoneji, S, Nelson, D, Shemesh, A, Huang, Y, Tian, J, Bond, G, Clegg, B, Brown, T. 2003. Cyclic variation and solar forcing of Holocene climate in the Alaskan Subarctic. Science 301(5641):1890–93.
Ilyashuk, BP, Ilyashuk, EA. 2007. Chironomid record of Late Quaternary climatic and environmental changes from two sites in Central Asia (Tuva Republic, Russia) – local, regional or global causes? Quaternary Science Reviews 26(5–6):705–31.
Isono, D, Yamamoto, M, Irino, T, Oba, T, Murayama, M, Nakamura, T, Kawahata, H. 2009. The 1500-year climate oscillation in the mid-latitude North Pacific during the Holocene. Geology 37(7):591–94.
Jahn, B-M, Gallet, S, Han, J. 2001. Geochemistry of the Xining, Xifeng and Jixian sections, Loess Plateau of China: eolian dust provenance and paleosol evolution during the last 140 ka. Chemical Geology 178(1–4):7194.
Kofler, W, Krapf, V, Oberhuber, W, Bortenschlager, S. 2005. Vegetation responses to the 8200 cal. BP cold event and to long-term climatic changes in the Eastern Alps: possible influence of solar activity and North Atlantic freshwater pulses. The Holocene 15(6):779–88.
Koinig, KA, Shotyk, W, Lotter, AF, Ohlendorf, C, Sturm, M. 2003. 9000 years of geochemical evolution of lithogenic major and trace elements in the sediment of an alpine lake – the role of climate, vegetation, and land-use history. Journal of Paleolimnology 30(3):307–20.
Koryakova, LN, Epimakhov, AV. 2007. The Ural and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 383 p.
Krasnienko, SV. 2002. Pamyatniki afanasievskoy kultury na yugo-zapade Krasnoyarskogo kraya. [The monuments of Afanasievo culture in south-western part of Krasnoyarsk Province]. In: Piotrovsky, YY, editors. Stepi Evrasii v Drevnosti i Srednevekovie. Kniga 1. St. Petersburg: Gosudarstvenny Hermitage Publishers. p 171–5.
Krasnienko, SV. 2003. Raskopki Sibirskoy expeditsii Instituta Materialnoy Kulturi v Nazarovskoi kotlovine [The excavations of Siberian Expedition of the Institute for the History of Material Culture in Nazarovo Depression.] In: Sedov, VV, editor. Arkheologicheskie Otkrytiya 2002 Goda. Moscow: Nauka Publishers. p 379–81.
Krasnienko, SV, Subbotin, AV. 1997. Arkheologicheskaya karta Sharipovskogo rayona (Krasnoyarsky Kray) [Archaeological map of Sharipovo District (Krasnoyarsk Province)]. Arkheologicheskie iziskaniya 48. St. Petersburg: LIMK RAN Publishers. 108 p.
Kulkova, MA. 2004. Applications of Geochemistry to paleoenvironmental reconstruction in Southern Siberia. In: Scott, EM, Alekseev, AY, Zaitseva, GI, editors. Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. p 255–74.
Kulkova, MA. 2005. Geokhimicheskaya Indikatsiya Landshaftno-Klimaticheskikh Usloviy v Golotsene v Regionakh Dvinsko-Lovatskogo Basseina i Yuzhnoi Sibiri [Geochemical indications of landscape–paleoclimatic conditions during the Holocene in regions of Dvina-Lovat' Basin and southern Siberia]. Synopsis of PhD thesis. St. Petersburg. p 32.
Kulkova, MA, Krasnienko, SB. 2008. The impact of Holocene climate on the development of prehistoric societies in the Southern Siberia. Abstracts of the 5th International Symposium “Radiocarbon and Archaeology.” #27.
Kulkova, MA, Krasnienko, SB. 2010. Okruzhayushaya sreda i drevnee naselenie Nazarovskoi kotlovini (Yuzhnaya Sibir) v period Golozena [Environment and ancient people of Nazarovo depression (Southern Siberia) during the Holocene]. In: Nesterov, EM, editor. Geologiya, geoecologiya, evoluzionnaya geografiya 10. St. Petersburg: Herzen State Pedagogical University Publishers. p 183–8.
Lamy, F, Ruhlemann, C, Hebbeln, D, Wefer, G. 2002. High- and low-latitude climate control on the position of the southern Peru-Chile Current during the Holocene. Paleoceanography 17:110.
Lisitsin, NF. 1988. K voprosu o neolite Khakassii [About the question on the Neolithic of Khakassiya]. Kratkie Soobshcheniya Instituta Arkheologii Akademii Nauk SSSR 193:1520.
Magny, M. 2004. Holocene climate variability as reflected by mid-European lake-level fluctuations and its probable impact on prehistoric human settlements. Quaternary International 113(1):6579.
Magny, M, Haas, JN. 2004. A major widespread climatic change around 5300 cal. yr. BP at the time of the Alpine Iceman. Journal of Quaternary Science 19(5):423–30.
Magny, M, Bégeot, C, Guiot, J, Peyron, O. 2003. Contrasting patterns of hydrological changes in Europe in response to Holocene climate cooling phases. Quaternary Science Reviews 22(15–17):1589–96.
Mayewski, PA, Rohling, EE, Stager, JC, Karlén, W, Maasch, KA, Meeker, LD, Meyerson, EA, Gasse, F, van Kreveld, S, Holmgren, K, Lee-Thorp, J, Rosqvist, G, Rack, F, Staubwasser, M, Schneider, RR, Steig, EJ. 2004. Holocene climate variability. Quaternary Research 62:243–55.
Minyuk, PS, Brigham-Grette, J, Melles, MV, Borkhodoev, Y, Glushkova, OY. 2007. Inorganic geochemistry of El'gygytgyn Lake sediments (northeastern Russia) as an indicator of paleoclimatic change for the last 250 kyr. Journal of Paleolimnology 37:123–33.
Mullins, HT, Halfman, JD. 2001. High-resolution seismic reflection evidence for middle Holocene environmental change, Owasco Lake, New York. Quaternary Research 55(3):322–31.
Orlova, LA, Zykina, VS. 2002. Radiocarbon dating of buried Holocene soils in Siberia. Radiocarbon 44(1):113–22.
Orlova, LA, Talibov, AG, Ponomarchuk, VA. 2007. Raspredelenie radiouglerodnykh dat dlya arkheologicheskikh pamyatnikov vtoroi poloviny golotsena lesostepnoi zony Zapadnoi Sibiri i ikh korrelyatsiya s izmeneniyami klimata [The distribution of radiocarbon dates for the archaeological sites of the second half of the Holocene in Western Siberian forest steppe and its correlation with climatic changes]. In: Zaitseva, GI, Kulkova, MA, editors. Radiouglerod v Arkheologicheskikh i Paleoekologicheskikh Issledovaniyakh. St. Petersburg: Teza Publishers. p 334–9.
Parker, AG, Goudie, AS, Stokes, S, White, K, Hodson, MJ, Manning, M, Kennet, D. 2006. A record of Holocene climate change from lake geochemical analyses in southeastern Arabia. Quaternary Research 66(3):465–76.
Patterson, RT, Prokoph, A, Chang, A. 2004. Late Holocene sedimentary response to solar and cosmic ray activity influenced climate variability in the NE Pacific. Sedimentary Geology 172(1–2):6784.
Perry, CA, Hsu, KJ. 2000. Geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence support a solar-output model for climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97(23):12,4338.
Reimer, PJ, Baillie, MGL, Bard, E, Bayliss, A, Beck, JW, Bertrand, CJH, Blackwell, PG, Buck, CE, Burr, GS, Cutler, KB, Damon, PE, Edwards, RL, Fairbanks, RG, Friedrich, M, Guilderson, TP, Hogg, AG, Hughen, KA, Kromer, B, McCormac, G, Manning, S, Bronk Ramsey, C, Reimer, RW, Remmele, S, Southon, JR, Stuiver, M, Talamo, S, Taylor, FW, van der Plicht, J, Weyhenmeyer, CE. 2004. IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0–26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46(3):1029–58.
Roth, S, Reijmer, JG. 2005. Holocene millennial to centennial carbonate cyclicity recorded in slope sediments of the Great Bahama Bank and its climatic implications. Sedimentology 52(1):161–81.
Schwamborn, G, Fedorov, G, Schirrmeister, L, Meyer, H, Hubberten, H-W. 2008. Periglacial sediment variations controlled by late Quaternary climate and lake level change at Elgygytgyn Crater, Arctic Siberia. Boreas 37(1):5565.
Semenov, VA. 2004. K probleme neolitizatsii Minusinskoi kotlovini i Tuvi (verhneeniseyskaya neoliticheskaya kultura) [The problem of Neolithization of Minusinsk depression and Tuva (Upper Yenisei Neolithic culture)]. In: Zaitseva, GI, Timifeev, VI, editors. Problemy Khronologii i Etnokulturnykh Vzaimodeistvii v Evrasii. St. Petersburg: Teza Publishers. p 7087.
Stuiver, M, Becker, B. 1993. High precision decadal calibration of the radiocarbon time scale AD 1950–6000 BC. Radiocarbon 35(1):3565.
van Geel, B, Beer, J. 2007. Solnechnaya aktivnost i ekspansiya skifskih kultur [Solar activity and the expansion of the Scythian cultures]. In: Zaitseva, GI, Kulkova, MA, editors. Radiouglerod v Arkheologicheskikh i Paleoekologicheskikh Issledovaniyakh. St. Petersburg: Teza Publishers. p 365–80.
van Geel, B, van der Plicht, J, Kilian, MR, Klaver, ER, Kouwenberg, JHM, Renssen, H, Reyneau-Farrera, I, Waterbolk, HT. 1998. The sharp rise of 14C ca. 800 cal BC: possible causes, related climatic teleconnections and the impact on human environments. Radiocarbon 40(1):535–50.
van Geel, B, Raspopov, OM, Renssen, H, van der Plicht, J, Dergachev, VA, Meijer, HAJ. 1999. The role of solar forcing upon climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 18(3):331–8.
van Geel, B, Bokovenko, NA, Burova, ND, Chugunov, KV, Dergachev, VA, Dirksen, VG, Kulkova, M, Nagler, A, Parzinger, H, van der Plicht, J, Vasiliev, SS, Zaitseva, GI. 2004. The sun climate change and the expansion of the Scythian culture after 850 BC. In: Scott, EM, Alekseev, AY, Zaitseva, GI, editors. Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. p 151–8.
Vadetskaya, EB. 1986. Arkheologicheskie Pamyatniki v Stepyakh Eniseya [Archaeological Monuments in the Steppes of Yenisei River]. Leningrad: Nauka Publishers. 179 p.
Vasiliev, SA. 2001. Pozdnie komplexy mnogosloinoi stoyanki Uy II i problema razvitiya kamennogo veka v golozene na Verkhnem Enisee [The later complexes of the multilayer site Ui-II and the problem of the development of the Stone Age cultures in the Upper Yenisei River basin during the Holocene]. Arkheologicheskie Novosti 8:6276.
Vdovina, TA. 2004. Avariinye raskopki na mogilnike Nizhny Ayri-Tash [The rescue excavations of Nizhny Ayri-Tash butrial ground]. Drevnosti Altaya 12:13.
Yu, ZC, Zhao, Y, Zhao, C, Ito, E, Kodama, KP, Chen, FH. 2006. Complex responses of regional climate on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau to Holocene large-scale climate forcing. Geophysical Research Abstracts 8:09741.
Zaitseva, GI, van Geel, B, Bokovenko, NA, Chugunov, KV, Dergachev, VA, Dirksen, VG, Kulkova, MA, Nagler, A, Parzinger, G, van der Plicht, J, Bourova, ND, Lebedeva, LM. 2004. Chronology and possible links between climatic and cultural change during the first millennium BC in southern Siberia and Central Asia. Radiocarbon 46(1):259–76.
Zaitseva, GI, Chugunov, KV, Bokovenko, NA, Dergachev, VA, Dirksen, VG, van Geel, B, Kulkova, MA, Lebedeva, LM, Sementsov, AA, van der Plicht, J, Scott, EM, Vasiliev, SS, Lokhov, KI, Bourova, N. 2005. Chronological study of archaeological sites and environmental change around 2600 BP in the Eurasian steppe belt. Geochronometria 24:97107.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed