Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Sea-Surface Temperatures and the History of Monsoon Upwelling in the Northwest Arabian Sea during the Last 500,000 Years

  • Kay-Christian Emeis (a1), David M. Anderson (a2), Heidi Doose (a3), Dick Kroon (a4) and Detlef Schulz-Bull (a5)...

Abstract

Arabian Sea sediments record changes in the upwelling system off Arabia, which is driven by the monsoon circulation system over the NW Indian Ocean. In accordance with climate models, and differing from other large upwelling areas of the tropical ocean, a 500,000-yr record of productivity at ODP Site 723 shows consistently stronger upwelling during interglaciations than during glaciations. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) reconstructed from the alkenone unsaturation index (U K′ 37) are high (up to 27°C) during interglaciations and low (22-24°C) during glaciations, indicating a glacial-interglacial temperature change of >3°C in spite of the dampening effect of enhanced or weakened upwelling. The increased productivity is attributed to stronger monsoon winds during interglacial times relative to glacial times, whereas the difference in SSTs must be unrelated to upwelling and to the summer monsoon intensity. The winter (NE) monsoon was more effective in cooling the Arabian Sea during glaciations then it is now.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Anderson, D. M. Brock, J. C., and Prell, W, L. (1992). Physical upwelling processes, upper ocean environment and the sediment record of the southwest monsoon. In “Upwelling Systems: Evolution since the Early Miocene” (Summerhayes, C. P. Prell, W. L., and Emeis, K.-C., Eds.), pp. 121129, The Geological Society, London.
Anderson, D. M., and Prell, W. L. (1993). A 300 KYR record of upwelling off Oman during the late Quaternary : Evidence of the Asian southwest monsoon. Paleoceanography 8, 193208.
Anderson, D. M., and Webb, R. S. (1994). Ice-age tropics revisited. Nature 367, 2324.
Brassell, S. C. Eglinton, G. Marlowe, I. T. Pflaumann, U., and Samthein, M. (1986). Molecular stratigraphy: a new tool for climatic assessment. Nature 320, 129133.
Brock, J. C. McClain, C. R. Anderson, D. M. Prell, W. L., and Hay, W. W. (1992). Southwest monsoon circulation and environments of recent planktonic foraminifera in the northwestern Arabian Sea. Paleoceanography 7, 799813.
Clemens, S. C. Prell, W. Murray, D. Shimmield, G., and Weedon, G. D.. Forcing mechanisms of the Indian Ocean monsoon. Nature 353, 720725.
CLIMAP. (1981). “Seasonal Reconstructions of the Earth’s Surface at the Last Glacial Maximum.” GSA Map and Chart Series MC-36. The Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO.
CLIMAP. (1984). The last interglacial ocean. Quaternary Research 21, 123224.
Emeis, K.-C. Doose, H. Mix, A., and Schulz-Bull, D. (in press). Alkenone sea-surface temperatures and carbon burial at ODP Site 846 (eastern Equatorial Pacific): The last 1.3 million years. In “Proceedings ODP, Scientific Results, 138” (Mayer, L. Pisias, N. et a1., Eds.). Ocean Drilling Program, College Station.
Findlater, J. (1974). The low-level cross-equatorial air current of the western Indian Ocean during the Northern Summer. Weather 29, 411416.
Ittekkot, V. Haake, B. Bartsch, M. Nait, R. R., and Ramaswamy, V. E.. Organic carbon removal in the sea: the continental connection. In “Upwelling Systems: Evolution since the Early Miocene.” (Summerhayes, C. P. Prell, W. L., and Emeis, K.-C., Eds.), pp. 167176. The Geological Society, London.
Kuhle, M. (1986). Die Vergletscherung Tibets und die Entstehung von Eiszeiten. Spektrum der Wissenschaft (September) 4254.
Luther, M. E. O’Brian, J. J., and Prell, W. L. (1990). Variability in upwelling fields in the northwestern Indian Ocean. 1. Model experiments for the past 18,000 years. Paleoceanography 5, 433446.
Muller, P. J., and Suess, E, (1979). Productivity, sedimentation rate, and sedimentary organic carbon in the ocean. 1. Organic carbon preservation. Deep-Sea Research A 26, 13471362.
Niitsuma, N. Oba, T., and Okada, M. (1991). Oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy at Site 723. Oman margin. In “Proceedings ODP, Scientific Results, 117” (Prell, W. L. Niitsuma, N. Emeis, K.-C., and Meyers, P. A., Eds.), pp. 321341. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station.
Owens, N. J. P. Bur kill, P. H. Mantoura, R. F. C. Woodward, E. M. S. Bellan, I. A. Aiken, J. Howland, R. J. M., and Llewellyn, C. A. (1993). Size fractionated primary production and nitrogen assimilation in the NW Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II 40, 697709.
Paropkari, A. L. Prakash Babu, C., and Mascarhenas, A. (1992). A critical evaluation of depositional parameters controlling the variability of organic carbon in Arabian Sea sediments. Marine Geology , 213226.
Prahl, F, G. Muehlhausen, A., and Zahnle, D. (1988). Further evaluation of long-chain alkenones as indicators of paleoceanographic conditions. Geochimica et Cosmochimics Acta 52, 23032310.
Prell, W. D. Niitsuma, N., et al. (1989). “Proceedings ODP, Initial Repts, 138.” Ocean Drilling Program, College Station.
Prell, W. L., and Kutzbach, I. E. (1987). Monsoon variability over the past 150,000 years. Journal of Geophysical Research 92, 84118425,
Prell, W. L. Marvil, R. E., and Luther, M. E. (1990). Variability in upwelling fields in the northwestern Indian Ocean—2. Data-model comparison at 9000 years B.P. Paleoceanography 5, 447457.
Rostek, F. Ruhland, G. Bassinot, F. C. Muller, P. J. Labeyrie, L. D. Lancelot, Y., and Bard, E. (1993). Reconstructing sea surface temperature and salinity using Sl80 and alkenone records. Nature 364, 319321.
Sikes, E. L. Farrington, J. W., and Keigwin, L, D, (1991). Use of the alkenone unsaturation ratio Uk37 to determine past sea surface temperatures: core-top SST calibrations and methodology considerations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104, 3647.
Sirocko, F. Samthein, M. Erlenkeuser, H. Lange, H. Arnold, M., and Duplessy, J. C. (1993). Century-scale events in monsoonal climate over the past 24,000 years. Nature 364, 322324.
Vogelsang, E. (1990). “Palao-Ozeanographie des Europaischen Nordmeeres an Hand stabiler Kohlenstoffund Sauerstoffisotope.” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation Thesis, University Kiel.
Wyrtki, K. (1973). Physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean. In “The Biology of the Indian Ocean.” (Zeitschel, B., and Gerlach, S. A., Eds.) pp. 1836. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed