Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-d5zgf Total loading time: 0.58 Render date: 2021-02-26T04:45:24.650Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Climate changes, lead pollution and soil erosion in south Greenland over the past 700 years

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Noemí Silva-Sánchez
Affiliation:
Edafología y Química Agrícola, Fac. Biología, Campus Sur, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n. E-15782, Spain
J. Edward Schofield
Affiliation:
Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK
Tim M. Mighall
Affiliation:
Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK
Antonio Martínez Cortizas
Affiliation:
Edafología y Química Agrícola, Fac. Biología, Campus Sur, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa s/n. E-15782, Spain
Kevin J. Edwards
Affiliation:
Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK Department of Archaeology, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK
Ian Foster
Affiliation:
School of Science and Technology, University of Northampton, Newton Building, Northampton NN2 6JD, UK

Abstract

A peat core from southern Greenland provided a rare opportunity to investigate human-environment interactions, climate change and atmospheric pollution over the last ~ 700 years. X-ray fluorescence, gas chromatography-combustion, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, peat humification and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were applied and combined with palynological and archaeological evidence. Variations in peat mineral content seem to be related to soil erosion linked with human activity during the late Norse period (13th–14th centuries AD) and the modern era (20th century). Cooler conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA) are reflected by both slow rates of peat growth and carbon accumulation, and by low bromine (Br) concentrations. Spörer and Maunder minima in solar activity may be indicated by further declines in Br and enrichment in easily degradable compounds such as polysaccharides. Peat organic matter composition was also influenced by vegetation changes at the end of the LIA when the expansion of oceanic heath was associated with polysaccharide enrichment. Atmospheric lead pollution was recorded in the peat after ~ AD 1845, and peak values occurred in the 1970s. There is indirect support for a predominantly North American lead source, but further Pb isotopic analysis would be needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Type
Articles
Copyright
University of Washington

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Alewell, C. Giesler, R. Klaminder, J. Leifeld, J. Rollog, M. Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for environmental change in palsa peats Biogeosciences 8 2011 17691778 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allaart, J.H. Ketilidian mobile belt in south Greenland Escher, A. Stuart-Watt, W. Geology of Greenland 1976 Geological Survey of Greenland Copenhagen 120151 Google Scholar
Appleby, P. Chronostratigraphic techniques in recent sediments Last, W. Smol, J. Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments Volume 1: Basin Analysis, Coring and Chronological Techniques 2001 Kluwer Dordrecht 171204 Google Scholar
Appleby, P. Oldfield, F. The calculation of Pb-210 dates assuming a constant rate of supply of unsupported Pb-210 to the sediment Catena 5 1978 18 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Appleby, P. Nolan, P. Oldfield, F. Richardson, N. Higgitt, S. 210Pb dating of lake sediments and ombrotrophic peats by gamma essay Science of the Total Environment 69 1988 157177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arneborg, J. Saga trails – Brattahlið, Garðar, Hvalsey Fjord's Church and Herjolfsnes: four chieftain's farmsteads in the Norse settlement of Greenland A visitor's guidebook 2006 National Museum of Denmark, Nanortalik Museum, Narsaq Museum and Qaqortoq Museum Google Scholar
Arneborg, J. Heinemeier, N. Lynnerup, N. Nielsen, H.L. Rud, N. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E. Change of diet of the Greenland Vikings determined from stable carbon isotope analysis and C-14 dating of their bones Radiocarbon 14 1999 157168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arneborg, J. Lynnerup, N. Heinemeier, J. Human diet and subsistence patterns in Norse Greenland AD c. 980-AD c.1450: Archaeological interpretations Journal of the North Atlantic 3 2012 119133 (Special Volume)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, R.G. Schwert, D.P. Bettis, E.A. Chumbley, C.A. Impact of Euro-American settlement on a riparian landscape in northeast Iowa, midwestem USA: an integrated approach based on historical evidence, floodplain sediments, fossil pollen, plant macrofossils and insects The Holocene 3 1993 314323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barlow, L.K. Evaluation of seasonal to decadal scale deuterium and deuterium excess signals, GISP2 ice core, Summit, Greenland, A.D. 1270–1985 PhD thesis 1994 University of Colorado Google Scholar
Bassett, I.J. Terasmae, J. Ragweeds, Ambrosia species, in Canada and their history in postglacial time Canadian Journal of Botany 40 1962 141150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bedard, D.L. van Dort, H.M. Complete reductive dehalogenation of brominated biphenyls by anaerobic microorganisms in sediment Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64 1998 940947 Google ScholarPubMed
Benner, R. Fogel, M.L. Sprague, E.K. Hodson, R.E. Depletion of 13C in lignin and its implications for stable carbon isotope studies Nature 329 1987 708710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Biester, H. Keppler, F. Putschew, A. Martinez-Cortizas, A. Petri, M. Halogen retention, organohalogens, and the role of organic matter decomposition on halogen enrichment in two Chilean peat bogs Environmental Science & Technology 38 2004 19841991 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Biester, H. Knorr, K.-H. Schellekens, J. Basler, A. Hermanns, Y.-M. Comparison of different methods to determine the degree of peat decomposition in peat bogs Biogeosciences 10 2014 1735117395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bindler, R. Anderson, N.J. Renberg, I. Malmquist, C. Palaeolimnological investigation of atmospheric pollution in the Søndre Strømfjord region, southern West Greenland: accumulation rates and spatial patterns Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 53 2001 4853 Google Scholar
Bindler, R. Renberg, I. John Anderson, N. Appleby, P.G. Emteryd, O. Boyle, J. Pb isotope ratios of lake sediments in West Greenland: inferences on pollution sources Atmospheric Environment 35 2001 46754685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blaauw, M. Methods and code for “classical” age-modelling of radiocarbon sequences Quaternary Geochronology 5 2010 512518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blackford, J. Chambers, F. Determining the degree of peat decomposition for peat-based palaeoclimatic studies International Peat Journal 5 1993 724 Google Scholar
Blackford, J.J. Chambers, F.M. Proxy climate record for the last 1000 years from Irish blanket peat and a possible link to solar variability Earth and Planetary Science Letters 133 1995 145150 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blockley, S.P.E. Edwards, K.J. Schofield, J.E. Pyne-O'Donnell, S.D.F. Matthews, I.P. Jensen, B.J.L. Cook, G.T. First evidence of cryptotephra in palaeoenvironmental records associated with Norse occupation sites in Greenland Quaternary Geochronology 27 2015 145157 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Böcher, T.W. Holmer, K. Jakobsen, K. The flora of Greenland 1968 Haase & Son Copenhagen Google Scholar
Bond, G. Kromer, B. Beer, J. Muscheler, R. Evans, M.N. Showers, W. Hoffmann, S. Lotti-Bond, R. Hajdas, I. Bonani, G. Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the Holocene Science 294 2001 21302136 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Borgmark, A. Holocene climate variability and periodicities in south-central Sweden, as interpreted from peat humification analysis The Holocene 15 2005 387395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Borgmark, A. Schoning, K. A comparative study of peat proxies from two eastern central Swedish bogs and their relation to meteorological data Journal of Quaternary Science 21 2006 109114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Box, J. Study of Greenland instrument temperature records: 1873–2001 International Journal of Climatology 22 2002 18291847 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broder, T. Blodau, C. Biester, H. Knorr, K.H. Peat decomposition records in three pristine ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia Biogeosciences 9 2012 14791491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brugam, R.B. Pollen indicators of land-use change in southern Connecticut Quaternary Research 9 1978 349362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chambers, F.M. Booth, R.K. De Vleeschouwer, F. Lamentowicz, M. Le Roux, G. Mauquoy, D. Nichols, J.E. van Geel, B. Development and refinement of proxy-climate indicators from peats Quaternary International 268 2012 2133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheburkin, A.K. Shotyk, W. An energy dispersive miniprobe multielement analyzer (EMMA) for direct analysis of Pb and other trace elements in peat Journal of Analytical Chemistry 354 1996 688691 Google Scholar
Chesworth, W. Martínez Cortizas, A. García-Rodeja, E. The redox-pH approach to the geochemistry of the Earth's land surface, with application to peatlands Martini, I.P. Martínez Cortizas, A. Chesworth, W. Peatlands: Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes 2006 175196 (Amsterdam)Google Scholar
Comtois, P. Ragweed (Ambrosia sp.): the phoenix of allergophytes Spieksma, F.T.M. Ragweed in Europe. 6th Int. Congr. Aerobiol. Satellite Symp. Proc. Horsholm DK, Perugia 1998 35 Google Scholar
Couturier, P. Dispersion of ragweed in the Drome-Ardeche region Allergie et Immunologie 24 1992 2731 Google ScholarPubMed
Dahl-Jensen, D. Mosegaard, K. Gundestrup, N. Clow, G.G.D. Johnsen, S.S.J. Hansen, A.A.W. Balling, N. Clow, D.G. Past temperatures directly from the Greenland ice sheet Science 282 1998 268271 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dechamp, C. Dechamp, J. Ragweed pollen counts (P. Cour collection apparatus) from Lyon-Bron from 1982 to 1989: results, informing the public Allergie et Immunologie 24 1992 1721 Google Scholar
Dugmore, A.J. Church, M.J. Buckland, P.C. Edwards, K.J. Lawson, I. McGovern, T.H. Panagiotakopulu, E. Simpson, I.A. Skidmore, P. Sveinbjarnardóttir, G. The Norse landnám on the North Atlantic islands: an environmental impact assessment Polar Record 41 2005 2137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dugmore, A.J. Borthwick, D.M. Church, M.J. Dawson, A. Edwards, K.J. Keller, C. Mayewski, P. McGovern, T.H. Mairs, K.-A. Sveinbjarnardóttir, G. The role of climate in settlement and landscape change in the North Atlantic islands: an assessment of cumulative deviations in high-resolution proxy records Human Ecology 35 2007 169178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dugmore, A.J. McGovern, T.H. Vésteinsson, O. Arneborg, J. Streeter, R. Keller, C. Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjunctures in Norse Greenland Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 2012 36583663 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edwards, K.J. Schofield, J.E. Mauquoy, D. High resolution paleoenvironmental and chronological investigations of Norse landnám at Tasiusaq, Eastern Settlement, Greenland Quaternary Research 69 2008 115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, K.J. Schofield, J.E. Kirby, J.R. Cook, G.T. Problematic but promising ponds? Palaeoenviromental evidence from the Norse Eastern Settlement of Greenland Journal of Quaternary Science 26 2011 854865 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eriksson, L. Johansson, E. Kettaneh-Wold, N. Wold, S. Introduction to multi- and megavariate data analysis using projection methods (PCA & PLS) 1999 Umetrics AB Umea Google Scholar
Feilberg, J. A phytogeographical study of South Greenland Vascular plants. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 15 1984 170 Google Scholar
Fitzhugh, W.W. Ward, E.I. Vikings: the North Atlantic saga 2000 Smithsonian Institution Press Washington CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fredskild, B. Agriculture in a Marginal area- South Greenland from the Norse Landnam (985 A.D.) to the present (1985 A.D.) Birks, H.H. Birks, H.J.B. Kaland, P.E. Moe, D. The Cultural Landscape—Past, Present and Future 1988 Cambridge University Press Cambridge 381393 Google Scholar
Fredskild, B. Erosion and vegetational changes in South Greenland caused by agriculture Geografisk Tidsskrift 92 1992 1421 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallon, C. Tessier, A. Gobeil, C. Beaudin, L. Sources and chronology of atmospheric lead deposition to a Canadian Shield lake: inferences from Pb isotopes and PAH profiles Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69 2005 31993210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golding, K.A. Simpson, I.A. Schofield, J.E. Edwards, K.J. Norse-Inuit interaction and landscape change in southern Greenland? A geochronological, pedological, and palynological investigation Geoarchaeology 26 2011 315345 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golding, K.A. Simpson, I.A. Wilson, C.A. Lowe, E.C. Schofield, J.E. Edwards, K.J. Europeanization of sub-Arctic environments: perspectives from Norse Greenland's outer fjords Human Ecology 43 2015 6177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, J.G. Forest History of Ohio. I, Radiocarbon Dates and Pollen Stratigraphy of Silver Lake, Logan County, Ohio The Ohio Journal of Science 66 1966 387400 Google Scholar
Graney, J. Halliday, A. Keeler, G. Nriagu, J. Robbins, J. Norton, S. Isotopic record of lead pollution in lake sediments from the northeastern United States Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59 1995 17151728 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimm, E.C. TILIA: a program for analysis and display 1993 Illinois State Museum Springfield Google Scholar
Grove, J. The Little Ice Age 1988 Methuen London CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haltia-Hovi, E. Saarinen, T. Kukkonen, M. A 2000-year record of solar forcing on varved lake sediment in eastern Finland Quaternary Science Reviews 26 2007 678689 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Högber, P. 15 N natural abundance in soil-plant systems New Phytologist 137 1997 179203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hölzer, A. Hölzer, A. Silicon and titanium in peat profiles as indicators of human impact The Holocene 8 1998 685696 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hong, S. Candelone, J.-P. Patterson, C.C. Boutron, C.F. Greenland Ice Evidence of Hemispheric Lead Pollution Two Millennia Ago by Greek and Roman Civilizations Science 265 1994 18411843 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ireland, A.W. Clifford, M.J. Booth, R.K. Widespread dust deposition on North American peatlands coincident with European land-clearance Vegetation History & Archaeobotany 23 2014 693700 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobsen, N.K. Studies on soils and potential for soil erosion in the sheep farming area of South Greenland Arctic and Alpine Research 19 1987 498507 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jessen, C.A. Solignac, S. Nørgaard-Pedersen, N. Mikkelson, N. Kuijpers, A. Siedenkrantz, M.-S. Exotic pollen as an indicator of variable atmospheric circulation over the Labrador Sea region during the mid to late Holocene Journal of Quaternary Science 26 2011 286296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, D.S. Schneider, D.P. McKay, N.P. Ammann, C.M. Bradley, R.S. Briffa, K.R. Miller, G.H. Otto-Bliesner, B.L. Overpeck, J.T. Vinther, B.M. Arctic Lakes 2k project members, Recent warming reverses long-term Arctic cooling Science 325 2009 12361239 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krogh, K.J. Viking Greenland 1967 National Museum Copenhagen Google Scholar
Kuhry, P. Vitt, D.H. Fossil carbon/nitrogen ratios as a measure of peat decomposition Ecology 77 1996 271275 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kylander, M.E. Weiss, D.J. Kober, B. Two high resolution terrestrial records of atmospheric Pb deposition from New Brunswick, Canada, and Loch Laxford, Scotland Science of the Total Environment 407 2009 16441657 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lean, J. Beer, J. Bradley, R. Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change Geophysical Research Letters 22 1995 31953198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ledger, P.M. Edwards, K.J. Schofield, J.E. Shieling activity in the Norse Eastern Settlement: palaeoenvironment of the ‘Mountain Farm’, Vatnahverfi, Greenland The Holocene 23 2013 810822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ledger, P.M. Edwards, K.J. Schofield, J.E. Vatnahverfi: a green and pleasant land? Palaeoecological reconstructions of environmental and land-use change Journal of the North Atlantic 6 2014 2946 (Special Volume)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leri, A.C. Myneni, S.C.B. Natural organobromine in terrestrial ecosystems Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 77 2012 110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Létolle, R. Nitrogen-15 in the natural environment Fritz, P. Fontes, J.C. Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry vol. 1 1980 Elsevier Amsterdam 407429 Google Scholar
Lomas-Clarke, S.H. Barber, K.E. Palaeoecology of human impact during the historic period: palynology and geochemistry of a peat deposit at Abbeyknockmoy, Co. Galway, Ireland The Holocene 14 2004 721731 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macko, S. Entzeroth, L. Parker, P. Early diagenesis of organic matter in sediments. Assessment of mechanisms and preservation by the use of isotopic molecular approaches Engel, J. Organic Geochemistry: Principles and Applications 1993 Plenum New York 211224 Google Scholar
Malmer, N. Holm, E. Variation in the C/N-quotient of peat in relation to decomposition rate and age determination with 210 pb Oikos 43 1984 171182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mann, M.E. Bradley, R.S. Hughes, M.K. Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries Nature 392 1998 779787 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martínez Cortizas, A. Mighall, T. Pontevedra Pombal, X. Nóvoa Muñoz, J.C.C. Peiteado Varela, E. Piñeiro Rebolo, R. Linking changes in atmospheric dust deposition, vegetation change and human activities in northwest Spain during the last 5300 years The Holocene 15 2005 698706 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martínez Cortizas, A. López-Merino, L. Bindler, R. Mighall, T. Kylander, M. Atmospheric Pb pollution in N Iberia during the late Iron Age/Roman times reconstructed using the high-resolution record of La Molina mire (Asturias, Spain) Journal of Paleolimnology 50 2013 7186 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martínez-Cortizas, A. Biester, H. Mighall, T. Bindler, R. Mart, A. Climate-driven enrichment of pollutants in peatlands Biogeosciences 4 2007 905911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massa, C. Bichet, V. Gauthier, É. Perren, B.B. Mathieu, O. Petit, C. Monna, F. Giraudeau, J. Losno, R. Richard, H. A 2500 year record of natural and anthropogenic soil erosion in South Greenland Quaternary Science Reviews 32 2012 119130 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Massa, C. Monna, F. Bichet, V. Gauthier, E. Losno, R. Richard, H. Inverse modeling of past lead atmospheric deposition in South Greenland Atmospheric Environment 105 2015 121129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mauquoy, D. van Geel, B. Blaauw, M. van der Plicht, J. Evidence from northwest European bogs shows “Little Ice Age” climatic changes driven by variations in solar activity The Holocene 1 2007 16 Google Scholar
McAndrews, J.H. Human disturbance of North American forests and grasslands: the fossil pollen record Huntley, B. Webb, T. Vegetation History Volume of Handbook of Vegetation Science Series 1988 Kluwer Academic Publishers Utrech 673697 Google Scholar
McAndrews, J.H. Boyko-Diakonow, M. Pollen analysis of varved sediment at crawford lake, Ontario: evidence of indian and european farming Fulton, R.D. Quaternary Geology of Canada and Greenland 1989 Geological Survey of Canada Ottawa 528530 Google Scholar
Meharg, A.A. Edwards, K.J. Schofield, J.E. Raab, A. Feldmann, J. Moran, A.C. Bryant, C.L. Thornton, B. Dawson, J.J.C. First comprehensive peat depositional records for tin, lead and copper associated with the antiquity of Europe's largest cassiterite deposit Journal of Archaeological Science 39 2012 717727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michelutti, N. Simonetti, A. Briner, J.P. Funder, S. Creaser, R. a, Wolfe, A.P. Temporal trends of pollution Pb and other metals in east-central Baffin Island inferred from lake sediment geochemistry Science of the Total Environment 407 2009 56535662 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Millet, L. Massa, C. Bichet, V. Frossard, V. Belle, S. Gauthier, E. Anthropogenic versus climatic control in a high-resolution 1500-year chironomid stratigraphy from a southwestern Greenland lake Quaternary Research 81 2014 193202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mohn, W. Tiedje, J. Microbial reductive dehalogenation Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 56 1992 482507 Google ScholarPubMed
Monserrate, E. Häggblom, M. Dehalogenation and biodegradation of brominated phenols and benzoic acids under iron-reducing, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic conditions Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63 1997 39113915 Google ScholarPubMed
Moore, P.D. Webb, J.A. Collinson, M.E. Pollen Analysis 2nd edition 1991 Blackwell Oxford Google Scholar
Moore, G.W.K. Pickart, R.S. Renfrew, L.A. Buoy observations from the windiest location in the world ocean, Cape Farewell, Greenland Geophysical Research Letters 35 2008 L18802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murozumi, M. Chow, T.J. Patterson, C. Chemical concentrations of pollutant lead aerosols, terrestrial dusts and sea salts in Greenland and Antarctic snow strata Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 33 1969 12471294 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Myneni, S.C.B. Formation of stable chlorinated hydrocarbons in weathering plant material Science 295 2002 10391041 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norton, S. Evans, G.C. Kahl, J.S. Comparison of Hg and Pb fluxes to hummocks and hollows of ombrotrophic Big Heath and to nearby Sargent Mt. Pond, Maine Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 100 1997 271286 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norton, S.A. Perry, E.R. Haines, Terry, A. Dieffenbacher-Krallc, A.C. Paleolimnological assessment of Grove and Plow Shop Ponds, Ayer, Massachusetts, USA – A superfund site Journal of Environmental Monitoring 6 2004 457465 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ogilvie, A.E.J. Jónsson, T. “Little Ice Age” research: a perspective from Iceland Climatic Change 48 2001 952 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Outridge, P.M. Hermanson, M.H. Lockhart, W.L. Regional variations in atmospheric deposition and sources of anthropogenic lead in lake sediments across the Canadian Arctic Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66 2002 35213531 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pontevedra-Pombal, X. Mighall, T.M. Nóvoa-Muñoz, J.C. Peiteado-Varela, E. Rodríguez-Racedo, J. García-Rodeja, E. Martínez-Cortizas, A. Five thousand years of atmospheric Ni, Zn, As, and Cd deposition recorded in bogs from NW Iberia: prehistoric and historic anthropogenic contributions Journal of Archaeological Science 40 2013 764777 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raahauge, K. Hoegh-Knudsen, P. Gulløv, H.C. Mohl, J. Krause, C. Møller, N.A. Tidlig ThulekulturI Sydgrønland. Rapport om undersøgelserne I Nanortalik Kommune, sommeren 2002, Feltrapport 9 2003 SILA, Nationalmuseets Center for Grønlandsforskning Copenhagen Google Scholar
Reimer, P.J. Baillie, M.G.L. Bard, E. Bayliss, A. Beck, J.W. Bertrand, C.J.H. Blackwell, P.G. Buck, C.E. Burr, G.S. Cutler, K.B. Damon, P.E. Edwards, R.L. Fairbanks, R.G. Friedrich, M. Guilderson, T.P. Hogg, a.G. Hughen, K.a. Kromer, B. McCormac, G. Manning, S. Ramsey, C.B. Reimer, R.W. Remmele, S. Southon, J.R. Stuiver, M. Talamo, S. Taylor, F.W. van der Plicht, J. Weyhenmeyer, C.E. IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP Radiocarbon 46 2004 10291058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reimer, P.J. Bard, E. Bayliss, A. Beck, J.W. Blackwell, P.G. Bronk, C. Caitlin, R. Hai, E.B. Edwards, R.L. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0 – 50,000 years cal BP Radiocarbon 55 2013 18691887 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Renfrew, I.A. Moore, G.W.K. Kristjánsson, J.E. Ólafsson, H. Gray, S.L. Petersen, G.N. Bovis, K. Brown, P.R.A. Føre, I. Haine, T. Hay, C. Irvine, E.A. Lawrence, A. Ohigashi, T. Outten, S. Pickart, R.S. Shapiro, M. Sproson, D. Swinbank, R. Woolley, A. Zhang, S. The Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 89 2008 13071324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosman, K.J.R. Chisholm, W. Boutron, C.F. Candelone, J.P. Görlach, U. Isotopic evidence for the source of lead in Greenland snows since the late 1960s Nature 362 1993 333335 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosman, K.J. Chisholm, W. Hong, S. Candelone, J.-P. Boutron, C.F. Lead from Carthaginian and Roman Spanish Mines Isotopically Identified in Greenland Ice Dated from 600 B.C. to 300 A.D Environmental Science & Technology 31 1997 34133416 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosman, K.J.R. Chisholm, W. Boutron, C.F. Candelone, J.-P. Jaffrezo, J.-L. Davidson, C.I. Seasonal variations in the origin of lead in snow at Dye 3, Greenland Earth and Planetary Science Letters 160 1998 383389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rousseau, D.-D. Long distance transport of pollen to Greenland Geophysical Research Letters 30 2003 1765 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rousseau, D. Schevin, P. Duzer, D. Cambon, G. Ferrier, J. Jolly, D. Poulsen, U. New evidence of long distance pollen transport to southern Greenland in late spring Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 141 2006 277286 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sampe, T. Shang-Ping, X. Mapping high sea winds from space: a global climatology Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88 2007 19651978 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandgren, P. Fredskild, B. Magnetic measurements recording Late Holocene man-induced erosion in S. Greenland Boreas 20 1991 315331 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schofield, J.E. Edwards, K.J. Christensen, C. Environmental impacts around the time of Norse landnám in the Qorlortoq valley, Eastern Settlement, Greenland Journal of Archaeological Science 35 2008 16431657 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schofield, J.E. Edwards, K.J. Mighall, T.M. Martínez-Cortizas, A. Rodríguez-Racedo, J. Cook, G. Martínez Cortizas, A. An integrated geochemical and palynological study of human impacts, soil erosion and storminess from southern Greenland since c. AD 1000 Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 295 2010 1930 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schweizer, M. Fear, J. Cadisch, G. Isotopic (13C) fractionation during plant residue decomposition and its implications for soil organic matter studies Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 13 1999 12841290 3.0.CO;2-0>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shotyk, W. Goodsite, M.E. Roos-Barraclough, F. Frei, R. Heinemeier, J. Asmund, G. Lohse, C. Hansen, T.S. Anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric Hg, Pb and As accumulation recorded by peat cores from southern Greenland and Denmark dated using the 14C “bomb pulse curve” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67 2003 39914011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shotyk, W. Zheng, J. Krachler, M. Zdanowicz, C. Koerner, R. Fisher, D. Predominance of industrial Pb in recent snow (1994–2004) and ice (1842–1996) from Devon Island, Arctic Canada Geophysical Research Letters 32 2005 L21814 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva-Sánchez, N. Martínez Cortizas, A. López-Merino, L. Linking forest cover, soil erosion and mire hydrology to late-Holocene human activity and climate in NW Spain The Holocene 24 2014 714725 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smidt, E. Meissl, K. Schwanninger, M. Lechner, P. Classification of waste materials using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and soft independent modeling of class analogy Waste Management 28 2008 16991710 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Solomon, D. Lehnmann, J. Thies, J. Schafer, T. Liang, B. Kinyangi, J. Neves, E. Petersen, J. Luizao, F. Skjemstad, J. Molecular signature and sources of biochemical recalcitrnace of organic C in Amazonian Dark Earths Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71 2007 22852298 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sturges, W.T. Barrie, L.A. Stable lead isotope ratios in Arctic aerosols: Evidence for the origin of Arctic air pollution Atmospheric Environment 23 1989 25132520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thibaudon, M. Ragweed in France; some air pollen data for the years 1987–1990 Allergie et Immunologie 24 1992 916 Google ScholarPubMed
van Geel, B. Raspopov, O.M. Renssen, H. van der Plicht, J. Dergachev, V.A. Meijer, H.A.J. The role of solar forcing upon climate change Quaternary Science Reviews 18 1999 331338 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Geel, B. Buurman, J. Brinkkemper, O. Schelvis, J. Aptroot, A. van Reenen, G. Hakbijl, T. Environmental reconstruction of a Roman Period settlement site in Uitgeest (The Netherlands), with special reference to coprophilous fungi Journal of Archaeological Science 30 2003 873883 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wallbrink, P.J. Walling, D.E. He, Q. Radionuclide measurement using Hpge Gamma Spectrometry Zapata, F. Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides 2002 Kluwer Dorderecht 6796 Google Scholar
Walling, D.E. He, Q. Appleby, P.G. Conversion models for soil-erosion, soil-redistribution and sedimentation investigations Zapata, F. Handbook for the Assessment of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Using Environmental Radionuclides 2002 Kluwer Dordrecht 111164 Google Scholar
Weiss, D. Shotyk, W. Appleby, P.G. Kramers, J.D. Cheburkin, A.K. Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution recorded by five Swiss peat profiles: Enrichment factors, fluxes, isotopic composition, and sources Environmental Science & Technology 33 1999 13401352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wigley, T. Kelly, P. Holocene climatic change, 14C wiggles and variations in solar irradiance Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 330 1990 547560 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Silva-Sánchez et al. supplementary material

Table S1

File 63 KB

Silva-Sánchez et al. supplementary material

Table S2

File 39 KB

Silva-Sánchez et al. supplementary material

Table S3

File 36 KB

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 85 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 26th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Climate changes, lead pollution and soil erosion in south Greenland over the past 700 years
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Climate changes, lead pollution and soil erosion in south Greenland over the past 700 years
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Climate changes, lead pollution and soil erosion in south Greenland over the past 700 years
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *