Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gvh9x Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-23T05:58:35.942Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Evaluating the paleoclimatic significance of clay mineral records from a late Pleistocene loess-paleosol section of the Ili Basin, Central Asia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 October 2017

Yue Li
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061, China College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Yougui Song*
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061, China Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China
Mengxiu Zeng
Affiliation:
College of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
Weiwei Lin
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061, China
Rustam Orozbaev
Affiliation:
Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China Institute of Geology, National Academy of Sciences, Bishkek 720040, Kyrgyzstan
Liangqing Cheng
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061, China College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Xinli Chen
Affiliation:
Environmental Monitoring Station of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Yining 835000, China
Tiliwaldi Halmurat
Affiliation:
Environmental Monitoring Station of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Yining 835000, China
*
*Corresponding author at: State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 97 Yanxiang Road, Yanta, Xi’an 710061, China. E-mail address: syg@ieecas.cn (Y.G. Song)

Abstract

In this study, we present clay mineral records from a late Pleistocene loess-paleosol sequence in the Ili Basin, Central Asia, and assess their significance for paleoclimatic reconstruction. The results show that the clay minerals are mainly illite (average 60%) and chlorite (28%), with minor kaolinite (9%) and smectite (3%). Illite was of detrital origin with no obvious modification to its crystal structure. Increases in illite content in the loess are ascribed to wind intensity rather than pedogenesis. High proportions of illite in the clay fraction, and of muscovite in the bulk samples of the paleosol units, may lead to an overestimation of the weathering intensity. Kaolinite was likely inherited from the sedimentary rocks, while chlorite might have been inherited from both sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The paleoclimatic signals of kaolinite and chlorite were unclear, due to reworking by both fluvial and eolian systems. Smectite was more likely formed by the transformation of biotite and illite, and its variation in the loess sequence was also controlled by wind intensity; this was largely due to aggregation and is unlikely to reflect moisture changes. Although the interpretation of paleoclimate evolution may contain some uncertainties, clay mineralogy does provide the possibility of tracing dust provenance.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © University of Washington. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

An, Z.S., 2014. Late Cenozoic Climate Change in Asia. Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
An, Z.S., Kutzbach, J.E., Prell, W.L., Porter, S.C., 2001. Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the Himalayan Tibetan plateau since Late Miocene times. Nature 411, 6266.Google Scholar
Bauluz, B., Mayayo, M.J., Fernandez-Nieto, C., Lopez, J.M.G., 2000. Geochemistry of Precambrian and Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks from the Iberian Range (NE Spain): implications for source-area weathering, sorting, provenance, and tectonic setting. Chemical Geology 168, 135150.Google Scholar
Ben Israel, M., Enzel, Y., Amit, R., Erel, Y., 2015. Provenance of the various grain-size fractions in the Negev loess and potential changes in major dust sources to the Eastern Mediterranean. Quaternary Research 83, 105115.Google Scholar
Berrocoso, A.J., Zuluaga, M.C., Elorza, J., 2008. Diagenesis, palaeoclimate and tectono-sedimentary influences on clay mineralogy and stable isotopes from Upper Cretaceous marine successions of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (N. Spain). Cretaceous Research 29, 386404.Google Scholar
Biscaye, P.E., 1965. Mineralogy and sedimentation of recent deep-sea clay in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas and oceans. Geological Society of America Bulletin 76, 803832.Google Scholar
Biscaye, P.E., Grousset, F.E., Revel, M., VanderGaast, S., Zielinski, G.A., Vaars, A., Kukla, G., 1997. Asian provenance of glacial dust (stage 2) in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 Ice Core, Summit, Greenland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 102, 2676526781.Google Scholar
Bronger, A., 1991. Argillic horizons in modern loess soils in an ustic soil moisture regime: comparative studies in forest steppe and steppe areas from Eastern Europe and the USA. Advances in Soil Science 15, 4190.Google Scholar
Bronger, A., Heinkele, T., 1989. Micromorphology and genesis of paleosols in the Luochuan loess section, China: pedostratigraphic and environmental implications. Geoderma 45, 123143.Google Scholar
Bronger, A., Heinkele, T., 1990. Mineralogical and clay mineralogical aspects of loess research. Quaternary International 7/8, 3751.Google Scholar
Bronger, A., Winter, R., Sedov, S., 1998. Weathering and clay mineral formation in two Holocene soils and in buried paleosols in Tadjikistan: towards a Quaternary paleoclimatic record in Central Asia. Catena 34, 1934.Google Scholar
Buggle, B., Glaser, B., Hambach, U., Gerasimenko, N., Markovic, S., 2011. An evaluation of geochemical weathering indices in loess-paleosol studies. Quaternary International 240, 1221.Google Scholar
Chamley, H., 1981. Long-time trends in clay deposition in the ocean. Oceanologica Acta Special issue, 105–110.Google Scholar
Chamley, H., 1989. Clay Sedimentology. Spring-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
Chamley, H., 1998. Soils and Sediments: Mineralogy and Geochemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
Chen, Q., Liu, X.M., Heller, F., Hirt, A.M., Lu, B., Guo, X.L., Mao, X.G., Chen, J.S., Zhao, G.Y., Feng, H., et al., 2012. Susceptibility variations of multiple origins of loess from the Ily Basin (NW China). Chinese Science Bulletin 57, 18441855.Google Scholar
Chen, X.L., Song, Y.G., Li, J.C., Fang, H., Li, Z.Z., Liu, X.M., Li, Y., Orozbaev, R., 2017. Size-differentiated REE characteristics and environmental significance of aeolian sediments in the Ili Basin of Xinjiang, NW China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 143, 3038.Google Scholar
Cuadros, J., Caballero, E., Huertas, F.J., De Cisneros, C.J., Huertas, F., Linares, J., 1999. Experimental alteration of volcanic tuff: smectite formation and effect on O-18 isotope composition. Clays and Clay Minerals 47, 769776.Google Scholar
Deconinck, J.F., Amedro, F., Baudin, F., Godet, A., Pellenard, P., Robaszynski, F., Zimmerlin, I., 2005. Late Cretaceous palaeoenvironments expressed by the clay mineralogy of Cenomanian-Campanian chalks from the east of the Paris Basin. Cretaceous Research 26, 171179.Google Scholar
Diekmann, B., Wopfner, H., 1996. Petrographic and diagenetic signatures of climatic change in peri- and postglacial Karoo Sediments of SW Tanzania. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 125, 525.Google Scholar
Ding, Z.L., Derbyshire, E., Yang, S.L., Sun, J.M., Liu, T.S., 2005. Stepwise expansion of desert environment across northern China in the past 3.5 Ma and implications for monsoon evolution. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 237, 4555.Google Scholar
Ding, Z.L., Sun, J.M., Rutter, N.W., Rokosh, D., Liu, T.S., 1999a. Changes in sand content of loess deposits along a north-south transect of the Chinese Loess Plateau and the implications for desert variations. Quaternary Research 52, 5662.Google Scholar
Ding, Z.L., Xiong, S.F., Sun, J.M., Yang, S.L., Gu, Z.Y., Liu, T.S., 1999b. Pedostratigraphy and paleomagnetism of a similar to 7.0 Ma eolian loess-red clay sequence at Lingtai, Loess Plateau, north-central China and the implications for paleomonsoon evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 152, 4966.Google Scholar
Do Campo, M., del Papa, C., Nieto, F., Hongn, F., Petrinovic, I., 2010. Integrated analysis for constraining palaeoclimatic and volcanic influences on clay-mineral assemblages in orogenic basins (Palaeogene Andean foreland, Northwestern Argentina). Sedimentary Geology 228, 98112.Google Scholar
Dodonov, A.E., Sadchikova, T.A., Sedov, S.N., Simakova, A.N., Zhou, L.P., 2006. Multidisciplinary approach for paleoenvironmental reconstruction in loess-paleosol studies of the Darai Kalon section, Southern Tajikistan. Quaternary International 152, 4858.Google Scholar
Ehrmann, W., 1998. Implications of late Eocene to early Miocene clay mineral assemblages in McMurdo Sound (Ross Sea, Antarctica) on paleoclimate and ice dynamics. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 139, 213231.Google Scholar
Ehrmann, W., Setti, M., Marinoni, L., 2005. Clay minerals in Cenozoic sediments off Cape Roberts (McMurdo Sound, Antarctica) reveal palaeoclimatic history. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229, 187211.Google Scholar
Ehrmann, W.U., Mackensen, A., 1992. Sedimentological evidence for the formation of an East Antarctic ice sheet in Eocene/Oligocene time. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 93, 85112.Google Scholar
Ehrmann, W.U., Melles, M., Kuhn, G., Grobe, H., 1992. Significance of clay mineral assemblages in the Antarctic Ocean. Marine Geology 107, 249273.Google Scholar
Feng, Z.D., Ran, M., Yang, Q.L., Zhai, X.W., Wang, W., Zhang, X.S., Huang, C.Q., 2011. Stratigraphies and chronologies of late Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences in the core area of the central Asian arid zone. Quaternary International 240, 156166.Google Scholar
Fitzsimmons, K.E., Sprafke, T., Zielhofer, C., Günter, C., Deom, J.M., Sala, R., Iovita, R., 2016. Loess accumulation in the Tian Shan piedmont: implications for palaeoenvironmental change in arid Central Asia. Quaternary International, in press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2016.07.041.Google Scholar
Fuhrer, K., Neftel, A., Anklin, M., Staffelbach, T., Legrand, M., 1996. High-resolution ammonium ice core record covering a complete glacial-interglacial cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 101, 41474164.Google Scholar
Gallet, S., Jahn, B.M., Lanoe, B.V., Dia, A., Rossello, E., 1998. Loess geochemistry and its implications for particle origin and composition of the upper continental crust. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 156, 157172.Google Scholar
Gallet, S., Jahn, B.M., Torii, M., 1996. Geochemical characterization of the Luochuan loess-paleosol sequence, China, and paleoclimatic implications. Chemical Geology 133, 6788.Google Scholar
Galovic, L., 2016. Sedimentological and mineralogical characteristics of the Pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in the Eastern Croatia. Aeolian Research 20, 723.Google Scholar
Griffin, J.J., Windom, H., Goldberg, E.D., 1968. The distribution of clay minerals in the World Ocean. Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts 15, 433459.Google Scholar
Gylesjo, S., Arnold, E., 2006. Clay mineralogy of a red clay-loess sequence from Lingtai, the Chinese Loess Plateau. Global and Planetary Change 51, 181194.Google Scholar
Hong, H.L., Zhang, K.X., Li, Z.H., 2010. Climatic and tectonic uplift evolution since similar to 7 Ma in Gyirong basin, southwestern Tibet plateau: clay mineral evidence. International Journal of Earth Sciences 99, 13051315.Google Scholar
Hu, L.J., 2004. Physical geography of the Tianshan Mountains in China [In Chinese with English abstract.] China Environmental Science Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
Huang, C.Q., Zhao, W., Liu, F., Tan, W.F., Koopal, L.K., 2011. Environmental significance of mineral weathering and pedogenesis of loess on the southernmost Loess Plateau, China. Geoderma 163, 219226.Google Scholar
Ji, J.F., Browne, P.R.L., 2000. Relationship between illite crystallinity and temperature in active geothermal systems of New Zealand. Clays and Clay Minerals 48, 139144.Google Scholar
Ji, J.F., Chen, J., Lu, H.Y., 1999. Origin of illites in the Luochuan loess section: evidence from TEM study. Chinese Science Bulletin 44, 372375.Google Scholar
Jia, J., Xia, D.S., Wang, B., Wei, H.T., Liu, X.B., 2012. Magnetic investigation of Late Quaternary loess deposition, Ili area, China. Quaternary International 250, 8492.Google Scholar
Kalm, V.E., Rutter, N.W., Rokosh, C.D., 1996. Clay minerals and their paleoenvironmental interpretation in the Baoji loess section, Southern Loess Plateau, China. Catena 27, 4961.Google Scholar
Kang, S.G., Wang, X.L., Lu, Y.C., Liu, W.G., Song, Y.G., Wang, N., 2015. A high-resolution quartz OSL chronology of the Talede loess over the past similar to 30 ka and its implications for dust accumulation in the Ili Basin, Central Asia. Quaternary Geochronology 30, 181187.Google Scholar
Khormali, F., Kehl, M., 2011. Micromorphology and development of loess-derived surface and buried soils along a precipitation gradient in Northern Iran. Quaternary International 234, 109123.Google Scholar
Kohfeld, K.E., Harrison, S.P., 2001. DIRTMAP: the geological record of dust. Earth-Science Reviews 54, 81114.Google Scholar
Kübler, B., 1967. La cristallinité de l’illite et les zones tout à fait supérieures du métamorphisme. In: Schaer, J.P. (Ed.), Colloque sur les étages tectoniques. À la Baconnière, Neuchâtel, pp. 105122.Google Scholar
Lauer, T., Vlaminck, S., Frechen, M., Rolf, C., Kehl, M., Sharifi, J., Lehndorff, E., Khormali, F., 2017. The Agh Band loess-palaeosol sequence–A terrestrial archive for climatic shifts during the last and penultimate glacial–interglacial cycles in a semiarid region in northern Iran. Quaternary International 429, 1330.Google Scholar
Li, Y., Song, Y.G., Chen, X.L., Li, J.C., Mamadjanov, Y., Aminov, J., 2016b. Geochemical composition of Tajikistan loess and its provenance implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 446, 186194.Google Scholar
Li, Y., Song, Y.G., Fitzsimmons, K.E., Chang, H., Orozbaev, R., Li, X., 2017. Environmental dynamics since the last glacial in arid Central Asia: evidence from grain size distribution and magnetic properties of loess from the Ili Valley, western China. Climate of the Past Discussion 2017, 128.Google Scholar
Li, Y., Song, Y.G., Lai, Z., Han, L., An, Z., 2016a. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis. Scientific Reports, 6,32365. DOI: 10.1038/srep32365.Google Scholar
Liang, L.J., Sun, Y.B., Beets, C.J., Prins, M.A., Wu, F., Vandenberghe, J., 2013. Impacts of grain size sorting and chemical weathering on the geochemistry of Jingyuan loess in the northwestern Chinese Loess Plateau. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 69, 177184.Google Scholar
Liu, T.S., 1985. Loess and the Environment [In Chinese.] Ocean Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
Liu, Y., Shi, Z.T., Deng, C.L., Su, H., Zhang, W.X., 2012. Mineral magnetic investigation of the Talede loess-palaeosol sequence since the last interglacial in the Yili Basin in the Asian interior. Geophysical Journal International 190, 267277.Google Scholar
Liu, Z.F., Colin, C., Trentesaux, A., Blamart, D., 2005a. Clay mineral records of East Asian monsoon evolution during late Quaternary in the southern South China Sea. Science China-Earth Sciences 48, 8492.Google Scholar
Liu, Z.F., Colin, C., Trentesaux, A., Siani, G., Frank, N., Blamart, D., Farid, S., 2005b. Late Quaternary climatic control on erosion and weathering in the eastern Tibetan Plateau and the Mekong Basin. Quaternary Research 63, 316328.Google Scholar
Lu, H.Y., An, Z.S., 1997. Pretreatment methods in loess–palaeosol granulometry. Chinese Science Bulletin 42, 237240.Google Scholar
Machalett, B., Frechen, M., Hambach, U., Oches, E.A., Zoller, L., Markovic, S.B., 2006. The loess sequence from Remisowka (northern boundary of the Tien Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan). Part I: luminescence dating. Quaternary International 152, 192201.Google Scholar
Maggi, V., 1997. Mineralogy of atmospheric microparticles deposited along the Greenland Ice core project ice core. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 102, 2672526734.Google Scholar
Mason, J.A., Greene, R.S.B., Joeckel, R.M., 2011. Laser diffraction analysis of the disintegration of aeolian sedimentary aggregates in water. Catena 87, 107118.Google Scholar
Mason, J.A., Jacobs, P.M., Greene, R.S.B., Nettleton, W.D., 2003. Sedimentary aggregates in the Peoria Loess of Nebraska, USA. Catena 53, 377397.Google Scholar
Mclennan, S.M., 1993. Weathering and global denudation. Journal of Geology 101, 295303.Google Scholar
Miller, R.L., Tegen, I., Perlwitz, J., 2004. Surface radiative forcing by soil dust aerosols and the hydrologic cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 109, D04203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004085.Google Scholar
Moore, M.J., Distefano, M.D., Walsh, C.T., Schiering, N., Pai, E.F., 1989. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of the flavoenzyme mercuric ion reductase from Bacillus sp. strain RC607. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264, 1438614388.Google Scholar
Muhs, D.R., 2013. The geologic records of dust in the Quaternary. Aeolian Research 9, 348.Google Scholar
Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., 1982. Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature 299, 715717.Google Scholar
Orozbaev, R., Hirajima, T., Bakirov, A., Takasu, A., Maki, K., Yoshida, K., Sakiev, K., et al., 2015. Trace element characteristics of clinozoisite pseudomorphs after lawsonite in talc-garnet-chloritoid schists from the Makbal UHP Complex, northern Kyrgyz Tian-Shan. Lithos 226, 98115.Google Scholar
Pal, D.K., Deshpande, S.B., 1987. Characteristics and genesis of minerals in some benchmark vertisols of India. Pedologie 37, 259275.Google Scholar
Pandarinath, K., 2009. Clay minerals in SW Indian continental shelf sediment cores as indicators of provenance and palaeomonsoonal conditions: a statistical approach. International Geology Review 51, 145165.Google Scholar
Pandarinath, K., Prasad, S., Gupta, S.K., 1999. A 75 ka record of palaeoclimatic changes inferred from crystallinity of illite from Nal Sarovar, western India. Geological Society of India 54, 515522.Google Scholar
Pant, R.K., Dilli, K., 1986. Loess deposits of Kashmir, northwest Himalaya, India. Geological Society of India 28, 289297.Google Scholar
Petschick, R., 2000. MacDiff 4.2.5 [computer software]. Accessed September 1, 2017. http://servermac.geologie.unfrankfurt.de/Rainer.html.Google Scholar
Petschick, R., Kuhn, G., Gingele, F., 1996. Clay mineral distribution in surface sediments of the South Atlantic: sources, transport, and relation to oceanography. Marine Geology 130, 203229.Google Scholar
Pye, K., 1995. The nature, origin and accumulation of loess. Quaternary Science Reviews 14, 653667.Google Scholar
Qiang, M., Lang, L., Wang, Z., 2010. Do fine-grained components of loess indicate westerlies: insights from observations of dust storm deposits at Lenghu (Qaidam Basin, China). Journal of Arid Environments 74, 12321239.Google Scholar
Ren, J.S., Niu, B.G., Wang, J., He, Z.J., Jin, X.C., Xie, L.Z., Zhao, L., et al., 2013. 1:5 million international geological map of Asia. [In Chinese with English abstract.], Acta Geoscientica Sinica 34, 2430.Google Scholar
Riboulleau, A., Bout-Roumazeilles, V., Tribovillard, N., 2014. Controls on detrital sedimentation in the Cariaco Basin during the last climatic cycle: insight from clay minerals. Quaternary Science Reviews 94, 6273.Google Scholar
Robert, C., Kennett, J.P., 1994. Antarctic subtropical humid episode at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary: clay-mineral evidence. Geology 22, 211214.Google Scholar
Rolland, Y., Alexeiev, D.V., Kröner, A., Corsini, M., Loury, C., Monié, P., 2013. Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic kinematic history of the Talas–Ferghana strike-slip fault (Kyrgyz West Tianshan) as revealed by 40Ar/39Ar dating of syn-kinematic white mica. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 67–68, 7692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruffell, A., McKinley, J.M., Worden, R.H., 2002. Comparison of clay mineral stratigraphy to other proxy palaeoclimate indicators in the Mesozoic of NW Europe. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A-Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 360, 675693.Google Scholar
Rutter, N., Ding, Z.L., 1993. Paleoclimates and monsoon variations interpreted from micromorphogenic features of the Baoji paleosols, China. Quaternary Science Reviews 12, 853862.Google Scholar
Scheuvens, D., Schutz, L., Kandler, K., Ebert, M., Weinbruch, S., 2013. Bulk composition of northern African dust and its source sediments: a compilation. Earth-Science Reviews 116, 170194.Google Scholar
Shi, Y.X., Zhang, W.G., Dai, X.R., Song, Z.G., Yu, L.Z., Zheng, X.M., 2005. Characteristics of clay mineral assemblage of Xiashu loess and their paleoenvironmental significance. [In Chinese with English abstract.] Marine Geology and Quaternary . Geology 25, 99105.Google Scholar
Singer, A., 1980. The paleoclimatic interpretation of clay-minerals in soils and weathering profiles. Earth-Science Reviews 15, 303326.Google Scholar
Singer, A., 1984. The paleoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in sediments—a review. Earth-Science Reviews 21, 251293.Google Scholar
Singer, A., Dultz, S., Argaman, E., 2004. Properties of the non-soluble fractions of suspended dust over the Dead Sea. Atmospheric Environment 38, 17451753.Google Scholar
Smalley, I.J., Mavlyanova, N.G., Rakhmatullaev, K.L., Shermatov, M.S., Machalett, B., Dhand, K.O., Jefferson, I.F., 2006. The formation of loess deposits in the Tashkent region and parts of Central Asia; and problems with irrigation, hydrocollapse and soil erosion. Quaternary International 152, 5969.Google Scholar
Song, Y.G., Chen, X.L., Qian, L.B., Li, C.X., Li, Y., Li, X.X., Chang, H., An, Z.S., 2014. Distribution and composition of loess sediments in the Ili Basin, Central Asia. Quaternary International 334, 6173.Google Scholar
Song, Y.G., Lai, Z.P., Li, Y., Chen, T., Wang, Y.X., 2015. Comparison between luminescence and radiocarbon dating of late Quaternary loess from the Ili Basin in Central Asia. Quaternary Geochronology 30, 405410.Google Scholar
Song, Y.G., Li, C.X., Zhao, J.D., Cheng, P., Zeng, M.X., 2012. A combined luminescence and radiocarbon dating study of the Ili loess, Central Asia. Quaternary Geochronology 10, 27.Google Scholar
Song, Y.G., Nie, J.S., Shi, Z.T., Wang, X.L., Qiang, X.K., Chang, H., 2010a. A preliminary study of magnetic enhancement mechanisms of the Tianshan loess. Journal of Earth Environment 1, 6067.Google Scholar
Song, Y.G., Shi, Z.T., Fang, X.M., Nie, J.S., Naoto, I., Qiang, X.K., Wang, X.L., 2010b. Loess magnetic properties in the Ili Basin and their correlation with the Chinese Loess Plateau. Science China-Earth Sciences 53, 419431.Google Scholar
Srivastava, P., Parkash, B., Pal, D.K., 1998. Clay minerals in soils as evidence of Holocene climatic change, central Indo-Gangetic Plains, north-central India. Quaternary Research 50, 230239.Google Scholar
Srodon, J., Eberl, D.D., 1984. Illite. Reviews in Mineralogy 13, 495544.Google Scholar
Steffensen, J.P., 1997. The size distribution of microparticles from selected segments of the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core representing different climatic periods. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 102, 2675526763.Google Scholar
Sun, D.H., Shaw, J., An, Z.S., Cheng, M.Y., Yue, L.P., 1998. Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimatic interpretation of a continuous 7.2Ma Late Cenozoic eolian sediments from the Chinese Loess Plateau. Geophysical Research Letters 25, 8588.Google Scholar
Sun, J.M., Zhu, R.X., Bowler, J., 2004. Timing of the Tianshan Mountains uplift constrained by magnetostratigraphic analysis of molasse deposits. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 219, 239253.Google Scholar
Sun, Y.B., Wang, X.L., Liu, Q.S., Clemens, S.C., 2010. Impacts of post-depositional processes on rapid monsoon signals recorded by the last glacial loess deposits of northern China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 289, 171179.Google Scholar
Svensson, A., Biscaye, P.E., Grousset, F.E., 2000. Characterization of late glacial continental dust in the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 105, 46374656.Google Scholar
Tanaka, T.Y., Chiba, M., 2006. A numerical study of the contributions of dust source regions to the global dust budget. Global and Planetary Change 52, 88104.Google Scholar
Terhorst, B., Ottner, F., Wriessnig, K., 2012. Weathering intensity and pedostratigraphy of the Middle to Upper Pleistocene loess/palaeosol sequence of Wels-Aschet (Upper Austria). Quaternary International 276, 297297.Google Scholar
Thiry, M., 2000. Palaeoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in marine deposits: an outlook from the continental origin. Earth-Science Reviews 49, 201221.Google Scholar
Újvári, G., Kok, J.F., Varga, G., Kovács, J., 2016. The physics of wind-blown loess: implications for grain size proxy interpretations in Quaternary paleoclimate studies. Earth-Science Reviews 154, 247278.Google Scholar
Újvári, G., Stevens, T., Svensson, A., Klötzli, U.S., Manning, C., Németh, T., Kovács, J., et al., 2015. Two possible source regions for central Greenland last glacial dust. Geophysical Research Letters 42.Google Scholar
Varga, A., Újvári, G., Raucsik, B., 2011. Tectonic versus climatic control on the evolution of a loess-paleosol sequence at Beremend, Hungary: an integrated approach based on paleoecological, clay mineralogical, and geochemical data. Quaternary International 240, 7186.Google Scholar
Vlaminck, S., Kehl, M., Lauer, T., Shahriari, A., Sharifi, J., Eckmeier, E., Lehndorff, E., Khormali, F., Frechen, M., 2016. Loess-soil sequence at Toshan (Northern Iran): insights into late Pleistocene climate change. Quaternary International 399, 122135.Google Scholar
Wang, Q., Yang, S.Y., 2013. Clay mineralogy indicates the Holocene monsoon climate in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) catchment, China. Applied Clay Science 74, 2836.Google Scholar
Wang, X., Wei, H.T., Taheri, M., Khormali, F., Danukalova, G., Chen, F.H., 2016. Early Pleistocene climate in western arid central Asia inferred from loess-palaeosol sequences. Scientific Reports 6, A20560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep20560.Google Scholar
Wang, X.M., Lang, L.L., Hua, T., Zhang, C.X., Li, H., 2017. The effects of sorting by aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of surface materials: a wind tunnel experiment. Frontiers of Earth Science, 19.Google Scholar
Xiao, J., Porter, S.C., An, Z.S., Kumai, H., Yoshikawa, S., 1995. Grain-size of ouartz as an indicator of winter monsoon strength on the Loess Plateau of central China during the last 130,000-yr. Quaternary Research 43, 2229.Google Scholar
Xiong, S.F., Zhu, Y.J., Zhou, R., Lu, H.J., Ding, Z.L., 2008. Chemical weathering intensity and its grain-size dependence for the loess-red clay deposit of the Baishui section, Chinese Loess Plateau. [In Chinese with English abstract.] Quaternary . Sciences 28, 812821.Google Scholar
Yang, S.L., Ding, F., Ding, Z.L., 2006. Pleistocene chemical weathering history of Asian arid and semi-arid regions recorded in loess deposits of China and Tajikistan. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 16951709.Google Scholar
Yang, S.L., Ding, Z.L., 2008. Advance-retreat history of the East-Asian summer monsoon rainfall belt over northern China during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 274, 499510.Google Scholar
Yang, S.L., Forman, S.L., Song, Y.G., Pierson, J., Mazzocco, J., Li, X.X., Shi, Z.T., Fang, X.M., 2014. Evaluating OSL-SAR protocols for dating quartz grains from the loess in Ili Basin, central Asia. Quaternary Geochronology 20, 7888.Google Scholar
Yang, X.P., Li, A., Hunag, W.L., 2013. Uplift differential of active fold zones during the late Quaternary, northern piedmonts of the Tianshan Mountains, China. Science China Earth Sciences 56, 794805.Google Scholar
Ye, W., 2001. The characteristics of loess deposits in westerly region, Xinjiang and the paleoclimate [In Chinese.] Ocean Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
Youn, J.H., Seong, Y.B., Choi, J.H., Abdrakhmatov, K., Ormukov, C., 2014. Loess deposits in the northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan: implications for the paleoclimate reconstruction during the Late Quaternary. Catena 117, 8193.Google Scholar
Zeng, M.X., Song, Y.G., An, Z.S., Chang, H., Li, Y., 2014. Clay mineral records of the Erlangjian drill core sediments from the Lake Qinghai Basin, China. Science China Earth Sciences 57, 18461859.Google Scholar
Zhang, W.X., Shi, Z.T., Chen, G.J., Liu, Y., Niu, J., Ming, Q.Z., Su, H., 2013. Geochemical characteristics and environmental significance of Talede loess-paleosol sequences of Ili Basin in Central Asia. Environmental Earth Sciences 70, 21912202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, L., Ji, J.F., Chen, J., Liu, L.W., Chen, Y., Balsam, W., 2005. Variations of illite/chlorite ratio in Chinese loess sections during the last glacial and interglacial cycle: implications for monsoon reconstruction. Geophysical Research Letters 32, L20718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024145.Google Scholar
Zhao, X.Y., Zhang, Y.Y., 1990. Clay minerals and clay mineral analysis [In Chinese.] Ocean press, Beijing.Google Scholar
Zheng, H.H., Gu, X.F., Han, J.M., Deng, B.J., 1985. Clay minerals in loess of China and their tendency in loess section. [In Chinese with English abstract.], Quaternary Sciences 6, 158165.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Li et al supplementary material

Li et al supplementary material 1

Download Li et al supplementary material(File)
File 909.5 KB