Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

  • R. J. Protheroe (a1) and R. W. Clay (a2)

Abstract

Cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV are currently of considerable interest in astrophysics and are to be further studied in a number of projects which are either currently under construction or the subject of well-developed proposals. This paper aims to discuss some of the physics of such particles in terms of current knowledge and information from particle astrophysics at other energies.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abu-Zayyad, T., et al. 2001, ApJ, 557, 686
Abu-Zayyad, T., et al. 2003, submitted to Astropart. Phys. (astro-ph/0208301)
Achterberg, A., Gallant, Y. A., Kirk, J. G., & Guthmann, A. W. 2001, MNRAS, 328, 393
Aharonian, F. 2000, New Astron., 5, 377
Ahmad, Q. R., et al. 2002, Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 011301; Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 011302
Anchordoqui, L. A., Dova, M. T., Epele, L. N., & Swain, J. D. 1998, Phys. Rev. D, 57, 7103
Auger Collaboration Contribution 2001, in Proceedings of XXVII Cosmic Ray Conference, Hamburg, eds. M. Simon et al., Copernicus Gesellschaft 2001, Vol. 2, 699
Axford, W. I., Lear, E., & Skadron, G. 1977, in Proc. 15th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Plovdiv Vol. 11, 132
Barbot, C., & Drees, M. 2003, Astropart. Phys., 20, 5
Baltrusaitis, R. M., et al. 1985, Nucl. Instr. Meth., A240, 410
Baring, M. G. 1997, in Proc. of XXXIInd Rencontres de Moriond, ‘Very High Energy Phenomena in the Universe’, eds. Y. Giraud-Heraud, & J. Tran Thanh Van (Paris: Editions Frontieres), 97
Bednarek, W., & Protheroe, R. J. 2002, Astropart. Phys., 16, 397
Bednarz, J., & Ostrowski, M. 1996, MNRAS, 283, 447
Bednarz, J., & Ostrowski, M. 1998, Phys. Rev. Lett., 80, 3911
Bednarz, J. 2000, MNRAS, 315, 37
Bell, A. R. 1978, MNRAS, 182, 443
Bell, A. R., & Lucek, S. G. 1996, MNRAS, 283, 1083
Bellido, J. A., Clay, R. W., Dawson, B. R., & Johnston-Hollitt, M. 2001, Astropart. Phys., 15, 167
Berezhko, E. G., & Krymski, G. F. 1988, Usp. Fiz. Nauk, 154, 49
Berezhko, E. G. 1994, Astron. Lett., 20, 75
Berezhko, E. G. 2001, Space Sci. Rev., 99, 295
Berezhko, E. G., & Völk, H. J. 2000, A&A, 357, 283
Berezinsky, V. S. 1970, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys., 11, 222
Berezinsky, V., Blasi, P., & Vilenkin, A. 1998, Phys. Rev. D, 58, 103515
Berezinsky, V., Kachelriess, M., & Vilenkin, A. 1997, Phys. Rev. Lett., 79, 4302
Berezinsky, V., & Kachelriess, M. 1998, Phys. Lett. B, 434, 61
Berezinsky, V., & Kachelriess, M. 2001, Phys. Rev. D, 63, 034007
Berezinsky, V., Kachelreiss, M., & Ostapchenko, S. 2002, Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 171802
Bhattacharjee, P., & Sigl, G. 2000, Phys. Rep., 327, 109
Birkel, M., & Sarkar, S. 1998, Astropart. Phys., 9, 297
Blandford, R. D., & Ostriker, J. P. 1978, ApJ, 221, L29
Blandford, R., & Eichler, D. 1987, Phys. Rep., 154, 1
Blasi, P. 1999, Phys. Rev. D, 60, 123514
Blasi, P., Epstein, R. I., & Olinto, A. V. 2000, ApJ, 533, L123
Biermann, P. L., & Strittmatter, P. A. 1987, ApJ, 322, 643
Bird, D. J., et al. 1995, ApJ, 441, 144
Bonn, J., et al. 2001, Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl., 91, 273
Bridle, A. H. 1967, MNRAS, 136, 14
Casse, F., & Markowith, A. 2003, A&A, 404, 405
Clarke, T. A., Brown, L. W., & Alexander, J. K. 1970, Nature, 228, 847
Clarke, T. E., Kronberg, P. P., & Bohringer, H. 2001, ApJ, 547, L111
Clay, R. W., McDonough, M. -A., & Smith, A. G. K. 1998, Pub. Astron. Soc. Aust., 15, 208
Clay, R. W. 2000, Pub. Astron. Soc. Aust., 17, 212
Clay, R. W. 2002, Pub. Astron. Soc. Aust., 19, 228
de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M., & Lazarian, A. 2001, ApJ, 560, 358
Dermer, C. D. 2002, ApJ, 574, 65
Drury, L. O'C. 1983a, Space Sci. Rev., 36, 57
Drury, L. O'C. 1983b, Rep. Prog. Phys., 46, 973
Drury, L. O'C., Duffy, P., Eichler, D., & Mastichiadis, A. 1999, A&A, 347, 370
Elbert, J. W., & Sommers, P. 1995, ApJ, 441, 151
Ellis, J. 2000, in Proc. of the 26th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., AIP Conf. Proc. 516, eds. B. L. Dingus et al. (American Inst. Physics), 21
Ellison, D. C., & Eichler, D. 1984, ApJ, 286, 691
Ellison, D. C., Reynolds, S. P., & Jones, F. C. 1990, ApJ, 360, 702
Ellison, D. C., Baring, M. G., & Jones, F. C. 1995, ApJ, 453, 873
Ellison, D. C., & Double, G. P. 2002, Astropart. Phys., 18, 213
Epele, L. N., & Roulet, E. 1998, J. High Energy Phys., 9810, 9
Evans, N. W., Ferrer, F., & Sarkar, S. 2003, Phys. Rev., D, 67, 103005
Falcke, H., & Gorham, P. 2003, Astropart. Phys., 19, 477
Fargion, D., Mele, B., & Salis, A. 1999, ApJ, 517, 725
Farrar, G. R., & Biermann, P. L. 1998, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 3579; erratum 1999, Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 2478; Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 1999, 2472 (response to Hoffman 1999)
Fodor, Z., Katz, S. D., & Ringwald, A. 2002, JHEP, 0206 046
Gaisser, T. K. 1990, ‘Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics’, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
Gaisser, T. K., & Stanev, T. 1998, Europhys. J., 3, 1
Galama, T. J., et al. 1998, Nature, 395, 670
Gallant, Y. A., Achterberg, A., & Kirk, J. 1999, A&AS, 138, 549
Gelmini, G., & Kusenko, A. 2000, PRL, 84, 1378
Gold, T. 1975, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., Series A, 277, 453
Gorbunov, D. S., Raffelt, G. G., & Semikoz, D. V. 2001, Phys. Rev., D, 64, 096005
Greisen, K. 1966, Phys. Rev. Lett., 16, 748
Halzen, F., Vazquez, R. A., Stanev, T., & Vankov, H. P. 1995, Astropart. Phys., 3, 151
Haswell, C. A., Tajima, T., & Sakai, J.-L. 1992, ApJ, 401, 495
Hayashida, N., et al. 1999, Astropart. Phys., 10, 303
Hill, C. T. 1983, Nucl. Phys. B, 224, 469
Hillas, A. M. 1984, ARA&A, 22, 425
Hoffman, C. M. 1999, Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 2471
Honda, M. 1987, ApJ., 319, 836
Jokipii, J. R., & Morfill, G. E. 1985, ApJ, 290, L1
Jokipii, J. R. 1987, ApJ, 313, 842
Jones, F. C., & Ellison, D. C. 1991, Space Sci. Rev., 58, 259
Jones, F. C. 1994, ApJS, 90, 561
Karakula, S., & Tkaczyk, W. 1993, Astropart. Phys., 1, 229
Kawabata, K. S., et al. 2003 (astro-ph/0306155)
Kirk, J. G., & Schneider, P. 1987, ApJ, 315, 425
Kirk, J. G., & Duffy, P. 1999, JPhG, 25, 163
Kirk, J. G., Guthmann, A. W., Gallant, Y. A., & Achterberg, A. 2000, ApJ, 542, 235
Kolb, E. W. 1998, in Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Techniques and Concepts of High-Energy Physics, ed. T. Ferbel (10th; St. Croix, V.I.)
Kronberg, P. P. 1994, Rep. Prog. Phys., 57, 325
Krymsky, G. F. 1977, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, 243, 1306
Learned, J., & Mannheim, K. 2000, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 50, 679
Lemoine, M., & Pelletier, G. 2003, ApJ, 589, 73
Malkan, M. A., & Stecker, F. W. 1998, ApJ, 496, 13
Mannheim, K. 1993, A&A, 269, 67
Mannheim, K. 1995, Astropart. Phys., 3, 295
Mannheim, K., Protheroe, R. J., & Rachen, J. P. 2001, Phys. Rev. D, 63, id. 023003
Mastichiadis, A., Protheroe, R. J., & Szabo, A. P. 1994, MNRAS, 266, 910
Medina Tanco, G. A. 1998, ApJ, 505, L79
Meli, A., & Quenby, J. 2003, Astropart. Phys., 19, 637
Meli, A., & Quenby, J. 2003, Astropart. Phys., 19, 649
Mücke, A., Engel, R., Rachen, J. P., Protheroe, R. J., & Stanev, T. 2000, Comp. Phys. Com., 124, 290
Mücke, A., & Protheroe, R. J. 2000, ‘GeV-TeV Gamma Ray Astrophysics Workshop‘, AIP Conf. Proc. 515, eds. B. L. Dingus et al., p. 149
Mücke, A., & Protheroe, R. J. 2001, Astropart. Phys., 15, 121
Mücke, A., Protheroe, R. J., Engel, R., Rachen, J. P., & Stanev, T. 2003, Astropart. Phys., 18, 593
Müller, D., Swordy, S. P., Meyer, P., L'Heureux, J., & Grunsfeld, J. M. 1991, ApJ, 374, 356
Nagano, M., & Watson, A. A. 2000, Rev. Mod. Phys., 72, 3, 689
Norman, C. A., Melrose, D. B., & Achterberg, A. 1995, ApJ, 454, 60
Ostrowski, M. 1999, in Proc. Vulcano Workshop 1998: Frontier Objects in Astrophysics and Particle Physics, eds. F. Giovannelli, & G. Mannocchi. Ital. Phys. Soc. Conf. Proc., Vol. 65. (Bologna, Italy: Italian Physical Society, 1999), 313
Ostrowski, M., & Bednarz, J. 2002, A&A, 394, 1141
Päs, H., & Weiler, T. J. 2001, Phys. Rev. D, 63, id. 113015
Peacock, J. A. 1981, MNRAS, 196, 135
Protheroe, R. J. 1986, MNRAS, 221, 769
Protheroe, R. J. 1990, MNRAS, 246, 628
Protheroe, R. J., Mastichiadis, A., & Dermer, C. D. 1992, Astropart. Phys., 1, 113
Protheroe, R. J., & Stanev, T. S. 1993, MNRAS, 264, 191
Protheroe, R. J., & Johnson, P. A. 1995, Astropart. Phys., 4, 253; erratum 1996, Astropart. Phys., 5, 215
Protheroe, R. J., Stanev, T., & Berezinsky, V. S. 1995, Phys. Rev. D, 51, 4134
Protheroe, R. J., & Johnson, P. 1996, Astropart. Phys., 4, 253
Protheroe, R. J., & Biermann, P. L. 1996, Astropart. Phys., 6, 45
Protheroe, R. J., & Stanev, T. 1996, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 3708; erratum 1997, Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 2420
Protheroe, R. J. 1997, in ‘Accretion Phenomena and Related Outfiows’, IAU Colloquium 163, eds. D. T. Wickramasinghe, G. V. Bicknell, & L. Ferrario 1997, ASP Conf. Ser., 121, 585
Protheroe, R. J. 1998, in 18th Int. Conf. on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (Neutrino 98), Takayama, Nucl. Phys. B Proc. Suppl., 77, 465
Protheroe, R. J., & Stanev, T. 1999, Astropart. Phys., 10, 185
Protheroe, R. J. 2000, in ‘Topics in Cosmic-ray Astrophysics’, ed. M. A. DuVernois (New York: Nova Science Publishing), 258
Protheroe, R. J. 2001, in Proceedings of XXVII Cosmic Ray Conference, Hamburg, eds. M. Simon et al. (Copernicus Gesellschaft), 6, 2006, and ibid, 6, 2014
Protheroe, R. J., Donea, A.-C., & Reimer, A. 2003, Astropart. Physics, 19, 559
Puget, J. L., Stecker, F. W., & Bredekamp, J. H. 1976, ApJ, 205, 638
Rachen, J. P., & Biermann, P. L. 1993, A&A, 272, 161
Rubin, N. 1999, M. Phil. Thesis, University of Cambridge
Sarkar, S. 2000, in COSMO-99, in Third Intern. Workshop on Particle Physics and the Early Universe, 77 (hep-ph/0005256)
Sarkar, S., & Toldra, R. 2002, Nucl. Phys. B, 621, 495
Sigl, G. et al. 1997, Phys. Lett. B, 392, 129
Sigl, G., Lee, S., Bhattacharjee, P., & Yoshida, S. 1999, Phys. Rev. D, 59, id. 043504
Sigl, G. 2000, Lect. Notes Phys., 556, 259
Sigl, G., Torres, D. F., Anchordoqui, L. A., & Romero, G. E. 2001, Phys. Rev. D, 63, id. 081302
Singh, S., & Ma, C.-P. 2003, Phys. Rev., D, 67, 023506
Smith, A. G. K., & Clay, R. W. 1997, Aust. J. Phys., 50, 827
Sorrell, W. H. 1987, ApJ, 323, 647
Stanev, T., Biermann, P. L., Lloyd-Evans, J., Rachen, J. P., & Watson, A. A. 1995, Phys. Rev. Lett., 75, 3056
Stanev, T., Engel, R., Mücke, A., Protheroe, R. J., & Rachen, J. P. 2000, Phys. Rev. D, 62, 093005
Stecker, F. W., & Salamon, M. 1999, ApJ, 512, 521
Szabo, A. P., & Protheroe, R. J. 1994, Astropart. Phys., 2, 375
Takeda, M., et al. 2003, Astropart. Phys., 19, 447
Tinyakov, P. G., & Tkachev, I. I. 2001a, JETP Lett., 74, 1
Tinyakov, P. G., & Tkachev, I. I. 2001b, JETP Lett., 74, 445
Tinyakov, P. G., & Tkachev, I. I. 2003 (astro-ph/0301336)
Tkaczyk, W., Wdowczyk, J., & Wolfendale, A. W. 1975, J. Phys. A, 8, 1518
Toshito, T., et al. 2001 (hep-ex/0105023)
Vietri, M. 1995, ApJ, 453, 883
Waxman, E., & Bahcall, J. 1999, Phys. Rev. D, 59, id. 023002
Weiler, T. 1999, Astropart. Phys., 11, 303
Zatsepin, G. T., & Kuzmin, V. A. 1966, Sov. Phys. JETP Lett., 4, 78

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed