Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Comparison of Foraminiferal, Coccolithophorid, and Radiolarian Paleotemperature Equations: Assemblage Coherency and Estimate Concordancy1

  • Barbara Molfino (a1), Nilva G. Kipp (a2) and Joseph J. Morley (a1)

Abstract

The Imbrie-Kipp method of paleotemperature estimation is rigorously tested by comparing Atlantic temperature equations independently derived from the microfossils of three biotic groups: the Foraminifera, Coccolithophorida, and Radiolaria. This method consists of two steps: factor analysis of the modern sea-bed data of the individual groups which resolves discrete biogeographic assemblages and regression analysis of the modern assemblage data with observed sea-surface temperature data to obtain paleotemperature equations. Assemblage biogeography shows a simple subdivision into warm (low latitude) and cold (high latitude) for all biotic groups. Between biotic groups there is greater similarity among high-latitude assemblages than low-latitude ones. Correlating the assemblage data with observed sea-surface temperatures to produce temperature distribution patterns shows differences of less than 2°C in their optimum and critical temperatures. Regression analysis produced accurate temperature equations for each biotic group, all with standard errors of estimate of less than or equal to 2°C. Multiple correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.970. Applying these equations to two multiple biotic data sets (the modern and ice-age sea-bed data) and comparing their temperature estimates using the standard error pooled, shows over 87% concordancy for both data sets. Unlike the modern data, the discordancy among temperature estimates of the ice-age data shows a distinct geographic distribution; its cause is believed to be oceanographic, a difference in the water-mass structure between the modern and ice-age ocean.

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All
1

Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory Contribution No. 3300.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
, A.W.H. (1977). An ecological, zoogeographic and taxonomic review of recent planktonic foraminifera. Oceanic Micropaleontology Ramsey, A.T.S. Vol. 1, 1100.
Biscaye, P.E. Kolla, V. Turekian, K.K. (1976). Distribution of calcium carbonate in surface sediments of the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 81, 25952603.
Brand, L.E. Guillard, R.R.L. (1981). The effects of continuous light and light intensity on the reproduction rates of twenty-two species of marine phytoplankton. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 50, 119132.
Brunner, C.A. Cooley, J.F. (1976). Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico during the last glacial maximum 18,000 yrs ago. Geological Society of America Bulletin 87, 681686.
Casey, R.E. (1971). Distribution of polycystine Radiolaria in the oceans in relation to physical and chemical conditions. The Micropalaeontology of Oceans Funnell, B.M. Riede, W.R. 151159.
Chisholm, S.W. Brand, L.E. (1981). Persistence of cell division phasing in marine phytoplankton in continuous light after entrainment to light: dark cycles. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 51, 107118.
CLIMAP, . 1976. The surface of the ice-age earth. Science 191, 11311137.
CLIMAP Project Members, McIntyre, A. Leader LGM Project, . 1981. Seasonal reconstructions of the earth's surface at the last glacial maximum. Geological Society of America Map Series.
Crow, E.L. Davis, F.A. Maxfield, M.W. (1960). Statistics Manual. Dover. New York.
Darbyshire, J. (1964). A hydrological investigation of the Agulhas Current area. Deep-Sea Research 11, 781815.
Eppley, R.W. Rogers, J.N. McCarthy, J.J. Sournia, A. (1971). Light/dark periodicity in nitrogen assimilation of the marine phytoplankters Skeletonema costatum and Coccolithus huxleyi in N-limited chemostat culture. Journal of Phycology 7, 150154.
Feller, W. (1950). An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications Vol. 1New York.
Gardner, J.V. Hays, J.D. (1976). Responses of sea-surface temperature and circulation to global climatic change during the past 200,000 years in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Cline, R.M. Hays, J.D. Geological Society of America Memoir 145, 221246.
Geitzenauer, K.R. Roche, M.B. McIntyre, A. (1976). Modern Pacific coccolith assemblages: Derivation and application to late Pleistocene paleotemperature analysis. Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Cline, R.M. Hays, J.D. Geological Society of America Memoir 145, 423449.
Gründlingh, M.L. (1978). Drift of a satellite-tracked buoy in the southern Agulhas Current and Agulhas Return Current. Deep-Sea Research 25, 12091224.
Harris, T.F.W. Legickis, R. Van Forest, D. (1978). Satellite infra-red images in the Agulhas Current System. Deep-Sea Research 25, 543548.
Harris, T.F.W. Van Forest, D. (1978). The Agulhas Current in March 1969. Deep-Sea Research 25, 549561.
Hays, J.D. Lozano, J.A. Shackleton, N.J. Irving, G. (1976). Reconstruction of the Atlantic and western Indian Ocean sectors of the 18,000 B.P. Antarctic Ocean. Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Cline, R.M. Hays, J.D. Geological Society of America Memoir 145, 337372.
Hobson, L.A. Lorenzen, C.J. (1972). Relationships of chlorophyll maxima to density structure in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Deep-Sea Research 19, 297306.
Hutson, W.H. Prell, W.L. (1980). A paleoecological transfer function, FI-2, for Indian Ocean planktonic foraminifera. Journal of Paleontology 54, 381399.
Imbrie, J. Kipp, N.G. (1971). A new micropaleontological method for quantitative paleoclimatology: Application to a late Pleistocene Caribbean core. The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages Turekian, K. Yale Univ. Press. New Haven 71181.
Imbrie, J. van Donk, J. Kipp, N.G. (1973). Paleoclimatic investigation of a late Pleistocene Caribbean deep-sea core: Comparison of isotopic and faunal methods. Quaternary Research 3, 1038.
Kipp, N.G. (1976). New transfer function for estimating past sea-surface conditions from sea-bed distribution of planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in the North Atlantic. Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Cline, R.M. Hays, J.D. Geological Society of America Memoir 145, 341.
Kling, S.A. (1979). Vertical distribution of polycystine Radiolarians in the Central North Pacific. Marine Micropaleontology 4, 295318.
Lisitzin, A.P. (1972). Sedimentation in the World Ocean. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 17, 1218.
Lozano, J.A. Hays, J.D. (1976). Relationship of radiolarian assemblages to sediment types and physical oceanography in the Atlantic and western Indian Ocean sectors of the Antarctic Ocean. Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Cline, R.M. Hays, J.D. Geological Society of America Memoir 145, 303336.
Luz, B. (1977). Late Pleistocene paleoclimates of the South Pacific based on statistical analysis of planktonic foraminifers. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 22, 6178.
McIntyre, A. , A.W.H. (1967). Modern Coccolithophoridae of the Atlantic Ocean. I. Placoliths and Cyrtoliths. Deep-Sea Research 14, 561597.
McIntyre, A. Ruddiman, W.F. Jantzen, R. (1972). Southward penetrations of the North Atlantic Polar Front: Faunal and floral evidence of largescale surface water mass movements over the last 225,000 years. Deep-Sea Research 19, 6177.
Molina-Cruz, A. (1977). The relationship of the southern trade winds to upwelling processes during the last 75,000 years. Quaternary Research 8, 324338.
Moore, T.C. Jr.. 1973. Late Pleistocene-Holocene oceanographic changes in the northeastern Pacific. Quaternary Research 3, 99109.
Moore, T.C. Jr.. 1978. The distribution of radiolarian assemblages in the modern and ice-age Pacific. Marine Micropaleontology 3, 229266.
Morley, J.J. (1979). A transfer function for estimating paleoceanographic conditions based on deep-sea surface sediment distribution of radiolarian assemblages in the South Atlantic. Quaternary Research 12, 381395.
Morley, J.J. Hays, J.D. (1979). Comparison of glacial and interglacial oceanographic conditions in the South Atlantic from variations in calcium carbonate and radiolarian distribution. Quaternary Research 12, 396408.
Nelson, D.M. Brand, L.E. (1979). Cell division periodicity in 13 species of marine phytoplankton on a light: dark cycle. Journal of Phycology 15, 6775.
Okada, H. Honjo, S. (1973). The distribution of oceanic coccolithophorids in the Pacific. Deep-Sea Research 20, 355374.
Okada, H. McIntyre, A. (1979). Seasonal distribution of modern coccolithophores in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Biology 54, 319328.
Ortner, P. (1978). Investigations into the Seasonal Deep Chlorophyll Maximum in the Western North Atlantic, and Its Possible Significance to Regional Food Chain Relationships. Ph.D. dissertation. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institutionunpublished manuscript.
Pisias, N.G. (1979). Model for paleoceanographic reconstructions of the California Current during the last 8,000 years. Quaternary Research 11, 373386.
Prell, W.L. Hays, J.D. (1976). Late Pleistocene faunal and temperature patterns of the Colombia Basin, Caribbean Sea. Investigation of Late Quaternary Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology Cline, R.M. Hays, J.D. Geological Society of America Memoir 145, 201220.
Prell, W.L. Hutson, W.H. Williams, D.F. , A.W.H. Geizenauer, K. Molfino, B. (1980). Surface circulation of the Indian Ocean during the last glacial maximum, approximately 18,000 YBP. Quaternary Research 14, 309336.
Roche, M.B. McIntyre, A. Imbrie, J. (1975). Quantitative paleoceanography of the late Pleistocene-Holocene North Atlantic: Coccolith evidence. Late Neogene Epoch Boundaries Saito, T. Burckle, L.H. Micropaleontology Press. New York 195225.
Ryther, J.H. (1963). Geographic variations in productivity. The Sea Hill, M.N. Vol. 2 Interscience. New York 347380.
Sachs, H.M. (1975). Radiolarian-based estimate of North Pacific summer sea-surface temperature regime during the latest glacial maximum. Climate of the Arctic Weller, G. Bowling, S.A. 3742.
Sancetta, C. (1979). Oceanography of the North Pacific during the last 18,000 years: Evidence from fossil diatoms. Marine Micropaleontology 4, 103123.
Sokal, R.R. Rohlf, J.F. (1969). Biometry. Freeman. San Francisco.
Weibe, P.H. Hulburt, E.M. Carpenter, E.J. Jahn, A.E. Knapp, G.P. III Boyd, S.H. Ortner, P.B. Cox, J.L. (1976). Gulf Stream cold core rings: Large-scale interaction sites for open ocean plankton communities. Deep-Sea Research 23, 695710.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed