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A 30,000 yr high-precision eruption history for the andesitic Mt. Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 February 2017


Magret Damaschke
Affiliation:
Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
Shane J. Cronin
Affiliation:
Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand School of Environment, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Katherine A. Holt
Affiliation:
Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
Mark S. Bebbington
Affiliation:
Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
Alan G. Hogg
Affiliation:
Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, Waikato University, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Tephra layers from 11 sediment cores were examined from a series of closely spaced lake and peat sites, which form an arc around the andesitic stratovolcano Mt. Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand. A new high-resolution composite tephra-deposition record was built, encompassing at least 228 tephra-producing eruptions over the last 30 cal ka BP and providing a basis for understanding variations in magnitude and frequency of explosive volcanism at a typical andesitic volcano. Intersite correlation and geochemical fingerprinting of almost all tephra layers was achieved using electron microprobe–determined titanomagnetite phenocryst and volcanic glass shard compositions, in conjunction with precise age determination of the tephra layers based on continuous down-core radiocarbon dating. Compositional variation within these data allowed the overall eruption record to be divided into six individual tephra sequences. This geochemical/stratigraphic division provides a broad basis for widening correlation to incomplete tephra sequences, with confident correlations to specific, distal Taranaki-derived tephra layers found as far as 270 km from the volcano. Furthermore, this tephrostratigraphical record is one of the most continuous and detailed for an andesitic stratovolcano. It suggests two general patterns of magmatic evolution, characterized by intricate geochemical variations indicating a complex storage and plumbing system beneath the volcano.


Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © University of Washington. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2017 

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A 30,000 yr high-precision eruption history for the andesitic Mt. Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand
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