Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Deglacial and Holocene Archaeal Lipid-Inferred Paleohydrology and Paleotemperature History of Lake Qinghai, Northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau

  • Huanye Wang (a1) (a2) (a3), Hailiang Dong (a4) (a5), Chuanlun L. Zhang (a6) (a7), Hongchen Jiang (a8), Zhonghui Liu (a9), Meixun Zhao (a10) and Weiguo Liu (a1) (a11)...

Abstract

We investigate the distribution of archaeal lipids in a 5.8-m-long sedimentary core recovered from Lake Qinghai to extract regional hydroclimate and temperature signals since the last deglaciation for this important region. The paleohydrology was reconstructed from the relative abundance of thaumarchaeol (%thaum) and the archaeol and caldarchaeol ecometric (ACE) index. The %thaum-inferred lake-level record was extended to deglaciation, showing three periods (11.9–13.0, 14.1–14.7 and 15.1–17.2 cal ka BP) with relatively higher lake levels than those during the early Holocene. The ACE record demonstrates three periods (10.6–11.2, 13.2–13.4 and 17.4–17.6 cal ka BP) of elevated salinity when the lake was shallow. Filtered TEX86 record based on archaeal lipid distributions corresponded to relatively higher lake levels, implying that a certain lake size is required for using the TEX86 paleothermometer. At 1–4 cal ka BP, the reconstructed temperature fluctuated significantly and correlated negatively with inferred lake level, indicating that lake temperature and hydrological change might be coupled during this period. We attribute this co-variance to the importance of summer temperature in controlling evaporation for this arid/semi-arid region. Moreover, our results indicate that archaeal lipids have potential in reconstructing paleoclimate patterns from lacustrine sedimentary cores, but the data should be interpreted with care.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author at: State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, IEE, CAS, Xi'an 710075, China. E-mail address: liuwg@loess.llqg.ac.cn (W. Liu).

References

Hide All
An, Z., Colman, S.M., Zhou, W., Li, X., Brown, E.T., Jull, A.J.T., Cai, Y., Huang, Y., Lu, X., and Chang, H. (2012). Interplay between the westerlies and Asian monsoon recorded in Lake Qinghai sediments since 32 ka.. Scientific Reports 2. 10.1038/srep00619.
Bard, E., Rostek, F., Turon, J.L., and Gendreau, S. (2000). Hydrological impact of Heinrich events in the subtropical northeast Atlantic.. Science 289, 13211324.
Berke, M.A., Johnson, T.C., Werne, J.P., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2012a). A mid-Holocene thermal maximum at the end of the African humid period.. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 351–352, 95104.
Berke, M.A., Johnson, T.C., Werne, J.P., Grice, K., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2012b). Molecular records of climate variability and vegetation response since the Late Pleistocene in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa.. Quaternary Science Reviews 55, 5974.
Blaga, C.I., Reichart, G.J., Heiri, O., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2009). Tetraether membrane lipid distributions in lake particulate matter and sediments: a study of 47 European lakes along a north–south transect.. Journal of Paleolimnology 41, 523540.
Blumenberg, M., Seifert, R., Reitner, J., Pape, T., and Michaelis, W. (2004). Membrane lipid patterns typify distinct anaerobic methanotrophic consortia.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101, 1111111116.
Brochier-Armanet, C., Boussau, B., Gribaldo, S., and Forterre, P. (2008). Mesophilic crenarchaeota: proposal for a third archaeal phylum, the Thaumarchaeota.. Nature Reviews Microbiology 6, 245252.
Castañeda, I.S., and Schouten, S. (2011). A review of molecular organic proxies for examining modern and ancient lacustrine environments.. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 28512891.
Colman, S.M., Yu, S.Y., An, Z., Shen, J., and Henderson, A.C.G. (2007). Late Cenozoic climate changes in China's western interior: a review of research on Lake Qinghai and comparison with other records.. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 22812300.
De Deckker, P., and Forester, R.M. (1988). The use of ostracods to reconstruct continental palaeoenvironmental records.. In: De Deckker, P., Colin, J.P., Peypouquet, J.P. (Eds.), Ostracoda in the Earth Sciences. Elsevier, Amsterdam., pp. 175199.
Fan, P., Zhang, P., and Ma, B. (1994). Evolution of Recent Environment in Qinghai Lake and its Prediction. Science Press, Beijing, China.(in Chinese).
Fu, C., An, Z., Qiang, X., Bloemendal, J., Song, Y., and Chang, H. (2013). Magnetostratigraphic determination of the age of ancient Lake Qinghai, and record of the East Asian monsoon since 4.63 Ma.. Geology 41, 875878.
Gao, L., Nie, J., Clemens, S., Liu, W., Sun, J., Zech, R., and Huang, Y. (2012). The importance of solar insolation on the temperature variations for the past 110 kyr on the Chinese Loess Plateau.. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 317–318, 128133.
Günther, F., Thiele, A., Gleixner, G., Xu, B., Yao, T., and Schouten, S. (2014). Distribution of bacterial and archaeal ether lipids in soils and surface sediments of Tibetan lakes: implications for GDGT-based proxies in saline high mountain lakes.. Organic Geochemistry 67, 1930.
He, Y., Liu, W., Zhao, C., Wang, Z., Wang, H., Liu, Y., Qin, X., Hu, Q., An, Z., and Liu, Z. (2013a). Solar influenced late Holocene temperature changes on the northern Tibetan Plateau.. Chinese Science Bulletin 58, 10531059.
He, Y., Zhao, C., Wang, Z., Wang, H., Song, M., Liu, W., and Liu, Z. (2013b). Late Holocene coupled moisture and temperature changes on the northern Tibetan Plateau.. Quaternary Science Reviews 80, 4757.
He, Y., Zheng, Y., Pan, A., Zhao, C., Sun, Y., Song, M., Zheng, Z., and Liu, Z. (2014). Biomarker-based reconstructions of Holocene lake-level changes at Lake Gahai on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.. The Holocene 10.1177/0959683613519689.
Heinrich, H. (1988). Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130,000 years.. Quaternary Research 29, 142152.
Henderson, A.C.G., and Holmes, J.A. (2009). Palaeolimnological evidence for environmental change over the past millennium from Lake Qinghai sediments: a review and future research prospective.. Quaternary International 194, 134147.
Henderson, A.C.G., Holmes, J.A., and Leng, M.J. (2010). Late Holocene isotope hydrology of Lake Qinghai, NE Tibetan Plateau: effective moisture variability and atmospheric circulation changes.. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 22152223.
Herzschuh, U. (2006). Palaeo-moisture evolution at the margins of the Asian monsoon during the last 50 ka.. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 163178.
Herzschuh, U., Kramer, A., Mischke, S., and Zhang, C. (2009). Quantitative climate and vegetation trends since the late glacial on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau deduced from Koucha Lake pollen spectra.. Quaternary Research 71, 162171.
Hopmans, E.C., Schouten, S., Pancost, R.D., van der Meer, M.T.J., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2000). Analysis of intact tetraether lipids in archaeal cell material and sediments by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 14, 585589.
Huguet, C., Hopmans, E.C., Febo-Ayala, W., Thompson, D.H., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., and Schouten, S. (2006). An improved method to determine the absolute abundance of glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether lipids.. Organic Geochemistry 37, 10361041.
Huguet, A., Fosse, C., Metzger, P., Fritsch, E., and Derenne, S. (2010). Occurrence and distribution of non-extractable glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in temperate and tropical podzol profiles.. Organic Geochemistry 41, 833844.
Ji, J., Shen, J., Balsam, W., Chen, J., Liu, L., and Liu, X. (2005). Asian monsoon oscillations in the northeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau since the late glacial as interpreted from visible reflectance of Qinghai Lake sediments.. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 233, 6170.
Jia, G., Rao, Z., Zhang, J., Li, Z., and Chen, F. (2013). Tetraether biomarker records from a loessepaleosol sequence in the western Chinese Loess Plateau.. Frontiers in Microboilogy 4, .
Kim, J.-H., van der Meer, J., Schouten, S., Helmke, P., Willmott, V., Sangiorgi, F., Koç, N., Hopmans, E.C., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2010). New indices and calibrations derived from the distribution of crenarchaeal isoprenoid tetraether lipids: implications for past sea surface temperature reconstructions.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 46394654.
Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A.C.M., and Levrard, B. (2004). A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth.. Astronomy and Astrophysics 428, 261285.
Li, X., and Liu, W. (2014). Water salinity and productivity recorded by ostracod assemblages and their carbon isotopes since the early Holocene at Lake Qinghai on the northeastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China.. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 407, 2533.
Lister, G., Kelts, K., Chen, K.Z., Yu, J.Q., and Niessen, F. (1991). Lake Qinghai, China: closed-basin lake levels and the oxygen isotope record for ostracoda since the latest Pleistocene.. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 84, 141162.
Liu, Z., Henderson, A.C.G., and Huang, Y. (2006). Alkenone-based reconstruction of late-Holocene surface temperature and salinity changes in Lake Qinghai, China.. Geophysical Research Letters 33, L09707 10.1029/2006GL026151.
Liu, W., Liu, Z., Fu, M., and An, Z. (2008). Distribution of the C37 tetra-unsaturated alkenone in Lake Qinghai, China: a potential lake salinity indicator.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72, 988997.
Liu, Z., Pagani, M., Zinniker, D., DeConto, R., Huber, M., Brinkhuis, H., Shah, S.R., Leckie, M., and Pearson, A. (2009). Global cooling during the Eocene–Oligocene climate transition.. Science 323, 11871190.
Liu, X.J., Lai, Z.P., Yu, L.P., Liu, K., and Zhang, J.R. (2011a). Lake level variations of Qinghai Lake in northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau since 3.7 ka based on OSL dating.. Quaternary International 236, 5764.
Liu, W., Liu, Z., Wang, H., He, Y., Wang, Z., and Xu, L. (2011b). Salinity control on long-chain alkenone distributions in lake surface waters and sediments of the northern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, China.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 16931703.
Liu, W., Liu, Z., An, Z., Wang, X., and Chang, H. (2011c). Wet climate during the ‘Little Ice Age’ in the arid Tarim Basin, northwestern China.. The Holocene 21, 409416.
Liu, W., Li, X., An, Z., and Xu, L. (2013a). Total organic carbon isotopes: a novel proxy of lake level from Lake Qinghai in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China.. Chemical Geology 347, 153160.
Liu, W., Wang, H., Zhang, C.L., Liu, Z., and He, Y. (2013b). Distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids along an altitudinal transect on Mt. Xiangpi, NE Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, China.. Organic Geochemistry 57, 7683.
Lu, H., Zhao, C., Mason, J., Yi, S., Zhao, H., Zhou, Y., Ji, J., Swinehart, J., and Wang, C.M. (2011). Holocene climate changes revealed by Aeolian deposits from the Qinghai Lake area (northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau) and possible forcing mechanisms.. The Holocene 21, 297304.
LZBCAS (Lanzhou Branch Chinese Academy of Sciences), (1994). Evolution of recent environment in Qinghai Lake and its prediction.. West Center of Resource and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences Science Press, Beijing, China.(in Chinese).
Ménot, G., and Bard, E. (2012). A precise search for drastic temperature shifts of the past 40,000 years in southeastern Europe.. Paleoceanography 27, PA2210.
Mischke, S., Kramer, M., Zhang, C., Shang, H., Herzschuh, U., and Erzinger, J. (2008). Reduced early Holocene moisture availability in the Bayan Har Mountains, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, inferred from a multi-proxy lake record.. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 267, 5976.
Pancost, R., Hopmans, E.C., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Medinauth Scientific Party, (2001). Archaeal lipids in Mediterranean cold seeps: molecular proxies for anaerobic methane oxidation.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65, 16111627.
Pearson, A., and Ingalls, A.E. (2013). Assessing the use of archaeal lipids as marine environmental proxies.. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 41, 359384.
Pearson, E.J., Juggins, S., Talbot, H.M., Weckström, J., Rosén, P., Ryves, D.B., Roberts, S.J., and Schmidt, R. (2011). A lacustrine GDGT-temperature calibration from the Scandinavian Arctic to Antarctic: renewed potential for the application of GDGT-paleothermometry in lakes.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 62256238.
Peterse, F., Prins, M.A., Beets, C.J., Troelstra, S.R., Zheng, H., Gu, Z., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2011). Decoupled warming and monsoon precipitation in East Asia over the last deglaciation.. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 301, 256264.
Peterse, F., Martínez-García, A., Zhou, B., Beets, C.J., Prins, M.A., Zheng, H., and Eglinton, T.I. (2014). Molecular records of continental air temperature and monsoon precipitation variability in East Asia spanning the past 130,000 years.. Quaternary Science Reviews 83, 17.
Pitcher, A., Rychlik, N., Hopmans, E.C., Spieck, E., Rijpstra, W.I.C., Ossebaar, J., Schouten, S., Wagner, M., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2010). Crenarchaeol dominates the membrane lipids of Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis, a thermophilic Group I.1b Archaeon.. The ISME Journal 4, 542552.
Pitcher, A., Hopmans, E.C., Mosier, A.C., Francis, C.A., Reese, S.K., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2011). Core and intact polar glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether lipids of ammonia-oxidizing archaea enriched from marine and estuarine sediments.. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77, 34683477.
Powers, L.A., Werne, J.P., Johnson, T.C., Hopmans, E.C., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., and Schouten, S. (2004). Crenarchaeotal membrane lipids in lake sediments: a new paleotemperature proxy for continental paleoclimate reconstruction?.. Geology 32, 613616.
Powers, L.A., Johnson, T.C., Werne, J.P., Castaneda, I.S., Hopmans, E.C., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., and Schouten, S. (2005). Large temperature variability in the southern African tropics since the Last Glacial Maximum.. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L08706.
Powers, L., Werne, J.P., Vanderwoude, A.J., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Hopmans, E.C., and Schouten, S. (2010). Applicability and calibration of the TEX86 paleothermometer in lakes.. Organic Geochemistry 41, 404413.
Powers, L.A., Werne, J.P., Castañeda, I.S., Johnson, T.C., Hopmans, E.C., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., and Schouten, S. (2011). Organic geochemical records of environmental variability in Lake Malawi (East Africa) during the last 700 years, Part I: the TEX86 temperature record.. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 303, 133139.
Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, P.G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C.E., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P.M., Guilderson, T.P., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., Hatté, C., Heaton, T.J., Hoffman, D.L., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kaiser, K.F., Kromer, B., Manning, S.W., Niu, M., Reimer, R.W., Richards, D.A., Scott, E.M., Southon, J.R., Staff, R.A., Turney, C.S.M., and van der Plicht, J. (2013). IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP.. Radiocarbon 55, 18691887.
Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Schefuss, E., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2002). Distributional variations in marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids: a new tool for reconstructing ancient sea water temperatures?.. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 204, 265274.
Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Kuypers, M.M.M., van Breugel, Y., Forster, A., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2003). Extremely high sea water temperatures at low latitudes during the middle Cretaceous as revealed by archaeal membrane lipids.. Geology 31, 10691072.
Schouten, S., Huguet, C., Hopmans, E.C., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2007). Improved analytical methodology of the TEX86 palaeothermometry by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–mass spectrometry.. Analytical Chemistry 79, 29402944.
Schouten, S., Rijpstra, W.I.C., Schubert, C.J., Durisch-Kaiser, E., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2012). Distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids in the water column of Lake Tanganyika.. Organic Geochemistry 53, 3437.
Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2013). The organic geochemistry of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids: a review.. Organic Geochemistry 54, 1961.
Shen, J., Liu, X., Wang, S., and Matsumoto, R. (2005). Palaeoclimatic changes in the Qinghai Lake area during the last 18,000 years.. Quaternary International 136, 131140.
Shi, Y., Lu, M., and Li, W. (1958). Physical geography with emphasis on geomorphology around Lake Qinghai.. Acta Geographica Sinica 24, 3348.(in Chinese).
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., van Duin, A.C.T., and Geenevasen, J.A.J. (2002). Crenarchaeol: the characteristic core glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipid of cosmopolitan pelagic crenarchaeota.. Journal of Lipid Research 43, 16411651.
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Ossebaar, J., Abbas, B., Schouten, S., and Verschuren, D. (2009). Fluxes and distribution of tetraether lipids in an equatorial African lake: constraints on the application of the TEX86 palaeothermometer and branched tetraether lipids in lacustrine settings.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73, 42324249.
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Ossebaar, J., Schouten, S., and Verschuren, D. (2012a). Distribution of tetraether lipids in the 25-ka sedimentary record of Lake Challa: extracting reliable TEX86 and MBT/CBT palaeotemperatures from an equatorial African lake.. Quaternary Science Reviews 50, 4354.
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Rijpstra, W.I.C., Hopmans, E.C., Man-Young, Jung, Jong-Geol, Kim, Rhee, S.-K., Stieglmeier, M., and Schleper, C. (2012b). Intact polar and core glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether lipids of group 1.1a and 1.1b ammonia-oxidizing archaea in soil.. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78, 68666874.
Spang, A., Hatzenpichler, R., Brochier-Armanet, C., Rattei, T., Tischler, P., Spieck, E., Streit, W., Stahl, D.A., Wagner, M., and Schleper, C. (2010). Distinct gene set in two different lineages of ammonia-oxidizing archaea supports the phylum Thaumarchaeota.. Trends in Microbiology 18, 331340.
Sun, Q., Chu, G., Liu, M., Xie, M., Li, S., Ling, Y., Wang, X., Shi, L., Jia, G., and , H. (2011). Distributions and temperature dependence of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in recent lacustrine sediments from China and Nepal.. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, G01008.
Thomas, E.K., Huang, Y., Morrill, C., Zhao, J., Wegener, P., Clemens, S., Colman, S., and Gao, L. (2014). Abundant C4 plants on the Tibetan Plateau during the late glacial and early Holocene.. Quaternary Science Reviews 87, 2433.
Thompson, L.G., Yao, T.D., Davis, M.E., Henderson, K.A., Mosley-Thompson, E., Lin, P.-N., Beer, J., Synal, H.-A., Cole-Dai, J., and Bolzan, J.F. (1997). Tropical climate instability: the last glacial cycle from a Qinghai–Tibetan ice core.. Science 276, 18211825.
Tierney, J.E., Russell, J.M., Huang, Y., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Hopmans, E.C., and Cohen, A.S. (2008). Northern hemisphere controls on tropical southeast African climate during the past 60,000 years.. Science 322, 252255.
Tierney, J.E., Mayes, M.T., Meyer, N., Johnson, C., Swarzenski, P.W., Cohen, A.S., and Russell, J.M. (2010a). Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500.. Nature Geoscience 3, 422425.
Tierney, J.E., Russell, J.M., Eggermont, H., Hopmans, E.C., Verschuren, D., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2010b). Environmental controls on branched tetraether lipid distributions in tropical East African lake sediments.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 74, 49024918.
Turich, C., and Freeman, K.H. (2011). Archaeal lipids record paleosalinity in hypersaline systems.. Organic Geochemistry 42, 11471157.
Wakeham, S.G., Lewis, C.A., Hopmans, E.C., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2003). Archaea mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane in deep euxinic waters of the Black Sea.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, 13591374.
Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Kong, X.G., Shao, X., Chen, S., Wu, J., Jiang, X., Wang, X., and An, Z. (2008). Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years.. Nature 451, 10901093.
Wang, Y., Shen, J., Xu, X., Liu, X., Sirocko, F., Zhang, E., and Ji, J. (2011). Environmental changes during the past 13500 cal. a BP deduced from lacustrine sediment records of Lake Qinghai, China.. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 30, 479489.
Wang, H., Liu, W., Zhang, C.L., Wang, Z., Wang, J., Liu, Z., and Dong, H. (2012). Distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in surface sediments of Lake Qinghai and surrounding soil.. Organic Geochemistry 47, 7887.
Wang, H., Liu, W., Zhang, C.L., Jiang, H., Dong, H., Lu, H., and Wang, J. (2013). Assessing the ratio of archaeol to caldarchaeol as a salinity proxy in highland lakes on the northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau.. Organic Geochemistry 54, 6977.
Wang, H., Dong, H., Zhang, C.L., Jiang, H., Zhao, M., Liu, Z., Lai, Z., and Liu, W. (2014). Water depth affecting thaumarchaeol production in Lake Qinghai, northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan plateau: implications for paleo lake levels and paleoclimate.. Chemical Geology 368, 7684.
Weijers, J.W.H., Schouten, S., Spaargaren, O.C., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2006). Occurrence and distribution of tetraether membrane in soils: implications for the use of the BIT index and the TEX86 SST proxy.. Organic Geochemistry 37, 16801693.
Weijers, J.W.H., Schouten, S., van den Donker, J.C., Hopmans, E.C., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2007). Environmental controls on bacterial tetraether membrane lipid distribution in soils.. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 703713.
Williams, W.D. (1991). Chinese and Mongolian saline lakes: a limnological overview.. Hydrobiologia 210, 3966.
Woltering, M., Johnson, T.C., Werne, J.P., Schouten, S., and Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2011). Late Pleistocene temperature history of Southeast Africa: a TEX86 temperature record from Lake Malawi.. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 303, 93102.
Wu, X., Dong, H.L., Zhang, C.L., Liu, X., Hou, W., Zhang, J., and Jiang, H. (2013). Evaluation of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether proxies for reconstruction of the paleo-environment on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau.. Organic Geochemistry 61, 4556.
Xie, S., Pancost, R.D., Chen, L., Evershed, R.P., Yang, H., and Zhang, K. (2012). Microbial lipid records of highly alkaline deposits and enhanced aridity associated with significant uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in the Late Miocene.. Geology 40, 291294.
Xu, H., Hou, Z., An, Z., Liu, X., and Dong, J. (2010). Major ion chemistry of waters in Lake Qinghai catchments, NE Qinghai–Tibet plateau, China.. Quaternary International 212, 3543.
Yang, H., Ding, W., Wang, J., Jin, C., He, G., Qin, Y., and Xie, S. (2012). Soil pH impact on microbial tetraether lipids and terrestrial input index (BIT) in China.. Science China Earth Sciences 55, 236245.
Yang, H., Pancost, R.D., Tang, C., Ding, W., Dang, X., and Xie, S. (2014). Distributions of isoprenoid and branched glycerol dialkanol diethers in Chinese surface soils and a loess-paleosol sequence: implications for the degradation of tetraether lipids.. Organic Geochemistry 66, 7079.
Yu, J.Q. (2005). Lake Qinghai, China: A multi-proxy investigation on sediment cores for the reconstructions of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment since the Marine Isotope Stage 3. Dissertation, Faculty of Materials and Geoscience, Technical University of Darmstadt., .
Zachos, J.C., Schouten, S., Bohaty, S., Quattlebaum, T., Sluijs, A., Brinkhuis, H., Gibbs, S., and Bralower, T. (2006). Extreme warming of mid-latitude coastal ocean during the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum: inferences from TEX86 and isotope data.. Geology 34, 737740.
Zhang, P., Zhang, B., and Yang, W. (1989). On the model of post-glacial palaeoclimatic fluctuation in Qinghai Lake region.. Quaternary Sciences 9, 6677.(in Chinese).
Zhang, P.X., Zhang, B.Z., Qian, G.M., Li, H.J., and Xu, L.M. (1994). The study of Paleoclimatic parameter of Qinghai Lake since Holocene.. Quaternary Sciences 3, 225236.(in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhang, C.L., Pancost, R.D., Qian, Y., Sassen, R., and Macko, S.A. (2003). Archaeal lipid biomarkers and isotopic evidence of anaerobic methane oxidation associated with gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico.. Organic Geochemistry 34, 827834.
Zhang, Y., Zhang, C.L., Liu, X., Li, L., Hinrichs, K.U., and Noakes, J.E. (2011). Methane Index: a tetraether archaeal lipid biomarker indicator for detecting the instability of marine gas hydrates.. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 307, 525534.
Zhang, C.L., Wang, J., Wei, Y., Zhu, C., Huang, L., and Dong, H. (2012). Production of branched tetraether lipids in the lower Pearl River and estuary: effects of extraction methods and impact on bGDGT proxies.. Frontiers in Microbiology 2, 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00274.
Zhao, C., Liu, Z., Rohling, E.J., Yu, Z., Liu, W., He, Y., Zhao, Y., and Chen, F. (2013). Holocene temperature fluctuations in the northern Tibetan Plateau.. Quaternary Research 80, 5565.
Zink, K.J., Vandergous, M.J., Mangelsdorf, K., Dieffenbacher, A.C., and Schwark, L. (2010). Application of bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) to develop modern and past temperature estimates from New Zealand lakes.. Organic Geochemistry 41, 10601066.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed