Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-q7jt5 Total loading time: 0.262 Render date: 2021-03-07T15:34:38.466Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Article contents

Allocation of Terrestrial Carbon Sources Using 14CO2: Methods, Measurement, and Modeling

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 February 2016

Scott J Lehman
Affiliation:
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
John B Miller
Affiliation:
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Chad Wolak
Affiliation:
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
John Southon
Affiliation:
Keck AMS Facility, University of California, Irvine, California, USA
Pieter P Tans
Affiliation:
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Stephen A Montzka
Affiliation:
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Colm Sweeney
Affiliation:
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Arlyn Andrews
Affiliation:
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Brian LaFranchi
Affiliation:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California, USA
Thomas P Guilderson
Affiliation:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California, USA
Jocelyn C Turnbull
Affiliation:
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand

Abstract

The radiocarbon content of whole air provides a theoretically ideal and now observationally proven tracer for recently added fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in the atmosphere (Cff ). Over large industrialized land areas, determination of Cff also constrains the change in CO2 due to uptake and release by the terrestrial biosphere. Here, we review the development of a Δ14CO2 measurement program and its implementation within the US portion of the NOAA Global Monitoring Division's air sampling network. The Δ14CO2 measurement repeatability is evaluated based on surveillance cylinders of whole air and equates to a Cff detection limit of <0.9 ppm from measurement uncertainties alone. We also attempt to quantify additional sources of uncertainty arising from non-fossil terms in the atmospheric 14CO2 budget and from uncertainties in the composition of “background” air against which Cff enhancements occur. As an example of how we apply the measurements, we present estimates of the boundary layer enhancements of Cff and Cbio using observations obtained from vertical airborne sampling profiles off of the northeastern US. We also present an updated time series of measurements from NOAA GMD's Niwot Ridge site at 3475 m asl in Colorado in order to characterize recent Δ14CO2 variability in the well-mixed free troposphere.

Type
Atmospheric Carbon Cycle
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Baiter, M. 2012. Using radiocarbon to go beyond good faith in measuring CO2 emissions. Science 337(6093):400–1.Google Scholar
Biasing, TJ, Broniak, CT, Marland, G. 2005. The annual cycle of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions in the United States. Tellus B 57(2):107–15.Google Scholar
Boden, TA, Marland, G, Andres, RJ. 2010. Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ciais, P, Friedlingstein, P, Schimel, DS, Tans, PP. 1999. A global calculation of the δ13C of soil respired carbon: implications for the biospheric uptake of anthropogenic CO2 . Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13(2):519–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conway, TJ, Tans, PP, Waterman, LS, Thoning, KW, Kitzis, DR, Masarie, KA, Zhang, N. 1994. Evidence for inter-annual variability of the carbon cycle from the NOAA/CMDL global air sampling network. Journal of Geophysical Research 99(D11):22,83155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graven, HD, Gruber, N. 2011. Continental-scale enrichment of atmospheric 14CO2 from the nuclear power industry: potential impact on the estimation of fossil fuel-derived CO2 . Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11(5):14,583605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graven, HD, Guilderson, TP, Keeling, RF. 2007. Methods for high-precision 14C AMS measurement of atmospheric CO2 at LLNL. Radiocarbon 49(2):349–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graven, HD, Stephens, BB, Guilderson, TP, Campos, TL, Schimel, DS, Campbell, JE, Keeling, RF. 2009. Vertical profiles of biospheric and fossil fuel-derived CO2 and fossil fuel CO2: CO ratios from airborne measurements of Δ14C, CO2 and CO above Colorado, USA. Tellus B 61(3):536–46.Google Scholar
Graven, HD, Guilderson, TP, Keeling, RF. 2012. Observations of radiocarbon in CO2 at seven global sampling sites in the Scripps flask network: analysis of spatial gradients and seasonal cycles. Journal of Geophysical Research 117: D02303, doi:10.1029/2011JD016535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsueh, D, Krakauer, NY, Randerson, JT, Xu, X, Trumbore, SE, Southon, JR. 2007. Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil-fuel derived CO2 in surface air across North America. Geophysical Research Letters 34: L02816, doi:10.1029/2006GL027032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 2004. Management of Waste Containing Tritium and Carbon-14. Technical Report Series no. 421. Vienna: IAEA. 109 p.Google Scholar
Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (JCGM). 2008. International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms. 3rd edition. Metrology, JCfGi, editor. Geneva: Bureau Internation des Poids et Mesures.Google Scholar
Krol, M, Houweling, S, Bregman, B, van den Broek, M, Segers, A, van Velthoven, P, Peters, W, Dentener, F, Bergamaschi, P. 2005. The two-way nested global chemistry-transport zoom model TM5: algorithm and applications. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5:417–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lehman, SJ, Miller, JB, Turnbull, JC, Southon, JR, Tans, PP, Sweeney, C. 2011. 14CO2 measurements in the NOAA/ESRL Global Co-operative Sampling Network: an update on measurements and data quality. In: Brand, WA, editor. 15th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide, Other Greenhouse Gases and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques (Jena, GDR 7–10 September 2009). World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch Report No. 194. Geneva: WMO. p 315–8.Google Scholar
Levin, I, Kromer, B, Schmidt, M, Sartorius, H. 2003. A novel approach for independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by 14CO2 observations. Geophysical Research Letters 30:2194, doi:10.1029/2003GL018477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin, I, Kromer, B. 2004. The tropospheric 14CO2 level in mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (1959–2003). Radiocarbon 46(3):1261–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin, I, Hammer, S, Kromer, B, Meinhardt, F. 2008. Radiocarbon observations in atmospheric CO2: determining fossil fuel CO2 over Europe using Jungfraujoch observations as background. Science of the Total Environment 391(2–3):211–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levin, I, Naegler, T, Kromer, B, Diehl, M, Francey, RJ, Gomez-Pelaez, AJ, Steele, LP, Wagenbach, D, Weller, R, Worthy, DE. 2010. Observations and modelling of the global distribution and long-term trend of atmospheric 14CO2 . Tellus B 62(1):2646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, JB, Lehman, SJ, Montzka, SA, Sweeney, C, Miller, BR, Karion, A, Wolak, C, Dlugokencky, EJ, Southon, J, Turnbull, JC, Tans, PP. 2012. Linking emissions of fossil fuel CO2 and other anthropogenic trace gases using atmospheric 14CO2 . Journal of Geophysical Research 117:D08302, doi:10.1029/2011JD017048. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Randerson, J, Enting, IG, Schuur, EAG, Caldeira, K, Fung, IY. 2002. Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere Δ14CO2: post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4):1112, doi:10.1029/2002GB001876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stohl, AC, Forster, A, Frank, A, Seibert, P, Wotawa, G. 2005. Technical note: the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART version 6.2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5:2461–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M, Polach, HA. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19(3):355–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, MV, Randerson, JT. 1999. Impulse response functions of terrestrial carbon cycle models: method and application, Global Change Biology 5(4):371–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thoning, KW, Tans, PP, Komhyr, WD. 1989. Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory 2. Analysis of the NOAA GMCC data, 1974–1985. Journal of Geophysical Research 94(D6):8549–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turnbull, JC, Miller, JB, Lehman, SJ, Tans, PP, Sparks, RJ, Southon, J. 2006. Comparison of 14CO2, CO, and SF6 as tracers for recently added fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere and implications for biological CO2 exchange. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L01817, doi:10.1029/2005GL024213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turnbull, JC, Lehman, SJ, Miller, JB, Sparks, RJ, Southon, JR, Tans, PP. 2007. A new high precision 14CO2 time series for North American continental air. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: D11310, doi:10.1029/2006JD008184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turnbull, J, Rayner, P, Miller, J, Naegler, T, Ciais, P, Cozic, A. 2009. On the use of 14CO2 as a tracer for fossil fuel CO2: quantifying uncertainties using an atmospheric transport model. Journal of Geophysical Research 114: D22302, doi:10.1029/2009JD012308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turnbull, JC, Lehman, SJ, Morgan, S, Wolak, C. 2010. A new automated extraction system for 14C measurement in atmospheric CO2 . Radiocarbon 52(3):1261–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turnbull, JC, Tans, PP, Lehman, SJ, Baker, D, Conway, TJ, Chung, YS, Gregg, J, Miller, JB, Southon, JR, Zhou, L-X. 2011. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia. Journal of Geophysical Research 116: D24306, doi:10.1029/2011JD016691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Lehman et al. supplementary material

Table S1

File 105 KB

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 46 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 7th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Allocation of Terrestrial Carbon Sources Using 14CO2: Methods, Measurement, and Modeling
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Allocation of Terrestrial Carbon Sources Using 14CO2: Methods, Measurement, and Modeling
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Allocation of Terrestrial Carbon Sources Using 14CO2: Methods, Measurement, and Modeling
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *