Skip to main content Accessibility help

Quantifying episodic erosion and transient storage on the western margin of the Tibetan Plateau, upper Indus River

  • Tara N. Jonell (a1) (a2), Lewis A. Owen (a3), Andrew Carter (a4), Jean-Luc Schwenniger (a5) and Peter D. Clift (a2)...


Transient storage and erosion of valley fills, or sediment buffering, is a fundamental but poorly quantified process that may significantly bias fluvial sediment budgets and marine archives used for paleoclimatic and tectonic reconstructions. Prolific sediment buffering is now recognized to occur within the mountainous upper Indus River headwaters and is quantified here for the first time using optically stimulated luminescence dating, petrography, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, and morphometric analysis to define the timing, provenance, and volumes of prominent valley fills. This study finds that climatically modulated sediment buffering occurs over 103–104 yr time scales and results in biases in sediment compositions and volumes. Increased sediment storage coincides with strong phases of summer monsoon and winter westerlies precipitation over the late Pleistocene (32–25 ka) and mid-Holocene (~8–6 ka), followed by incision and erosion with monsoon weakening. Glacial erosion and periglacial frost-cracking drive sediment production, and monsoonal precipitation mediates sediment evacuation, in contrast to the arid Transhimalaya and monsoonal frontal Himalaya. Plateau interior basins, although volumetrically large, lack transport capacity and are consequently isolated from the modern Indus River drainage. Marginal plateau catchments that both efficiently produce and evacuate sediment may regulate the overall compositions and volumes of exported sediment from the Himalayan rain shadow.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author at: School of Geosciences, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504, USA. E-mail address: (T.N. Jonell).


Hide All
Alizai, A., Carter, A., Clift, P.D., VanLaningham, S., Williams, J.C., Kumar, R., 2011. Sediment provenance, reworking and transport processes in the Indus River by U–Pb dating of detrital zircon grains. Global and Planetary Change 76, 3355.
Allen, P.A., 2008. Time scales of tectonic landscapes and their sediment routing systems. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 296, 728.
Allison, M., Kuehl, S., Martin, T., Hassan, A., 1998. Importance of flood-plain sedimentation for river sediment budgets and terrigenous input to the oceans: insights from the Brahmaputra-Jamuna River. Geology 26, 175178.
Amidon, W.H., Burbank, D.W., Gehrels, G.E., 2005. U-Pb zircon ages as a sediment mixing tracer in the Nepal Himalaya. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 235, 244260.
Armitage, J.J., Duller, R.A., Whittaker, A.C., Allen, P.A., 2011. Transformation of tectonic and climatic signals from source to sedimentary archive. Nature Geoscience 4, 231235.
Bailey, R.M., Arnold, L.J., 2006. Statistical modelling of single grain quartz De distributions and an assessment of procedures for estimating burial dose. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 24752502.
Bajracharya, S., Shrestha, F., Bajracharya, S., Maharjan, S., & Guo, W. 2014. GLIMS Glacier Database. Boulder, CO, (15 April 2015). National Snow and Ice Data Center. doi:
Benn, D.I., Owen, L.A., 1998. The role of the Indian summer monsoon and the mid-latitude westerlies in Himalayan glaciation: review and speculative discussion. Journal of the Geological Society 155, 353363.
Berger, A., Loutre, M.-F., 1991. Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quaternary Science Reviews 10, 297317.
Black, L.P., Kamo, S.L., Allen, C.M., Aleinikoff, J.N., Davis, D.W., Korsch, R.J., Foudoulis, C., 2003. TEMORA 1: a new zircon standard for Phanerozoic U-Pb geochronology. Chemical Geology 200, 155170.
Blöthe, J.H., Korup, O., 2013. Millennial lag times in the Himalayan sediment routing system. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 382, 3846.
Blöthe, J.H., Munack, H., Korup, O., Fülling, A., Garzanti, E., Resentini, A., Kubik, P.W., 2014. Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin. Quaternary Science Reviews 94, 102119.
Bolch, T., Kulkarni, A., Kääb, A., Huggel, C., Paul, F., Cogley, J.G., Frey, H., et al. 2012. The state and fate of Himalayan glaciers. Science 336, 310314.
Bookhagen, B., Burbank, D.W., 2006. Topography, relief, and TRMM-derived rainfall variations along the Himalaya. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L08405.
Bookhagen, B., Burbank, D.W., 2010. Toward a complete Himalayan hydrological budget: spatiotemporal distribution of snowmelt and rainfall and their impact on river discharge. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 115, F03019.
Bookhagen, B., Fleitmann, D., Nishiizumi, K., Strecker, M., Thiede, R., 2006. Holocene monsoonal dynamics and fluvial terrace formation in the northwest Himalaya, India. Geology 34, 601604.
Bookhagen, B., Thiede, R.C., Strecker, M.R., 2005a. Abnormal monsoon years and their control on erosion and sediment flux in the high, arid northwest Himalaya. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 231, 131146.
Bookhagen, B., Thiede, R.C., Strecker, M.R., 2005b. Late Quaternary intensified monsoon phases control landscape evolution in the northwest Himalaya. Geology 33, 149152.
Bull, W.L., Knuepfer, P.L.K., 1987. Adjustments by the Charwell River, New Zealand, to uplift and climatic changes. Geomorphology 1, 1532.
Burbank, D.W., Bookhagen, B., Gabet, E.J., Putkonen, J., 2012. Modern climate and erosion in the Himalaya. Comptes Rendus Geoscience 344, 610626.
Burbank, D.W., Fort, M.B., 1985. Bedrock control on glacial limits: examples from the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges, north-western Himalaya, India. Journal of Glaciology 31, 143149.
Castelltort, S., Van Den Driessche, J., 2003. How plausible are high-frequency sediment supply-driven cycles in the stratigraphic record? Sedimentary Geology 157, 313.
Cawood, P.A., Johnson, M.R., Nemchin, A.A., 2007. Early Palaeozoic orogenesis along the Indian margin of Gondwana: tectonic response to Gondwana assembly. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 255, 7084.
Clift, P.D., 2006. Controls on the erosion of Cenozoic Asia and the flux of clastic sediment to the ocean. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 241, 571580.
Clift, P.D., Carter, A., Krol, M., Kirby, E., 2002. Constraints on India-Eurasia collision in the Arabian Sea region taken from the Indus Group, Ladakh Himalaya, India. In: Clift, P.D., Kroon, D., Gaedicke, C., Craig, J. (Eds.), The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region. Geological Society. London, Special Publications 195, 97116.
Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., 2014. Sediment fluxes and buffering in the post‐glacial Indus Basin. Basin Research 26, 369386.
Clift, P.D., Giosan, L., Blusztajn, J., Campbell, I.H., Allen, C.M., Pringle, M., Tabrez, A., et al. 2008. Holocene erosion of the Lesser Himalaya triggered by intensified summer monsoon. Geology 36, 7982.
Clift, P.D., Plumb, R.A., 2008. The Asian Monsoon: Causes, History and Effects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Clift, P.D., Shimizu, N., Layne, G.D., Blusztajn, J.S., Gaedicke, C., Schlüter, H.U., Clark, M.K., Amjad, S., 2001. Development of the Indus Fan and its significance for the erosional history of the western Himalaya and Karakoram. Geological Society of America Bulletin 113, 10391051.
Demske, D., Tarasov, P.E., Wünnemann, B., Riedel, F., 2009. Late glacial and Holocene vegetation, Indian monsoon and westerly circulation in the Trans-Himalaya recorded in the lacustrine pollen sequence from Tso Kar, Ladakh, NW India. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 279, 172185.
Dey, S., Thiede, R.C., Schildgen, T.F., Wittmann, H., Bookhagen, B., Scherler, D., Jain, V., Strecker, M.R., 2016. Climate-driven sediment aggradation and incision since the late Pleistocene in the NW Himalaya, India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 449, 321331.
Dèzes, P.J., Vannay, J.C., Steck, A., Bussy, F., Cosca, M., 1999. Synorogenic extension: quantitative constraints on the age and displacement of the Zanskar shear zone (northwest Himalaya). Geological Society of America Bulletin 111, 364374.
Dietsch, C., Dortch, J.M., Reynhout, S.A., Owen, L.A., Caffee, M.W., 2015. Very slow erosion rates and landscape preservation across the southwestern slope of the Ladakh Range, India. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 40, 389402.
Dortch, J.M., Dietsch, C., Owen, L.A., Caffee, M.W., Ruppert, K., 2011. Episodic fluvial incision of rivers and rock uplift in the Himalaya and Transhimalaya. Journal of the Geological Society 168, 783804.
Dortch, J.M., Owen, L.A., Caffee, M.W., 2010. Quaternary glaciation in the Nubra and Shyok valley confluence, northernmost Ladakh, India. Quaternary Research 74, 132144.
Dortch, J.M., Owen, L.A., Caffee, M.W., 2013. Timing and climatic drivers for glaciation across semi-arid western Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. Quaternary Science Reviews 78, 188208.
Duller, G.A.T., 2008. Single‐grain optical dating of Quaternary sediments: why aliquot size matters in luminescence dating. Boreas 37, 589612.
Dutt, S., Gupta, A.K., Clemens, S.C., Cheng, H., Singh, R.K., Kathayat, G., Edwards, R.L., 2015. Abrupt changes in Indian summer monsoon strength during 33,800 to 5500 years BP. Geophysical Research Letters 42, 55265532.
Epard, J.-L., Steck, A., 2008. Structural development of the Tso Morari ultra-high pressure nappe of the Ladakh Himalaya. Tectonophysics 451, 242264.
Fang, J., 1991. Lake evolution during the past 30,000 years in China, and its implications for environmental change. Quaternary Research 36, 3760.
Fleitmann, D., Burns, S.J., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Kramers, J., Mangini, A., Matter, A., 2003. Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from southern Oman. Science 300, 17371739.
Fuchs, G., 1986. The geology of the Markha-Khurnak region in Ladakh (India). Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt Wien 128, 403437.
Fuchs, G., 1987. The geology of southern Zanskar (Ladakh) – evidence for the autochthony of the Tethys Zone of the Himalaya. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt Wien 130, 465491.
Gabet, E.J., Burbank, D.W., Pratt-Sitaula, B., Putkonen, J., Bookhagen, B., 2008. Modern erosion rates in the High Himalayas of Nepal. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 267, 482494.
Galy, A., France-Lanord, C., 2001. Higher erosion rates in the Himalaya: geochemical constraints on riverine fluxes. Geology 29, 2326.
Garzanti, E., Andò, S., 2007a. Heavy mineral concentration in modern sands: implications for provenance interpretation. In: Mange, M.A., Wright, D.T. (Eds.), Heavy Minerals in Use. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 517545.
Garzanti, E., Andò, S., 2007b. Plate tectonics and heavy mineral suites of modern sands. In: Mange, M.A., Wright, D.T. (Eds.), Heavy Minerals in Use. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 741763.
Garzanti, E., Vezzoli, G., 2003. A classification of metamorphic grains in sands based on their composition and grade. Journal of Sedimentary Research 73, 830837.
Gasse, F., Arnold, M., Fontes, J.C., Fort, M., Gibert, E., Huc, A., Bingyan, L., Yuanfang, L., Qing, L., Melieres, F., 1991. A 13,000-year climate record from western Tibet. Nature 353, 742745.
Gasse, F., Fontes, J.C., Van Campo, E., Wei, K., 1996. Holocene environmental changes in Bangong Co basin (western Tibet). Part 4: discussion and conclusions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 120, 7992.
Gehrels, G.E., 2014. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology applied to tectonics. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 42, 127149.
Giosan, L., Clift, P.D., Macklin, M.G., Fuller, D.Q., Constantinescu, S., Durcan, J.A., Stevens, T., et al. 2012. Fluvial landscapes of the Harappan civilization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, E1688E1694.
Goodbred, S.L., 2003. Response of the Ganges dispersal system to climate change: a source-to-sink view since the last interstade. Sedimentary Geology 162, 83104.
Griffin, W.L., Powell, W.J., Pearson, N.J., O’Reilly, S.Y., 2008. GLITTER: data reduction software for laser ablation ICP-MS. In: Sylvester, P. (Ed.), Laser Ablation ICP-MS in the Earth Sciences. Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course Series 40. Mineralogical Association of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 204207.
Gupta, A.K., Anderson, D.M., Overpeck, J.T., 2003. Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 421, 354357.
Hales, T.C., Roering, J.J., 2005. Climate-controlled variations in scree production, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geology 33, 701704.
Hales, T.C, Roering, J.J., 2007. Climatic controls on frost cracking and implications for the evolution of bedrock landscapes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 112, F02033.
Hartmann, H., 1987. Pflanzengesellschaften trockener Standorte aus der subalpinen und alpinen Stufe im südlichen und östlichen Ladakh. Candollea 42, 277326.
Hedrick, K.A., Owen, L.A., Chen, J., Robinson, A., Yuan, Z., Yang, X., Imrecke, D.B., et al. 2017. Quaternary history and landscape evolution of a high-altitude intermountain basin at the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, Waqia Valley, Chinese Pamir. Geomorphology 284, 156174.
Hedrick, K.A., Seong, Y.B., Owen, L.A., Caffee, M.W., Dietsch, C., 2011. Towards defining the transition in style and timing of Quaternary glaciation between the monsoon-influenced Greater Himalaya and the semi-arid Transhimalaya of northern India. Quaternary International 236, 2133.
Henderson, A.L., Najman, Y., Parrish, R., BouDagher‐Fadel, M., Barford, D., Garzanti, E., Andò, S., 2010. Geology of the Cenozoic Indus Basin sedimentary rocks: paleoenvironmental interpretation of sedimentation from the western Himalaya during the early phases of India‐Eurasia collision. Tectonics 29, TC6015.
Herren, E., 1987. Zanskar shear zone: northeast-southwest extension within the Higher Himalayas (Ladakh, India). Geology 15, 409413.
Herzschuh, U., 2006. Palaeo-moisture evolution in monsoonal Central Asia during the last 50,000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 163178.
Hewitt, K., 1998. Catastrophic landslides and their effects on the Upper Indus streams, Karakoram Himalaya, northern Pakistan. Geomorphology 26, 4780.
Hewitt, K., 2002. Postglacial landform and sediment associations in a landslide-fragmented river system: the Transhimalayan Indus streams, Central Asia. In: Hewitt, K., Byrne, M.-L., English, M., Young, G. (Eds.), Landscapes of Transition: Landform Assemblages and Transformations in Cold Regions. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp. 6391.
Hobley, D.E., Sinclair, H.D., Mudd, S.M., 2012. Reconstruction of a major storm event from its geomorphic signature: the Ladakh floods, 6 August 2010. Geology 40, 483486.
Honegger, K., Dietrich, V., Frank, W., Gansser, A., Thöni, M., Trommsdorff, V., 1982. Magmatism and metamorphism in the Ladakh Himalayas (the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 60, 253292.
Horton, F., Lee, J., Hacker, B., Bowman-Kamaha’o, M., Cosca, M., 2015. Himalayan gneiss dome formation in the middle crust and exhumation by normal faulting: new geochronology of Gianbul dome, northwestern India. Geological Society of America Bulletin 127, 162180.
Horton, F., Leech, M.L., 2013. Age and origin of granites in the Karakoram shear zone and Greater Himalaya Sequence, NW India. Lithosphere 5, 300320.
Ingersoll, R.V., Bullard, T.F., Ford, R.L., Grimm, J.P., Pickle, J.D., Sares, S.W., 1984. The effect of grain size on detrital modes: a test of the Gazzi-Dickinson point-counting method. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 54, 103116.
Jade, S., Rao, H.J.R., Vijayan, M.S.M., Gaur, V.K., Bhatt, B.C., Kumar, K., Jaganathan, S., Ananda, M.B., Kumar, P.D., 2010. GPS-derived deformation rates in northwestern Himalaya and Ladakh. International Journal of Earth Sciences 100, 12931301.
Jaiswal, M., Srivastava, P., Tripathi, J., Islam, R., 2008. Feasibility of the SAR technique on Quartz sand of terraces of NW Himalaya: a case study from Devprayag. Geochronometria 31, 4552.
Jerolmack, D.J., Paola, C., 2010. Shredding of environmental signals by sediment transport. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L19401.
Jonell, T.N., Carter, A., Böning, P., Pahnke, K., Clift, P.D., 2017. Climatic and glacial impact on erosion patterns and sediment provenance in the Himalayan rain shadow, Zanskar River, NW India. Geological Society of America Bulletin 129, 820836.
Kamp, U., Byrne, M., Bolch, T., 2011. Glacier fluctuations between 1975 and 2008 in the Greater Himalaya Range of Zanskar, southern Ladakh. Journal of Mountain Science 8, 374389.
Kathayat, G., Cheng, H., Sinha, A., Spötl, C., Edwards, R.L., Zhang, H., Li, X., Yi, L., Ning, Y., Cai, Y., 2016. Indian monsoon variability on millennial-orbital timescales. Scientific Reports 6, 24374.
Kirstein, L.A., Foeken, J.P.T., Van Der Beek, P., Stuart, F.M., Phillips, R.J., 2009. Cenozoic unroofing history of the Ladakh Batholith, western Himalaya, constrained by thermochronology and numerical modelling. Journal of the Geological Society 166, 667678.
Kirstein, L.A., Sinclair, H.D., Stuart, F.M., Dobson, K., 2006. Rapid early Miocene exhumation of the Ladakh batholith, western Himalaya. Geology 34, 10491052.
Korup, O., Montgomery, D.R., Hewitt, K., 2010. Glacier and landslide feedbacks to topographic relief in the Himalayan syntaxes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, 53175322.
Kumar, A., Srivastava, P., Meena, N.K., 2017. Late Pleistocene aeolian activity in the cold desert of Ladakh: a record from sand ramps. Quaternary International 443, 1328.
Lee, S.Y., Seong, Y.B., Owen, L.A., Murari, M.K., Lim, H.S., Yoon, H.I., Yoo, K.C., 2014. Late Quaternary glaciation in the Nun‐Kun massif, northwestern India. Boreas 43, 6789.
Leipe, C., Demske, D., Tarasov, P.E., 2014. A Holocene pollen record from the northwestern Himalayan lake Tso Moriri: implications for palaeoclimatic and archaeological research. Quaternary International 348, 93112.
Métivier, F., Gaudemer, Y., 1999. Stability of output fluxes of large rivers in South and East Asia during the last 2 million years: implications on floodplain processes. Basin Research 11, 293303.
Mishra, P.K., Anoop, A., Schettler, G., Prasad, S., Jehangir, A., Menzel, P., Naumann, R., Yousuf, A., Basavaiah, N., Deenadayalan, K., 2015. Reconstructed late Quaternary hydrological changes from Lake Tso Moriri, NW Himalaya. Quaternary International 371, 7686.
Mitchell, W.A., Taylor, P.J., Osmaston, H., 1999. Quaternary geology in Znaskar, NW Indian Himalaya: evidence for restricted glaciation and preglacial topography. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 17, 307318.
Munack, H., Blöthe, J.H., Fülöp, R.H., Codilean, A.T., Fink, D., Korup, O., 2016. Recycling of Pleistocene valley fills dominates 135 ka of sediment flux, upper Indus River. Quaternary Science Reviews 149, 122134.
Murari, M.K., Owen, L.A., Dortch, J.M., Caffee, M.W., Dietsch, C., Fuchs, M., Haneberg, W.C., Sharma, M.C., Townsend-Small, A., 2014. Timing and climatic drivers for glaciation across monsoon-influenced regions of the Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. Quaternary Science Reviews 88, 159182.
Nie, J., Stevens, T., Rittner, M., Stockli, D., Garzanti, E., Limonta, M., Bird, A., et al. 2015. Loess Plateau storage of northeastern Tibetan Plateau–derived Yellow River sediment. Nature. Communications 6, 8511.
Noble, S.R., Searle, M.P., 1995. Age of crustal melting and leukogranite formation from U-Pb zircon and monazite dating in the western Himalaya, Zanskar, India. Geology 23, 11351138.
Osmaston, H., 1994. The geology, geomorphology and Quaternary history of Zangskar. In: Crook, J., Osmaston, H. (Ed.), Himalayan Buddhist Villages: Environment, Resources, Society and Religious Life in Zangskar, Ladakh. University of Bristol, Bristol, UK, pp. 135.
Owen, L.A., 2009. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Himalaya and Tibet. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 21502164.
Owen, L.A., Caffee, M.W., Bovard, K.R., Finkel, R.C., Sharma, M.C., 2006. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of the oldest glacial successions in the Himalayan orogen: Ladakh Range, northern India. Geological Society of America Bulletin 118, 383392.
Owen, L.A., Dortch, J.M., 2014. Nature and timing of Quaternary glaciation in the Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. Quaternary Science Reviews 88, 1454.
Owen, L.A., Gualtieri, L., Finkel, R.C., Caffee, M.W., Benn, D.I., Sharma, M.C., 2002. Reply: cosmogenic radionuclide dating of glacial landforms in the Lahul Himalaya, northern India: defining the timing of Late Quaternary glaciation. Journal of Quaternary Science 17, 279281.
Pant, R., Phadtare, N., Chamyal, L., Juyal, N., 2005. Quaternary deposits in Ladakh and Karakoram Himalaya: a treasure trove of the palaeoclimate records. Current Science 88, 17891798.
Phartiyal, B., Sharma, A., Upadhyay, R., 2005. Quaternary geology, tectonics and distribution of palaeo- and present fluvio/glacio lacustrine deposits in Ladakh, NW Indian Himalaya—a study based on field observations. Geomorphology 65, 241256.
Pognante, U., Castelli, D., Benna, P., Genovese, G., Oberli, F., Meier, M., Tonarini, S., 1990. The crystalline units of the High Himalayas in the Lahul-Zanskar region (northwest India): metamorphictectonic history and geochronology of the collided and imbricated Indian plate. Geological Magazine 127, 101116.
Pratt, B., Burbank, D.W., Heimsath, A., Ojha, T., 2002. Impulsive alluviation during early Holocene strengthened monsoons, central Nepal Himalaya. Geology 30, 911914.
Prescott, J.R., Hutton, J.T., 1994. Cosmic ray contributions to dose rates for luminescence and ESR dating: large depths and long-term time variations. Radiation measurements 23, 497500.
Prins, M., Postma, G., Weltje, G.J., 2000. Controls on terrigenous sediment supply to the Arabian Sea during the late Quaternary: the Makran continental slope. Marine Geology 169, 351371.
Rhodes, E.J., 2011. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of sediments over the past 200,000 years. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 39, 461488.
Romans, B.W., Castelltort, S., Covault, J.A., Fildani, A., Walsh, J., 2016. Environmental signal propagation in sedimentary systems across timescales. Earth-Science Reviews 153, 729.
Saha, S., Sharma, M.C., Murari, M.K., Owen, L.A., Caffee, M.W., 2016. Geomorphology, sedimentology and minimum exposure ages of streamlined subglacial landforms in the NW Himalaya, India. Boreas 45, 284303.
Schaetzl, R.J., Forman, S.L., 2008. OSL ages on glaciofluvial sediment in northern Lower Michigan constrain expansion of the Laurentide ice sheet. Quaternary Research 70, 8190.
Scherler, D., Bookhagen, B., Wulf, H., Preusser, F., Strecker, M.R., 2015. Increased late Pleistocene erosion rates during fluvial aggradation in the Garhwal Himalaya, northern India. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 428, 255266.
Scherler, D., Munack, H., Mey, J., Eugster, P., Wittmann, H., Codilean, A.T., Kubik, P., Strecker, M.R., 2014. Ice dams, outburst floods, and glacial incision at the western margin of the Tibetan Plateau: a >100 k.y. chronology from the Shyok Valley, Karakoram. Geological Society of America Bulletin 126, 738758.
Schlup, M., Carter, A., Cosca, M., Steck, A., 2003. Exhumation history of eastern Ladakh revealed by 40Ar-39Ar and fission track ages: the Indus River–Tso Morari transect, NW Himalaya. Journal of the Geological Society 160, 385399.
Schlup, M., Steck, A., Carter, A., Cosca, M., Epard, J.-L., Hunziker, J., 2011. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 40, 334350.
Schwanghart, W., Scherler, D., 2014. Short Communication: TopoToolbox 2 – MATLAB-based software for topographic analysis and modeling in Earth surface sciences. Earth Surface Dynamics 2, 17.
Searle, M.P., 1983. On the Tectonics of the Western Himalaya. Episodes 1983, 2126.
Searle, M.P., Pickering, K.T., Cooper, D.J.W., 1990. Restoration and evolution of the intermontane Indus molasse basin, Ladakh Himalaya, India. Tectonophysics 174, 301314.
Sharma, S., Chand, P., Bisht, P., Shukla, A.D., Bartarya, S., Sundriyal, Y., Juyal, N., 2016. Factors responsible for driving the glaciation in the Sarchu Plain, eastern Zanskar Himalaya, during the late Quaternary. Journal of Quaternary Science 31, 495511.
Shellnutt, J.G., Bhat, G.M., Wang, K.-L., Brookfield, M.E., Dostal, J., Jahn, B.-M., 2012. Origin of the silicic volcanic rocks of the Early Permian Panjal Traps, Kashmir, India. Chemical Geology 334, 154170.
Shellnutt, J.G., Bhat, G.M., Wang, K.-L., Brookfield, M.E., Jahn, B.-M., Dostal, J., 2014. Petrogenesis of the flood basalts from the Early Permian Panjal Traps, Kashmir, India: geochemical evidence for shallow melting of the mantle. Lithos 204, 159171.
Shi, Y., Yu, G., Liu, X., Li, B., Yao, T., 2001. Reconstruction of the 30–40 ka bp enhanced Indian monsoon climate based on geological records from the Tibetan Plateau. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 169, 6983.
Simpson, G., Castelltort, S., 2012. Model shows that rivers transmit high-frequency climate cycles to the sedimentary record. Geology 40, 11311134.
Sinha, A., Cannariato, K.G., Stott, L.D., Li, H.-C., You, C.-F., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Singh, I.B., 2005. Variability of southwest Indian summer monsoon precipitation during the Bølling-Ållerød. Geology 33, 813816.
Sláma, J., Košler, J., Condon, D.J., Crowley, J.L., Gerdes, A., Hanchar, J.M., Horstwood, M.S.A., et al. 2008. Plešovice zircon—a new natural reference material for U–Pb and Hf isotopic microanalysis. Chemical Geology 249, 135.
Spring, L., Bussy, F., Vannay, J.-C., Huon, S., Cosca, M., 1993. Early Permian granitic dykes of alkaline affinity in the Indian High Himalaya of Upper Lahul and SE Zanskar: geochemical characterization and geotectonic implications. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 74, 251264.
Srivastava, P., Rajak, M.K., Singh, L.P., 2009. Late Quaternary alluvial fans and paleosols of the Kangra basin, NW Himalaya: tectonic and paleoclimatic implications. Catena 76, 135154.
Srivastava, P., Tripathi, J.K., Islam, R., Jaiswal, M.K., 2008. Fashion and phases of Late Pleistocene aggradation and incision in Alaknanda River, western Himalaya India. Quaternary Research 70, 6880.
Staubwasser, M., Weiss, H., 2006. Holocene climate and cultural evolution in late prehistoric–early historic West Asia. Quaternary Research 66, 372387.
Steck, A., Spring, L., Vannay, J.-C., Masson, H., Stutz, E., Bucher, H., Marchant, R., Tièche, J.-C., 1993. Geological transect across the northwestern Himalaya in eastern Ladakh and Lahul (a model for the continental collision of India and Asia). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 86, 219263.
Taylor, P.J., Mitchell, W.A., 2000. The Quaternary glacial history of the Zanskar range, north-west Indian Himalaya. Quaternary International 65–66, 8199.
Thakur, V., Joshi, M., Sahoo, D., Suresh, N., Jayangondapermal, R., Singh, A., 2014. Partitioning of convergence in northwest sub-Himalaya: estimation of late Quaternary uplift and convergence rates across the Kangra reentrant, north India. International Journal of Earth Sciences 103, 10371056.
Vermeesch, P., 2004. How many grains are needed for a provenance study? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 224, 351441.
Vermeesch, P., 2012. On the visualisation of detrital age distributions. Chemical Geology 312–313, 190194.
Vermeesch, P., Resentini, A., Garzanti, E., 2016. An R package for statistical provenance analysis. Sedimentary Geology 336, 1425.
Walder, J., Hallet, B., 1985. A theoretical model of the fracture of rock during freezing. Geological Society of America Bulletin 96, 336346.
Wiedenbeck, M., Hanchar, J.M., Peck, W.H., Sylvester, P., Valley, J., Whitehouse, M., Kronz, A., et al. 2004. Further characterisation of the 91500 zircon crystal. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research 28, 939.
Wintle, A.G., Murray, A.S., 2006. A review of quartz optically stimulated luminescence characteristics and their relevance in single-aliquot regeneration dating protocols. Radiation Measurements 41, 369391.
Wulf, H., Bookhagen, B., Scherler, D., 2010. Seasonal precipitation gradients and their impact on fluvial sediment flux in the northwest Himalaya. Geomorphology 118, 1321.
Wulf, H., Bookhagen, B., Scherler, D., 2012. Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 9, 541594.
Wünnemann, B., Demske, D., Tarasov, P., Kotlia, B.S., Reinhardt, C., Bloemendal, J., Diekmann, B., et al. 2010. Hydrological evolution during the last 15 kyr in the Tso Kar lake basin (Ladakh, India), derived from geomorphological, sedimentological and palynological records. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 11381155.
Yang, S., Zhang, F., Wang, Z., 2012. Grain size distribution and age population of detrital zircons from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River system, China. Chemical Geology 296–297, 2638.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Jonell et al supplementary material
Jonell et al supplementary material 1

 Word (19 KB)
19 KB

Quantifying episodic erosion and transient storage on the western margin of the Tibetan Plateau, upper Indus River

  • Tara N. Jonell (a1) (a2), Lewis A. Owen (a3), Andrew Carter (a4), Jean-Luc Schwenniger (a5) and Peter D. Clift (a2)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.