Skip to main content Accessibility help

Evidence from Lake Baikal for Siberian Glaciation during Oxygen-Isotope Substage 5d

  • Eugene B. Karabanov (a1), Alexander A. Prokopenko (a2), Douglas F. Williams (a3) and Steven M. Colman (a4)


The paleoclimatic record from bottom sediments of Lake Baikal (eastern Siberia) reveals new evidence for an abrupt and intense glaciation during the initial part of the last interglacial period (isotope substage 5d). This glaciation lasted about 12,000 yr from 117,000 to 105,000 yr B.P. according to correlation with the SPECMAP isotope chronology. Lithological and biogeochemical evidence of glaciation from Lake Baikal agrees with evidence for the advance of ice sheet in northwestern Siberia during this time period and also with cryogenic features within the strata of Kazantzevo soils in Southern Siberia. The severe 5d glaciation in Siberia was caused by dramatic cooling due to the decrease in solar insolation (as predicted by the model of insolation changes for northern Asia according to Milankovich theory) coupled with western atmospheric transport of moisture from the open areas of Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas (which became ice-free due to the intense warming during preceeding isotope substage 5e). Other marine and continental records show evidence for cooling during 5d, but not for intense glaciation. Late Pleistocene glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere may have begun in northwestern Siberia.



Hide All
Andrews, J.T., and Mahaffey, M.A.W. (1976). Growth rate of the Laurentide ice sheet and sea level lowering (with special emphasis on the 115,000 B.P. sea level low). Quaternary Research 6, 167183.
Arkhipov, S.A. (1987). Pleistocene chronostratigrapy in northern Siberia. Proceedings of the First International Colloqium on Quaternary stratigraphy of Asia and Pacific Area, Osaka 1986 p. 163–177
Arkhipov, S.A. (1989). Chronostratigraphy of Pleistocene in northern Siberia. Russian Journal of Geology and Geophysics 6, 1321.
Arkhipov, S.A., Bespaly, V.G., Faustova, M.A., Glushkova, O.Yu, Isaeva, L.L., and Velichko, A.A. (1986). Ice-sheet reconstructions. Quaternary Science Reviews 5, 475483.
Arkhipov, S.A., Isaeva, L.L., Bespaly, V.G., and Glushkova, O. (1986). Glaciation of Siberia and north-east USSR. Quaternary Science Reviews 5, 463474.
Arkhipov, S.A., Ehlers, J., Johnson, R.G., and Wright, H.E. (1995). Glacial drainage towards the Mediterranean during the Middle and Late Pleistocene. BOREAS 24, 196206.
Arkhipov, S.A., Levchuk, L.K., and Shelkoplyas, V.N. (1994). Stratigraphy and geological structure of Quaternary cover in the lower-Ob-Yamal-Taz region, West Siberia. Russian Journal of Geology and Geophysics 35, 7489.
Arkhipov, S.A., Zykina, V.S., Krukover, A.A., Gnibidenko, Z.N., and Shelkoplyas, V.N. (1997). Stratigraphy and paleomagnetism of glacial and loess-soil deposits of West Siberian Plain. Russian Journal of Geology and Geophysics 38, 10271048.
Barnola, J.M., Raynaud, D., Korotkevich, Y.S., and Lorius, C. (1987). Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2 . Nature 329, 408414.
Baumann, K-H., Lackschewitz, K.S., Mangerud, J., Spielhagen, R.F., Wolf-welling, T.C.W., Henrich, R., and Kassens, H. (1995). Reflection of Scandinavian ice sheet fluctuation in Norwegian Sea sedements during the past 150,000 years. Quaternary Research 43, 185197.
Bazarov, D-D.B. (1986). Cenozoic in Pribaikalie and Western Zabaikalie. Nauka Press, Novosibirsk.p. 180
Quaternary International 37, (1997). 317.
Berger, A., Fichefet, T., Gallee, H., Tricot, C., and Ypersele, J.P. (1992). Entering the glaciation with a 2-d coupled climate model. Quaternary Science Reviews 11, 481493.
Bezrukov, P.A. (1955). On the distribution and accumulation rates of siliceous sediments in Okhotskoye Sea. Doklady AN SSSR 103, 473477.
Bezrukova, E.V., Bogdanov, Yu.A., Williams, D.F., Granina, L.Z., Grachev, M.A., Ignatova, N.V., Karabanov, E.B., Kuptzov, V.M., Kurylev, A.B., Letunova, P.P., Likhoshway, E.V., Chernyaeva, G.P., Shimaraeva, M.K., and Yakushin, A.O. (1991). Deep changes of North Baikal ecosystem in Holocene. Doklady AN SSSR 321, 10321037.
Bezrukova, E.V., and Fowell, S.J. (1994). Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate of southern Siberia, from a 98 m core of Lake Baikal. Abstracts with Programs 26, A64
Boulton, G.S., Smith, G.D., Jones, A.S., and Newsome, J. (1985). Glacial geology and glaciology of the last mid-latitude ice sheets. Journal of The Geological Society of London 142, 447474.
Bradbury, J.P., Bezrukova, E., Chernyaeva, G., Colman, S.M., Khursevich, G., King, J., and Likhoshway, Ye. (1994). A synthesis of post-glacial diatom records from Lake Baikal. Journal of Paleolimnology 10, 231252.
Brigham-Grette, J., Hopkins, D. Emergent marine record and paleoclimate of the last interglacion along the northwest Alaskan coast. Quaternary Research, 43, 159, 173.
Broecker, W.S., and van Donk, J. (1970). Insolation changes, ice volumes, and the18 . Geophysics and Space Physics Reviews 8, 169198.
Carter, S.J., and Colman, S.M. (1994). Biogenic silica in Lake Baikal sediments: Results from 1990–1992 American cores. Journal Great Lakes Research 20, 751760.
Colman, S.M., Peck, J.A., Karabanov, E.B., Carter, S.J., Bradbury, J.P., King, J.W., and Williams, D.F. (1995). Continental climate response to orbital forcing from biogenic silica records in Lake Baikal. Nature 378, 769771.
Colman, S.M., Jones, G.A., Rubin, M., King, J.W., Peck, J.A., and Orem, W.H. (1996). AMS radiocarbon analyses from Lake Baikal, Siberia: challenges of dating sediments from a large oligotrophic lake. Quaternary Science Reviews (Quaternary Geochronology) 15, 669684.
Crowley, T.J., and North, G.R. (1991). Paleoclimatology. Oxford University Press, New York.p. 339
Fowell, S.J., Bezrukova, E.V., and Williams, D.F. (1995). A 600 kyr age for the first long core of Lake Baikal, based on correlation of the palynological record with the SPECMAP marine oxygen isotope curve. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 27, A133
Goldyrev, G. S (1982). Sediment accumulation and Quaternary history of Baikal basin. 181, Nauka Press, Novosibirsk.
Granina, L.Z., Grachev, M.A., Karabanov, E.B., Kuptsov, V.M., Shimaraeva, M.K., and Williams, D. (1993). Accumulation of biogenic silica in bottom sediments of Baikal. Russian Journal of Geology and Geophysics 34, 126135.
Grosswald, M.G. (1980). Late Weichselian ice sheet of Northern Eurasia. Quaternary. Research 13, 132.
HJPM Mommersteeg, , Loutre, M.F., Young, R., Wijmstra, T.A., and Hooghiemstra, H. (1995). Orbital forced frequencies in the 975000 year pollen record from Tenagi Philippon (Greece). Climate Dynamics 11, 424.
Hooghiemstra, H., Melice, J.L., Berger, A., and Sackleton, N.J. (1993). Frequency spectra and paleoclimatic variability of high-resolution 30-1450 kyr Funza I pollen record (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia). Quaternary Science Review 12, 141156.
Hovan, S.A., Rea, D.K., and Pisias, N.G. (1991). Late Pleistocene continental climate and oceanic variability recorded in Northwest Pacific sediments. Paleoceanography 6, 349370.
Imbrie, J., Hays, J.D., Martinson, D.G., McIntyre, A., Mix, A.C., Morley, J.J., Pisias, N.G., Prell, W.L., and Shackleton, N.J. (1984). The orbital of Pleistocene climate: Support from a revised chronology of the marine 18O record.Berger, A.L. Milankovitch and Climate Reidel, Dordrecht.269305.
Karabanov, E., Bezrukova, E., Granina, L., Inouchi, Y., Lazo, F., Letunova, P., Mukhina, V., Shimaraeva, M., and Stolbova, E. (1992). Climatic sedimentation rhythms of Baikal sediments. IPPCCE Newsletter 6, 2130.
Kaufman, D.S., Forman, S.L., Lea, P.D., and Wobus, C.W. (1996). Age of Pre-late-Winsconsin Glacial-Estuarine Sedimentation, Bristol Bay, Alaska. Quaternary Research 45, 5972.
Kellogg, T.B. (1976). Late Quaternary climatic changes: Evidence from deep-sea cores of Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145, 77110.
Khotinsky, N.A. (1984). Holocene climatic change.Velichko, A.A. Late Quaternary Environments of Soviet Union Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.305309.
Kind, N.V. (1974). Geochronology of Late Quaternary according to isotopic data. Geological Institute, AN SSSR, Transactions Nauka Press, Moscow.p. 811–814
Kukla, G., Heller, F., Liu, X.M., Xu, T.C., Liu, T.S., and An, Z.S. (1988). Pleistocene climates in China dated by magnetic susceptibility. Geology 16, 811814.
Lisitzin, A.P. (1985). The silica cycle during the last ice age. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 50, 241270.
Logachov, I.A., Antoshenko-Olenev, I.V., Bazarov, D-D.B., Galkin, V.I., Goldyrev, G.S., Endrikhinsky, A.S., Zolotaryov, A.G., Sizikov, A.I., Ufimtzev, G.F., and Florensov, N.A. (1974). Mountainous Terranes of Pribaikalie and Zabaikalie. Nauka Press, Moscow.359
Lut, B.F. (1964). Geomorphology of Lake Baikal bottom. Geomorphology of Lake Baikal Bottom and Its Shores Nauka Press, Novosibirsk.p. 5–123
Martinson, D.G., Pisias, N.G., Hayes, J.D., Imbrie, J., Moore, T., and Shackleton, N.J. (1987). Age dating the orbital theory of the ice ages. Development of a high-resolution 0 to 300,00-year chronostratigraphy. Quaternary Research 27, 129.
Matz, V.D. (1993). The structure and development of the Baikal rift depression. Earth-Science Reviews 34, 81118.
Melles, M., Grobe, H., and Hubberten, H.W. (1995). Mineral composition of the clay fraction in the 100 m core BDP-93-2 from Lake Baikal—preliminary results. IPPCCE Newsletter 9, 1722.
Mortlock, R.A., Charles, C.D., Froelich, P.N., Zibello, M.A., Saltzman, J., Hays, J.D., and Burckle, L.H. (1991). Evidence for lower productivity in the Antarctic Ocean during the last glaciation. Nature 351, 220223.
Neftel, A., Oescheger, H., Schwander, J., Stauffer, B., and Zumbrunn, R. (1982). Ice core sample measurements give atmospheric CO2 . Nature 295, 220223.
Peck, J.A., King, J.W., Colman, S.M., and Kravchinsky, V.A. (1994). A rock-magnetic record from Lake Baikal, Siberia: Evidence for late Quaternary climate change. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 122, 221238.
Qiu, L., Williams, D., Gvozdkov, A., Karabanov, E., and Shimaraeva, M. (1993). Biogenic silica accumulation and paleoproductivity in the northern basin of Lake Baikal during the Holocene. Geology 12, 2528.
Ravsky, E. I (1972). Sediment accumulation and climates of Inner Asia in Late Quaternary. 341, Nauka Press, Moscow.
Royer, J.F., Deque, M., and Pestiaux, P. (1983). Orbital forcing of the inception of the Laurentide ice sheet. Nature 304, 4346.
Ruddiman, W.F. (1977). Late Quaternary deposition of ice rafted sand in the Subpolar North Atlantic (40° to 65°N). Geological Society of America, Bulletin 88, 18131827.
Ruddiman, W.F., and McIntyre, A. (1976). Northeast Atlantic Paleoclimatic Changes over the past 600,000 years. Geological Society of America, Memoir 145, 111146.
Ruddiman, W.F., and McIntyre, A. (1979). Warmth of the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean During Northern Hemisphere Ice-Sheet Growth. Science 204, 173175.
Ruddiman, W.F., and McIntyre, A. (1981). Oceanic mechanisms for amplification of the 23,000-year ice volume cycle. Science 212, 617627.
Ruddiman, W.F., McIntyre, A., Niebler-Hunt, V., and Durazzi, J.T. (1980). Oceanic evidence for the mechanism of Rapid Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. Quaternary Research 13, 3364.
Shackleton, N.J. (1988). Oxygen isotopes, ice volume, and sea level. Quaternary Science Reviews 6, 183190.
Short, D.A., Mengel, J.G., Crowley, T.J., Hyde, W.T., and North, G.R. (1991). Filtering of Milankovitch cycles by Earth's geography. Quaternary Research 35, 157171.
Stoermer, E.F., Edlund, M.B., Pilskaln, C.H., and Schelske, C.L. (1995). Siliceous microfossil distribution in the surficial sediments of Lake Baikal. Journal of Paleolimnolnogy 14, 6982.
van der Hammen, T., Wijmstra, T.A., Zagwijn, W.H., and Turekian, K.K. (1971). The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven.391424.
Veklich, M.F., Sirenko, N.A., Matviishina, Zh.N., Adamenko, O.M., Melnichuk, I.V., Perederii, V.I., Turlo, N.P., Bogutzki, A.B., Veklich, V.M., and Vozgin, B.D. (1984). Paleogeographical stages and detailed division of the Ukrainian Pleistocene. Naukova Dumka, Kiev.p. 58
Velichko, A.A. (1984). Late Pleistocene spatial paleoclimatic reconstructions.Velichko, A.A. Late Quaternary Environments of Soviet Union Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.261285.
Vorobyova, G. A (1990). Stratigraphy and paleogeography of south-central Siberia. In, Stratigraphy, paleogeography and archeology of south-central Siberia, Medvedev, G. I., 10, 17., Irkutsk Univ. Press, Irkutsk.
Vykhristyuk, L.A. (1979). Amorphous silica in Baikal bottom sediments. Litologiya and Poleznie Iskopayemie 1, 4351.
Williams, D.F., Qiu, L., Karabanov, E., and Gvozdkov, A. (1993). Geochemical indicators of productivity and sources of organic matter in surficial sediments of Lake Baikal. Russian Journal of Geology and Geophysics 34, 111125.
Williams, D.F., Peck, J., Karabanov, E.B., Prokopenko, A.A., Kravchinsky, V., King, J., and Kuzmin, M.I. (1997). Lake Baikal record of continental climate response to orbital insolation during the past 5 million years. Science 278, 11141117.
Winograd, I.J., Coplen, T.B., Landwehr, J.M., Riggs, A.C., Ludwig, K.R., Szabo, B.J., Kolesar, P.T., and Revesz, K.M. (1992). Continuous 500,000-year climate record from vein calcite in Devils Hole, Nevada. Science 258, 255260.
Zhongli, D., Rutter, N., and Tungsheng, L. (1993). Pedostratigraphy of Chinese loess Deposits and Climatic cycles in the last 2.5 myr. Catena 20, 7391.
Zubakov, V.A., and Borzenkova, I.I. (1990). Global Paleoclimate of Late Cenozoic. Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York.p. 456
Zykina, V.S. (1996). Reconstruction of Siberian late Pleistocene natural environment according to paleosoils. Geodynamics and evolution of the Earth p. 222–224
Zykina, V.S., and Kim, Yu.V. (1989). Soil formation and loess accumulation during Pleistocene in southeastern part of West Siberia.Skabichevskaya, N.A. Pleistocene of Siberia. Stratigraphy and Regional Correlation Nauka Press, 8186.
Zykina, V.S., Volkova, I.A., and Dergachyova, M.I. (1981). Upper Quaternary deposits and paleosoils of Novosibirsk Ob region. Nauka Press, Moscow.p. 204


Evidence from Lake Baikal for Siberian Glaciation during Oxygen-Isotope Substage 5d

  • Eugene B. Karabanov (a1), Alexander A. Prokopenko (a2), Douglas F. Williams (a3) and Steven M. Colman (a4)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed