Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Chronology and provenance of last-glacial (peoria) loess in western iowa and paleoclimatic implications

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Daniel R. Muhs
Affiliation:
U.S. Geological Survey, MS 980, Box 25046, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225, USA
E. Arthur Bettis III
Affiliation:
Department of Geoscience, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Helen M. Roberts
Affiliation:
Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3DB, United Kingdom
Stephen S. Harlan
Affiliation:
National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230, USA
James B. Paces
Affiliation:
U.S. Geological Survey, MS 980, Box 25046, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225, USA
Richard L. Reynolds
Affiliation:
U.S. Geological Survey, MS 980, Box 25046, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Geologic archives show that the Earth was dustier during the last glacial period. One model suggests that increased gustiness (stronger, more frequent winds) enhanced dustiness. We tested this at Loveland, Iowa, one of the thickest deposits of last-glacial-age (Peoria) loess in the world. Based on K/Rb and Ba/Rb, loess was derived not only from glaciogenic sources of the Missouri River, but also distal loess from non-glacial sources in Nebraska. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages provide the first detailed chronology of Peoria Loess at Loveland. Deposition began after ~ 27 ka and continued until ~ 17 ka. OSL ages also indicate that mass accumulation rates (MARs) of loess were not constant. MARs were highest and grain size was coarsest during the time of middle Peoria Loess accretion, ~ 23 ka, when ~ 10 m of loess accumulated in no more than ~ 2000 yr and possibly much less. The timing of coarsest grain size and highest MAR, indicating strongest winds, coincides with a summer-insolation minimum at high latitudes in North America and the maximum southward extent of the Laurentide ice sheet. These observations suggest that increased dustiness during the last glacial period was driven largely by enhanced gustiness, forced by a steepened meridional temperature gradient.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
University of Washington

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Adamiec, G., Aitken, M., (1998). Dose-rate conversion factors: update. Ancient TL 16, 3749.Google Scholar
Aitken, M.J., (1985). Thermoluminescence Dating. Academic Press, London.(359 pp.).Google Scholar
Aleinikoff, J.N., Muhs, D.R., Bettis III, E.A., Johnson, W.C., Fanning, C.M., Benton, R., (2008). Isotopic evidence for the diversity of late Quaternary loess in Nebraska: glaciogenic and non-glaciogenic sources. Geological Society of America Bulletin 120, 13621377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Antoine, P., Rousseau, D.-D., Moine, O., Kunesch, S., Hatté, C., Lang, A., Tissoux, H., Zöller, L., (2009). Rapid and cyclic aeolian deposition during the Last Glacial in European loess: a high-resolution record from Nussloch, Germany. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 29552973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banerjee, D., Murray, A.S., Bøtter-Jensen, L., Lang, A., (2001). Equivalent dose estimation using a single aliquot of polymineral fine grains. Radiation Measurements 33, 7393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, A., Loutre, M.F., (1991). Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quaternary Science Reviews 10, 297317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berger, G.W., Mulhern, P.J., Huntley, D.J., (1980). Isolation of silt-sized quartz from sediments. Ancient TL 11, 89.Google Scholar
Bettis III, E.A., (1990). Holocene alluvial stratigraphy and selected aspects of the Quaternary history of western Iowa. Midwest Friends of the Pleistocene, 37th Field Conference Guidebook. Google Scholar
Bettis III, E.A., Quade, D.J., Kemmis, T.J., (1996). Hogs, bogs, and logs: Quaternary deposits and environmental geology of the Des Moines Lobe. Geological Survey Bureau, Guidebook Series 18. (170 pp.).Google Scholar
Bettis III, E.A., Muhs, D.R., Roberts, H.M., Wintle, A.G., (2003). Last glacial loess in the conterminous USA. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 19071946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, N.D., Forman, S.L., (2012). Evaluating a SAR TT-OSL protocol for dating fine-grained quartz within Late Pleistocene loess deposits in the Missouri and Mississippi river valleys, United States. Quaternary Geochronology 12, 8797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carman, J.E., (1917). The Pleistocene geology of northwestern Iowa. Iowa Geological Survey Annual Report 26, 233245.Google Scholar
Carman, J.E., (1931). Further studies on the Pleistocene geology of northwestern Iowa. Iowa Geological Survey Annual Report 35, 15193.Google Scholar
Curry, B.B., Follmer, L.R., (1992). The last interglacial-glacial transition in Illinois: 123–25 ka. Clark, P.U., Clark, P.D. The Last Interglacial-Glacial Transition in North America. Geological Society of America Special Paper 270, 7188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daniels, R.B., Handy, R.L., (1959). Suggested new type section for the Loveland loess in western Iowa. Journal of Geology 67, 114119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daniels, R.B., Handy, R.L., Simonson, G.H., (1960). Dark-colored bands in the thick loess of western Iowa. Journal of Geology 68, 450458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunlop, D., Özdemir, Ö., (1997). Rock Magnetism — Fundamentals and Frontiers. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.(573 pp.).Google Scholar
Fairbanks, R.G., Mortlock, R.A., Chiu, T.-C., Cao, L., Kaplan, A., Guilderson, T.P., Fairbanks, T.W., Bloom, A.L., Grootes, P.M., Nadeau, M.-J., (2005). Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C dates on pristine corals. Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 17811796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forman, S.L., Pierson, J., (2002). Late Pleistocene luminescence chronology of loess deposition in the Missouri and Mississippi river valleys, United States. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 186, 2546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forman, S.L., Bettis III, E.A., Kemmis, T.J., Miller, B.B., (1992). Chronologic evidence for multiple periods of loess deposition during the late Pleistocene in the Missouri and Mississippi River valley, United States: implications for the activity of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 93, 7183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frye, J.C., Leonard, A.B., (1951). Stratigraphy of the late Pleistocene loesses of Kansas. Journal of Geology 59, 287305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fullerton, D.S., Bush, C.A., Pennell, J.N., (2003). Map of surficial deposits and materials in the eastern and central United States (east of 102 degrees West longitude). U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2789, scale 1: 2,500,000 .Google Scholar
Fullerton, D.S., Colton, R.B., Bush, C.A., Straub, A.W., (2004). Map showing spatial and temporal relations of mountain and continental glaciations on the Northern Plains, primarily in northern Montana and northwestern North Dakota. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2843, scale 1: 1,000,000 .Google Scholar
Hallberg, G.R., Lineback, J.A., Mickelson, D.M., Knox, J.C., Goebel, J.E., Hobbs, H.C., Whitfield, J.W., Ward, R.A., Boellstorf, J.D., Swinehart, J.B., Dreeszen, V.H., (1991). Quaternary geologic map of the Des Moines 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States. U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1420 (NK-15), scale 1: 1,000,000 .Google Scholar
Haslett, J., Parnell, A., (2008). A simple monotone process with application to radiocarbon-dated depth chronologies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C: Applied Statistics 57, 399418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heier, K.S., Adams, J.A.S., (1964). The geochemistry of the alkali metals. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 5, 253381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hole, M.J., Kempton, P.D., Millar, I.L., (1993). Trace-element and isotopic characteristics of small-degree melts of the asthenosphere: evidence from the alkalic basalts of the Antarctic Peninsula. Chemical Geology 109, 5168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huntley, D.J., Lamothe, M., (2001). Ubiquity of anomalous fading in K-feldspars and the measurement and correction for it in optical dating. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38, 10931106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutton, C.E., (1947). Studies of loess-derived soils in southwestern Iowa. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 12, 424431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, W.H., Hansel, A.K., Bettis III, E.A., Karrow, P.F., Larson, G.J., Lowell, T.V., Schneider, A.F., (1997). Late Quaternary temporal and event classifications, Great Lakes region, North America. Quaternary Research 47, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, W.C., Willey, K.L., Mason, J.A., May, D.W., (2007). Stratigraphy and environmental reconstruction at the middle Wisconsinan Gilman Canyon formation type locality, Buzzard's Roost, southwestern Nebraska, USA. Quaternary Research 67, 474486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kay, G.F., Apfel, E.T., (1929). The pre-Illinoian Pleistocene geology of Iowa. Iowa Geological Survey Annual Report 34, 1304.Google Scholar
Kohfeld, K.E., Tegen, I., (2007). Record of mineral aerosols and their role in the Earth system. Holland, H.D., Turekian, K.K. Treatise on Geochemistry. Elsevier, (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/referenceworks/9780080437514, 26 pp.).Google Scholar
Lange, I.M., Reynolds, R.C., Lyons, J.B., (1966). K/Rb ratios in coexisting K-feldspars and biotites from some New England granites and metasediments. Chemical Geology 1, 317322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Q., Roberts, A.P., Torrent, J., Horng, C.-S., Larrasoaña, J.C., (2007). What do the HIRM and S-ratio really measure in environmental magnetism?. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 8 Q09011 10.1029/2007GC001717.Google Scholar
Mahowald, N.M., Muhs, D.R., Levis, S., Rasch, P.J., Yoshioka, M., Zender, C.S., Luo, C., (2006). Change in atmospheric mineral aerosols in response to climate: Last glacial period, preindustrial, modern, and doubled carbon dioxide climates. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, 10.1029/2005JD006653.Google Scholar
Mason, J.A., (2001). Transport direction of Peoria Loess in Nebraska and implications for loess sources on the central Great Plains. Quaternary Research 56, 7986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCuaig, T.C., Kerrich, R., (1998). P-T-t-deformation-fluid characteristics of lode gold deposits: evidence from alteration systematics. Ore Geology Reviews 12, 381453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGee, D., Broecker, W.S., Winckler, G., (2010). Gustiness: the driver of glacial dustiness?. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 23402350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhs, D.R., (2013). The geologic records of dust in the Quaternary. Aeolian Research 9, 348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhs, D.R., Bettis III, E.A., (2000). Geochemical variations in Peoria Loess of western Iowa indicate paleowinds of midcontinental North America during last glaciation. Quaternary Research 53, 4961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhs, D.R., Bettis III, E.A., (2003). Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences as examples of climate-driven sedimentary extremes. Geological Society of America Special Paper 370, 5374.Google Scholar
Muhs, D.R., Stafford, T.W., Cowherd, S.D., Mahan, S.A., Kihl, R., Maat, P.B., Bush, C.A., Nehring, J., (1996). Origin of the late Quaternary dune fields of northeastern Colorado. Geomorphology 17, 129149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhs, D.R., Aleinikoff, J.N., Stafford jr., T.W., Kihl, R., Been, J., Mahan, S.A., Cowherd, S., (1999). Late Quaternary loess in northeastern Colorado: part I—age and paleoclimatic significance. Geological Society of America Bulletin 111, 18611875.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhs, D.R., Ager, T.A., Bettis III, E.A., McGeehin, J., Been, J.M., Begét, J.E., Pavich, M.J., Stafford jr., T.W., Pinney, D., (2003). Stratigraphy and paleoclimatic significance of late Quaternary loess-paleosol sequences of the last interglacial–glacial cycle in central Alaska. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 19471986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muhs, D.R., Bettis III, E.A., Aleinikoff, J., McGeehin, J.P., Beann, J., Skipp, G., Marshall, B.D., Roberts, H.M., Johnson, W.C., Benton, R., (2008). Origin and paleoclimatic significance of late Quaternary loess in Nebraska: evidence from stratigraphy, chronology, sedimentology, and geochemistry. Geological Society of America Bulletin 120, 13781407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norton, L.D., Bradford, J.M., (1985). Thermoluminescence dating of loess from western Iowa. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49, 708712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, D.F., Ghosh, A., Price, C.W., Rinard, B.D., Cullers, R.L., Ren, M., (2005). Origin of rhyolite by crustal melting and the nature of parental magmas in the Oligocene Conejos Formation, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 139, 185210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parnell, A.C., Haslett, J., Allen, J.R.M., Buck, C.E., Huntley, B., (2008). A flexible approach to assessing synchroneity of past events using Bayesian reconstructions of sedimentation history. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 18721885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pigati, J.S., Quade, J., Shahanan, T.M., Haynes jr., C.V., (2004). Radiocarbon dating of minute gastropods and new constraints on the timing of late Quaternary spring-discharge deposits in southern Arizona, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 204, 3345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pigati, J.S., Rech, J.A., Nekola, J.C., (2010). Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells in North America. Quaternary Geochronology 5, 519532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porter, S.C., (2001). Chinese loess record of monsoon climate during the last glacial–interglacial cycle. Earth-Science Reviews 54, 115128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porter, S.C., An, Z., (1995). Correlation between climate events in the North Atlantic and China during the last glaciation. Nature 375, 305308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prescott, J.R., Hutton, J.T., (1994). Cosmic ray contributions to dose rates for luminescence and ESR dating: large depths and long-term time variations. Radiation Measurements 23, 497500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rees-Jones, J., (1995). Optical dating of young sediments using fine-grain quartz. Ancient TL 13, 913.Google Scholar
Roberts, H.M., (2006). Optical dating of coarse-silt sized quartz from loess: evaluation of equivalent dose determinations and SAR procedural checks. Radiation Measurements 41, 923929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, H.M., (2007). Assessing the effectiveness of the double-SAR protocol in isolating a luminescence signal dominated by quartz. Radiation Measurements 42, 16271636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, H.M., Wintle, A.G., (2001). Equivalent dose determinations for polymineralic fine-grains using the SAR protocol: application to a Holocene sequence of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Quaternary Science Reviews 20, 859863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roberts, H.M., Muhs, D.R., Wintle, A.G., Duller, G.A.T., Bettis III, E.A., (2003). Unprecedented last glacial mass accumulation rates determined by luminescence dating of loess from western Nebraska. Quaternary Research 59, 411419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenbaum, J.G., Reynolds, R.L., Adam, D.P., Drexler, J., Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M., Whitney, G.C., (1996). Record of middle Pleistocene climate change from Buck Lake, Cascade Range, southern Oregon—evidence from sediment magnetism, trace-element geochemistry, and pollen. Geological Society of America Bulletin 108, 13281341.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruhe, R.V., (1954). Relations of the properties of Wisconsin loess to topography in western Iowa. American Journal of Science 252, 663672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruhe, R.V., (1969). Quaternary Landscapes in Iowa. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.Google Scholar
Ruhe, R.V., (1983). Depositional environment of late Wisconsin loess in the midcontinental United States. Wright jr., H.E. Porter, S.C. Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.130137.Google Scholar
Ruhe, R.V., Olson, C.G., (1980). Clay-mineral indicators of glacial and nonglacial sources of Wisconsinan loesses in southern Indiana, U.S.A.. Geoderma 24, 283297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruhe, R.V., Miller, G.A., Vreeken, W.J., (1971). Paleosols, loess sedimentation and soil stratigraphy. Yaalon, D.H. Paleopedology—Origin, Nature and Dating of Paleosols. Israel Universities Press, Jerusalem.4159.Google Scholar
Ruth, U., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Siggaard-Andersen, M.-L., Kipfstuhl, S., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., Johnsen, S.J., Lu, H., Steffensen, J.P., (2007). Ice core evidence for a very tight link between North Atlantic and east Asian glacial climate. Geophysical Research Letters 34, 10.1029/2006GL027876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simonson, R.W., Hutton, C.E., (1954). Distribution curves for loess. American Journal of Science 252, 99105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, M.J., Verosub, K.L., (2007). Mineral magnetic analysis. Elias, S. The Encyclopedia of Quaternary Sciences. Elsevier, Amsterdam.20962102.Google Scholar
Swinehart, J.B., Dreeszen, V.H., Richmond, G.M., Tipton, M.J., Bretz, R., Steece, F.V., Hallberg, G.R., Goebel, J.E., (1994). Quaternary geologic map of the Platte River 4° x 6° quadrangle, United States. U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1420 (NK-14), scale 1:1,000,000 .Google Scholar
Willman, H.B., Frye, J.C., (1970). Pleistocene stratigraphy of Illinois. Illinois State Geological Survey Bulletin 94. (204 pp.).Google Scholar
World Meteorological Organization, . (2008). Guide to meteorological instruments and methods of observation. WMO-No. 8, 7th edition.Google Scholar

Muhs et al. supplementary material

Table S1

File 52 KB

Muhs et al. supplementary material

Table S2

File 40 KB

Muhs et al. supplementary material

Table S3

File 37 KB

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 52 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 23rd January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-2sjx4 Total loading time: 0.363 Render date: 2021-01-23T13:27:11.795Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Chronology and provenance of last-glacial (peoria) loess in western iowa and paleoclimatic implications
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Chronology and provenance of last-glacial (peoria) loess in western iowa and paleoclimatic implications
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Chronology and provenance of last-glacial (peoria) loess in western iowa and paleoclimatic implications
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *