Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Translation initiation: structures, mechanisms and evolution

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 May 2005


Assen Marintchev
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
Gerhard Wagner
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

Abstract

Translation, the process of mRNA-encoded protein synthesis, requires a complex apparatus, composed of the ribosome, tRNAs and additional protein factors, including aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. The ribosome provides the platform for proper assembly of mRNA, tRNAs and protein factors and carries the peptidyl-transferase activity. It consists of small and large subunits. The ribosomes are ribonucleoprotein particles with a ribosomal RNA core, to which multiple ribosomal proteins are bound. The sequence and structure of ribosomal RNAs, tRNAs, some of the ribosomal proteins and some of the additional protein factors are conserved in all kingdoms, underlying the common origin of the translation apparatus. Translation can be subdivided into several steps: initiation, elongation, termination and recycling. Of these, initiation is the most complex and the most divergent among the different kingdoms of life. A great amount of new structural, biochemical and genetic information on translation initiation has been accumulated in recent years, which led to the realization that initiation also shows a great degree of conservation throughout evolution. In this review, we summarize the available structural and functional data on translation initiation in the context of evolution, drawing parallels between eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. We will start with an overview of the ribosome structure and of translation in general, placing emphasis on factors and processes with relevance to initiation. The major steps in initiation and the factors involved will be described, followed by discussion of the structure and function of the individual initiation factors throughout evolution. We will conclude with a summary of the available information on the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of translation initiation.


Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 2004 Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Altmetric attention score


Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 266 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th November 2020. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-8465588854-ksd7m Total loading time: 0.413 Render date: 2020-11-28T00:46:44.480Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Sat Nov 28 2020 00:33:13 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": false, "languageSwitch": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Translation initiation: structures, mechanisms and evolution
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Translation initiation: structures, mechanisms and evolution
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Translation initiation: structures, mechanisms and evolution
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *