Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-qpj69 Total loading time: 0.733 Render date: 2021-03-05T06:15:57.490Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Improved moraine age interpretations through explicit matching of geomorphic process models to cosmogenic nuclide measurements from single landforms

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Patrick J. Applegate
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Nathan M. Urban
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Klaus Keller
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Thomas V. Lowell
Affiliation:
Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
Benjamin J.C. Laabs
Affiliation:
Department of Geological Sciences, State University of New York at Geneseo, Geneseo, NY 14454, USA
Meredith A. Kelly
Affiliation:
Department of Earth Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
Richard B. Alley
Affiliation:
Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Corresponding

Abstract

The statistical distributions of cosmogenic nuclide measurements from moraine boulders contain previously unused information on moraine ages, and they help determine whether moraine degradation or inheritance is more important on individual moraines. Here, we present a method for extracting this information by fitting geomorphic process models to observed exposure ages from single moraines. We also apply this method to 94 10Be apparent exposure ages from 11 moraines reported in four published studies. Our models represent 10Be accumulation in boulders that are exhumed over time by slope processes (moraine degradation), and the delivery of boulders with preexisting 10Be inventories to moraines (inheritance). For now, we neglect boulder erosion and snow cover, which are likely second-order processes. Given a highly scattered data set, we establish which model yields the better fit to the data, and estimate the age of the moraine from the better model fit. The process represented by the better-fitting model is probably responsible for most of the scatter among the apparent ages. Our methods should help resolve controversies in exposure dating; we reexamine the conclusions from two published studies based on our model fits.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
University of Washington

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

1 Now in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

References

Applegate, P.J. Alley, R.B. 2011, Challenges in the use of cosmogenic exposure dating of moraine boulders to trace the geographic extents of abrupt climate changes: the Younger Dryas example. Rashid, H. Polyak, L. Mosley-Thompson, E. Understanding the Causes, Mechanisms, and Extents of Abrupt Climate Changes. AGU Geophysical Monograph.Google Scholar
Applegate, P.J. Lowell, T.V. Alley, R.B. 2008, Comment on “Absence of cooling in New Zealand and the adjacent ocean during the Younger Dryas chronozone”. Science 320, 746d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Applegate, P.J. Urban, N.M. Laabs, B.J.C. Keller, K. Alley, R.B. 2010, Modeling the statistical distributions of cosmogenic exposure dates from moraines. Geoscientific Model Development 3, 297307Available online atwww.geosci-model-dev.net/3/293/2010accessed 1 June 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balco, G. 2011, Contributions and unrealized potential contributions of cosmogenic-nuclide exposure dating to glacier chronology, 1990–2010. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balco, G. Schaefer, J.M. 2006, Cosmogenic-nuclide and varve chronologies for the deglaciation of southern New England. Quaternary Geochronology 1, 1528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balco, G. Stone, J.O. Lifton, N.A. Dunai, T.J. 2008, A complete and easily accessible means of calculating surface ages or erosion rates from 10Be and 26Al measurements. Quaternary Geochronology 3, 174195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrows, T.T. Lehman, S.J. Fifield, L.K. de Deckker, P. 2007, Absence of cooling in New Zealand and the adjacent ocean during the Younger Dryas chronozone. Science 318, 8689.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barrows, T.T. Lehman, S.J. Fifield, L.K. de Deckker, P. 2008, Response to comment on “Absence of cooling in New Zealand and the adjacent ocean during the Younger Dryas chronozone”. Science 320, 746e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benson, L. Madole, R. Phillips, W. Landis, G. Thomas, T. Kubik, P. 2004, The probable importance of snow and sediment shielding on cosmogenic ages of north-central Colorado Pinedale and pre-Pinedale moraines. Quaternary Science Reviews 23, 193206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benson, L. Madole, R. Landis, G. Gosse, J. 2005, New data for late Pleistocene Pinedale alpine glaciation from southwestern Colorado. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 4965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bevington, P.R. Robinson, D.K. 2003, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences. McGraw-Hill 336 pp.Google Scholar
Brown, E.T. Bendick, R. Bourlés, D.L. Gaur, V. Molnar, P. Raisbeck, G.M. 2002, Slip rates of the Karakorum Fault, Ladakh, India, determined using cosmic ray exposure dating of debris flows and moraines. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, B9 2192 http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000JB000100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, E.T. Molnar, P. Bourlés, D.L. 2005, Comment on “Slip-rate measurements on the Karakorum Fault may imply secular variations in fault motion”. Science 309, 1326b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chamberlin, T.C. 1897, The method of multiple working hypotheses. Journal of Geology 5, 837848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chambers, J.M. Cleveland, W.S. Tukey, P.A. Kleiner, B. 1983, Graphical Methods for Data Analysis. Duxbury 395 pp.Google Scholar
Chevalier, M.-L. Ryerson, F.J. Tapponier, P. Finkel, R.C. van der Woerd, J. Haibing, L. Qing, L. 2005a, Slip-rate measurements on the Karakorum Fault may imply secular variations in fault motion. Science 307, 411414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chevalier, M.-L. Ryerson, F.J. Tapponier, P. Finkel, R.C. van der Woerd, J. Haibing, L. Qing, L. 2005b, Response to comment on “Slip-rate measurements on the Karakorum Fault may imply secular variations in fault motion”. Science 309, 1326c.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chevalier, M.L. Hilley, G. Tapponier, P. van der Woerd, J. Liu-Zeng, J. Finkel, R.C. Ryerson, F.J. Li, H. Liu, X. 2011, Constraints on the late Quaternary glaciations in Tibet from cosmogenic exposure ages of moraine surfaces. Quaternary Science Reviews 30, 528554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clauset, A. Shalizi, C.R. Newman, M.E.J. 2009, Power-law distributions in empirical data. SIAM Review 51, 4 661703 http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/070710111 arXiv:0706.1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colman, S.M. Pierce, K.L. Birkeland, P.W. 1987, Suggested terminology for Quaternary dating methods. Quaternary Research 28, 314319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Croarkin, C. Tobias, P. 2006, NIST/SEMATECH e1book of statistical methods. Available online athttp://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/accessed 18 September 2009.Google Scholar
Denton, G.H. Hendy, C.H. 1994, Younger Dryas age advance of Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Science 264, 14341437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunne, J. Elmore, D. Muzikar, P. 1999, Scaling factors for the rates of production of cosmogenic nuclides for geometric shielding and attenuation at depth on sloped surfaces. Geomorphology 27, 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gosse, J.C. Phillips, F.M. 2001, Terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides: theory and application. Quaternary Science Reviews 20, 14751560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gosse, J.C. Evenson, E.B. Klein, J. Sorenson, C. 2003, Cosmogenic nuclide glacial chronology in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Easterbrook, D. Quaternary Geology of the United States: INQUA 2003 Field Guide Volume. Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada 438.Google Scholar
Granger, D.E. Muzikar, P.F. 2001, Dating sediment burial with in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides: theory, techniques, and limitations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 188, 269281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Håkansson, L. Briner, J. Alexanderson, H. Aldahan, A. Possnert, G. 2007, 10Be ages from central east Greenland constrain the extent of the Greenland ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 23162321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallet, B. Putkonen, J. 1994, Surface dating of dynamic landforms: young boulders on aging moraines. Science 265, 937940.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hanks, T. 2000, The age of scarplike landforms from diffusion-equation analysis. Noller, J.S. Sowers, J.M. Lettis, W.R. Quaternary Geochronology: Methods and Applications. American Geophysical Union Reference Shelf 4, American Geophysical Union 582.Google Scholar
Heyman, J. Stroeven, A.P. Harbor, J.M. Caffee, M.W. 2011, Too young or too old: evaluating cosmogenic exposure dating based on an analysis of compiled boulder exposure ages. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 302, 7180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hilborn, R. Mangel, M. 1997, The Ecological Detective: Confronting Models with Data. Princeton University Press 330 pp.Google Scholar
Ivy-Ochs, S. Kerschner, H. Schlüchter, C. 2007, Cosmogenic nuclides and the dating of lateglacial and early Holocene glacier variations: the Alpine perspective. Quaternary International 164–165, 5363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, M.R. Miller, G.H. 2003, Early Holocene delevelling and deglaciation of the Cumberland Sound region, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. Geological Society of America Bulletin 115, 445462.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, M.A. Lowell, T.V. Hall, B.L. Schaefer, J.M. Finkel, R.C. Goehring, B.M. Alley, R.B. Denton, G.H. 2008, A 10Be chronology of lateglacial and Holocene mountain glaciation in the Scoresby Sund region, east Greenland: implications for seasonality during late glacial time. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 22732282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laabs, B.J.C. Refsnider, K.A. Munroe, J.S. Mickelson, D.M. Applegate, P.J. Singer, B.S. Caffee, M.W. 2009, Latest Pleistocene glacial chronology of the Uinta Mountains: support for moisture-driven asynchrony of the last deglaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 11711187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lal, D. 1991, Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: in situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104, 424439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Munroe, J.S. Laabs, B.J.C. Shakun, J.D. Singer, B.S. Mickelson, D.M. Refsnider, K.A. Caffee, M.W. 2006, Latest Pleistocene advance of alpine glaciers in the southwest Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA: evidence for the influence of local moisture sources. Geology 34, 841844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, E.A. 1964, One cause? Many causes? The argument from the bimodal distribution. Journal of Chronic Diseases 17, 301324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muzikar, P. 2009, General models for episodic surface denudation and its measurement by cosmogenic nuclides. Quaternary Geochronology 4, 5055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muzikar, P. Elmore, D. Granger, D.E. 2003, Accelerator mass spectrometry in geological research. Geological Society of America Bulletin 115, 643654.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pelletier, J.D. DeLong, S.B. Al-Suwaidi, A.H. Cline, M. Lewis, Y. Psillas, J.L. Yanites, B. 2006, Evolution of the Bonneville shoreline scarp in west-central Utah: comparison of scarp-analysis methods and implications for the diffusion model of hillslope evolution. Geomorphology 74, 257270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, F.M. Zreda, M.G. Smith, S.S. Elmore, D. Kubik, P.W. Sharma, P. 1990, Cosmogenic chlorine-36 chronology for glacial deposits at Bloody Canyon, eastern Sierra Nevada. Science 248, 15291532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phillips, F.M. Ayarbe, J.P. Harrison, J.B.J. Elmore, D. 2003, Dating rupture events on alluvial fault scarps using cosmogenic nuclides and scarp morphology. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 215, 203218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Press, W.H. Teukolsky, S.A. Vetterling, W.T. Flannery, B.P. 1992, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77. 2nd ed.Cambridge 927 pp.Google Scholar
Price, K.V. Storn, R.M. Lampinen, J.A. 2005, Differential Evolution: A Practical Approach to Global Optimization. Springer 538 pp.Google Scholar
Putkonen, J. O'Neal, M. 2006, Degradation of unconsolidated Quaternary landforms in the western North America. Geomorphology 75, 408419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putkonen, J. Swanson, T. 2003, Accuracy of cosmogenic ages for moraines. Quaternary Research 59, 255261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, A.E. Schaefer, J.M. Barrell, D.J.A. Vandergoes, M. Denton, G.H. Kaplan, M.R. Finkel, R.C. Schwartz, R. Goehring, B.M. Kelley, S.E. 2010, In situ cosmogenic 10Be production-rate calibration from the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Quartenary Geochronology 5, 392409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saltelli, A. Ratto, M. Andres, T. Campolongo, F. Cariboni, J. Gatelli, D. Saisana, M. Tarantola, S. 2008, Global Sensitivity Analysis: The Primer. Wiley-Interscience 304 pp.Google Scholar
Schildgen, T.F. Phillips, W.M. Purves, R.S. 2005, Simulation of snow shielding corrections for cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure studies. Geomorphology 64, 6785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shulmeister, J. Davies, T.R.H. Alexander, D.J. 2010, Comment on “Glacial advance and stagnation caused by rock avalanches” by Vacco, D. A., Alley, R. B., and Pollard, D. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 297, 700701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, J.A. Finkel, R.C. Farber, D.L. Rodbell, D.T. Seltzer, G.O. 2005, Moraine preservation and boulder erosion in the tropical Andes: interpreting old surface exposure ages in glaciated valleys. Journal of Quaternary Science 20, 735758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tovar, D.S. Shulmeister, J. Davies, T.R. 2008, Evidence for a landslide origin of New Zealand's Waiho Loop moraine. Nature Geoscience 1, 524526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turney, C.S.M. Roberts, R.G. de Jonge, N. Prior, C. Wilmshurst, J.M. McGlone, M.S. Cooper, J. 2007, Redating the advance of the New Zealand Franz Josef Glacier during the Last Termination: evidence for asynchronous climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 30373042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Urban, N.M. Fricker, T.E. 2010, A comparison of Latin hypercube and grid ensemble designs for the multivariate emulation of an Earth system model. Computers and Geosciences 36, 746755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vacco, D.A. Alley, R.B. Pollard, D. 2010a, Glacial advance and stagnation caused by rock avalanches. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 294, 123130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vacco, D.A. Alley, R.B. Pollard, D. 2010b, Reply to Shulmeister et al. comment on “Glacial advance and stagnation caused by rock avalanches”. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 298, 450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zech, R. Glaser, B. Sosin, P. Kubik, P.W. Zech, W. 2005, Evidence for long-lasting landform surface instability on hummocky moraines in the Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan) from 10Be surface exposure dating. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 237, 453461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zimmerman, S.G. Evenson, E.B. Gosse, J.C. Erskine, C.P. 1994, Extensive boulder erosion resulting from a range fire on the type-Pinedale moraines, Fremont Lake, Wyoming. Quaternary Research 42, 255265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zreda, M.G. Phillips, F.M. 1994, Cosmogenic 36Cl accumulation in unstable landforms 2. Simulations and measurements on eroding moraines. Water Resources Research 30, 31273136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Applegate et al. Supplementary Material

Supplementary Material

PDF 1 MB

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 73 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 5th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Improved moraine age interpretations through explicit matching of geomorphic process models to cosmogenic nuclide measurements from single landforms
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Improved moraine age interpretations through explicit matching of geomorphic process models to cosmogenic nuclide measurements from single landforms
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Improved moraine age interpretations through explicit matching of geomorphic process models to cosmogenic nuclide measurements from single landforms
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *