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Chaperonin-assisted protein folding: a chronologue

  • Arthur L. Horwich (a1) (a2) and Wayne A. Fenton (a2)


This chronologue seeks to document the discovery and development of an understanding of oligomeric ring protein assemblies known as chaperonins that assist protein folding in the cell. It provides detail regarding genetic, physiologic, biochemical, and biophysical studies of these ATP-utilizing machines from both in vivo and in vitro observations. The chronologue is organized into various topics of physiology and mechanism, for each of which a chronologic order is generally followed. The text is liberally illustrated to provide firsthand inspection of the key pieces of experimental data that propelled this field. Because of the length and depth of this piece, the use of the outline as a guide for selected reading is encouraged, but it should also be of help in pursuing the text in direct order.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Author for correspondence: Arthur L. Horwich, E-mail:


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