Skip to main content Accessibility help

Introducing the Bunya Pine – A Noble Denizen of the Scrub

  • John Huth


But what am I to say of the Bunya-Bunya brush? About this majestic tree whose trunk looks like a pillar supporting the vault of Heaven?



Hide All


1 Leichhardt, F. L., ‘A letter 9th January 1844 to Lt. R. Lynd’, Brisbane River Valley – Pioneer Observations and Reminiscences, Brisbane History Group Sources, 5 (1991).

2 Hooker, W. J., ‘Figure and description of a new species of Araucaria’, London J Bot ii (1843): 498506.

3 Boland, D. J., Brooker, M. I. H., Chippendale, G. M., Hall, N., Hyland, B. P. M., Johnston, R. D., Kleining, D. A. Turner, J. D., Forest Trees of Australia, (Melbourne: Thomas Nelson, 1985).

4 Smith, I. R., Principal Bio-diversity Officer, Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, 2002.

5 Swain, E. H. F., The Timbers and Forest Products of Queensland, (Brisbane: Government Printer, 1928).

6 Wilde, M. H. Eames, A. J., ‘The ovule and “seed” of Araucaria bidiwilli with discussion of the taxonomy of the genus’, Annals of Botany, N.S. Vol XII, July (1948): 311327.

7 Swain, E. H. F., op. cit.

8 Haines, R. J., ‘Embryo Development and Anatomy in Araucaria Juss.’, Aust J. Bot. 31 (1983): 125–40; Noel, D., The Bunya – An Australian Nut with Potential, (video), Subiaco, Western Australia: Tree Crops Centre (1990).

9 Doley, D., ‘Storage and germination of bunya pine seed’, unpublished seminar notes, Department of Botany, University of Queensland, 1986.

10 Hemsley 1901–02 cited in Burrows, G. E., Boag, T. S. Stockey, R., ‘A morphological investigation of the unusual cryptogeal germination strategy of bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii) — an Australian rain forest conifer’, Int J. Plant Sci. 153 (3) (1992): 503512.

11 Parsons, R., Creating with Bunya Nuts, (Nanango: Wyndham Publishers, nd).

12 Bootle, K., Wood in Australia: Types, Properties and Uses, (Sydney: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983).

13 Smith, W. J., Kynaston, W. T., Cause, M. L. Grimmett, J. G., Building Timbers Properties and Recommendations for their Use in Queensland, (Queensland Forest Service Department of Primary Industries, Technical Pamphlet No. 1, 1991).

14 Jones, S., Four Bunya Seasons in Baroon 1842–1845, (Maleny, Queensland: Vagabond Ventures Cairncross Press, 1997).

15 Jerome, P., Senior Elder of the Jarowair people and custodian of the Bunya Mountains, Bunya Symposium, Griffith University, 2002.

16 Hilary, Sullivan, 1977, ‘Aboriginal gatherings in southeast Queensland, with special reference to the exploitation of Bunya nuts’, unpublished BA Hons Thesis, Australian National University, 1977.

17 Curr cited in Steele, J. G. C., Aboriginal Pathways in Southeast Queensland and the Richmond River, (St Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1984).

18 Meston, A., ‘The Bunya Feast in the wild romantic days’, The Courier Mail 6 Oct. 1923.

19 Symons, P. Symons, S., Bush Heritage, (Nambour, Queensland: 1994).

20 Mathew, J., Two Representative Tribes of Queensland, (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1910).

21 Petrie, C. C., Tom Petrie's Reminiscences of Early Queensland, (St Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1904).

22 Mathew 1910, op. cit.

23 Cited in Hooker, W. J., ‘Figure and description of a new species of Araucaria’, London J Bot ii (1843): 498506.

24 Meston 1923, op. cit.

25 Moynihan, C., The Feast of the Bunya – an Aboriginal Ballad, reset and reprinted 1985, (Brisbane: Watson Ferguson and Co, 1901).

26 Cameron, D. C., ‘A journal noting February 1845’, Brisbane River Valley – Pioneer Observations and Reminiscences, Brisbane History Group Sources 5 (1991).

27 Lang, J. D., Cooksland in North-eastern Australia, (London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1847).

28 Leichhardt, F. L., The Letters of F.W. Ludwig Leichhardt Volume 3 (trans. Aurousseau, M. 1968), (Cambridge: The Hakluyt Society, Cambridge University Press, 1843).

29 Simpson, S., ‘Papers relative to aborigines, Australian Colonies’, in Journal of Dr. Stephen Simpson, (1843): 300.

30 Archer, C., ‘An extract from a letter written by Charles Archer to William Archer, Laurig, Norway: From Durundur near Woodford 23 November 1844’, Brisbane River Valley – Pioneer Observations and Reminiscences, Brisbane History Group Sources 5 (1991).

31 Pettigrew, W., ‘The habitat and peculiarities of some of our timbers,’ a paper read before the Queensland Philosophical Society 2 September 1877, (Brisbane: Government Printer, 1878).

32 Thorne, E., Queen of the Colonies, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1876: 232).

33 Swain 1928, op. cit., 66.

34 Young, H. E., ‘The romance of the bunya pine’, The Queensland Naturalist January (1939): 414.

35 Meston 1923, op. cit.

36 Dornan, D., and Cryle, D., The Petrie Family, (St Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1992).

37 Russell, H. S., The Genesis of Queensland, republished 1989, (Toowoomba: Vintage Books, 1989).

38 Humphrys, R., Bonyi Bonyi – Life and Legends of the Bunya Mountains, (Nanango: Wyndham Observer, 1992).

39 Brown, E., ‘Nineteenth Century Cooloola – a history of human contact and environmental change’, unpublished Master of Arts thesis, University of Queensland, 2000.

40 Bidwill, H. [sic], ‘On a new species of Araucaria from New South Wales’, Ann Nat History viii (1842): 438–9.

41 Hooker 1843, op. cit.

42 Ibid., 1843, 502.

43 Other colonial observers noted that Aboriginal people in north Queensland also used the bunya nuts for large gatherings and also stored them for future use.

44 Broad, G. L., ‘Report of Inspector of Forests’, Annual Report of the Department of Lands, (Brisbane: Government Printer, 1904).

45 New South Wales Government Gazette 14 April 1842: 587.

46 Heap, E. G., ‘In the wake of the Raftsman – a survey of early settlement in the Maroochy District up until the passing of the Macalister's Act (1868) Part 1’, Queensland Heritage VI (3) (1965): 316.

47 Bunya pine timber was not used in the manufacture of butter boxes after the 1930s when it was discovered that butter stored in boxes made from bunya timber became tainted. (L. Harris, Former Forest Overseer and Mill Worker, Imbil, Queensland, 2002).

48 Swain 1928, op. cit.

49 Kingston, R. S. T., ‘The Mechanical and Physical Properties of Hoop and Bunya Pine’, Aust J. of App. Sc. 4 (2) (1953): 197234.

50 Broad 1904, op. cit.; Jarrott, J. K., History of Bunya Mountains National Park, (Brisbane: National Parks Association of Queensland Leo Printing, 1995).

51 Kanowski, P. Snr, Former Senior Manager Queensland Forestry Department, (2001).

Introducing the Bunya Pine – A Noble Denizen of the Scrub

  • John Huth


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.