Published online by Cambridge University Press: 25 April 2016
We have deduced the yearly averaged value of the solar diurnal variation as observed by a surface muon telescope and three underground muon telescopes over the years 1957 to 1985. This has allowed us to examine the temporal variation in both the latitudinal gradient Gz and the product of the parallel mean free path and the radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays during three consecutive solar cycles. The median rigidities of the primary particles being detected by the telescopes are 50 GV in the case of the surface muon telescope and greater than 150 GV in the case of the underground muon telescopes. We have compared our results with those of a similar study made from observations of the solar diurnal variation by neutron monitors and an ion chamber, which have median rigidities of response between 17 and 70 GV (Bieber and Chen 1991a). The product has a solar magnetic cycle dependence and our values are lower than those observed by neutron monitors, in agreement with the Bieber and Chen observation that reverses after a solar magnetic field reversal, in accordance with drift theories.
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