1Statistics South Africa. Population Census, 1996: Primary Tables. Report 03-01-17 (1996). Pretoria: Statistics South Africa, 1999.
2Burkitt, DP. Western diseases and their emergence related to diet. S. Afr. Med. J. 1982; 61: 1013–5.
3Segal, I, Walker, ARP. Low fat intake with falling fibre intake commensurate with rarity of non-infective bowel diseases in blacks in Soweto, Johnannesburg, South Africa. Nutr. Cancer 1986; 8: 185–91.
4Fox, FW. Diet in the urban locations as indicated by the survey. In: Janisch, M, ed. A Study of African Income and Expenditure in 987 Families in Johannesburg. City of Johannesburg: Department of Non-European and Native Affairs, 1940.
5Du Toit, B. Dietary survey amongst 100 native families in the Payneville Location, Springs. S. Afr. J. Soc. Sci. 1951; 4: 63–73.
6Batson, E. The ethnic differentiation of fat–calorie ratios in household food purchases in Cape Town. J. Soc. Res. 1953; 4: 113–5.
7Bronte-Stewart, B, Keys, A, Brock, JF. Serum cholesterol, diet and coronary heart disease. Lancet 1953; ii: 1103–8.
8Manning, EB, Mann, JI, Sophangisa, E, Truswell, AS. Dietary patterns in urbanised blacks. S. Afr. Med. J. 1971; 48: 488–98.
9Gericke, GJ, Loock, ME, Marzner, L, van der Merwe, CA. Die macronutrientinname en serumlipiedwaardes van swartes met en sonder IHS. J. Diet Home Econ. 1989; 17: 41–6.
10Albertse, EC, Neethling, A, de Villiers, MA. Diet and lifestyle differences between rural and urban Zulu women. S. Afr. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1990; 2(Suppl. 1.1): 1.
11Walker, ARP, Walker, BF, Walker, AJ. Comparison of nutrient intakes of South African elderly black women in 1969 and 1989. J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 1992; 5: 169–77.
12Walker, ARP, Walker, BF. High high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in African children and adults in a population free of coronary heart disease. BMJ 1978; 2: 1336–8.
13De Villiers, MA. Diet, lifestyle and the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among Zulu women in a remote rural area. MSc thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1988.
14Sivis, N, Mollenze, WF. Nutrient intakes of black inhabitants in Qwa Qwa and Bloemfontein. Unpublished, University of Potchefstroom, 1992.
15Rossouw, LJ. An interracial comparison of atherosclerosis precursors in 11-year-old South African children. MSc thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1990.
16Bourne, LT. Dietary intake in an urban African population in South Africa – with special reference to the nutrition transition. PhD thesis, University of Cape Town, South Africa, 1996.
17Shekelle, RB, Shyrock, A, Mac, M, Paul, O. Diet and serum cholesterol and death from coronary heart disease: The Western Electric Study. N. Engl. J. Med. 1981; 304: 65–70.
18Bourne, LT, Langenhoven, ML, Steyn, K, Jooste, PL, Laubscher, JA, Van der Vyfer, E. Nutrient intake in the urban African population of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. The BRISK study. Cent. Afr. J. Med. 1993; 39: 238–347.
19Diet Consensus Panel. Dietary recommendations for the prevention of coronary heart disease. S. Afr. Med. J. 1989; 76: 591–2.
20American Heart Association. Dietary guidelines for healthy American adults. Position Statement. Circulation 1988; 77: 721A–4A.
21Food and Nutrition Board, US National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990.
22Bourne, LT, Langenhoven, ML, Steyn, K, Jooste, PL, Nesamvuni, AE, Laubscher, JA. The food and meal pattern in the urban African population of the Cape Peninsula. The BRISK study. Cent. Afr. J. Med. 1994; 40: 140–8.
23Department of Health Services and Welfare, Administration: House of Assembly. Guide to Healthy Eating. Pretoria: Promedia, 1990.
24Vorster, HH, Jerling, JC, Oosthuizen, W, Becker, P, Wolmarans, P. Nutrient Intakes of South Africans: An Analysis of the Literature. SANSS Group Report to Roche Products, Potchefstroom, 1995; 41.
25Steyn, K, Katzenellenbogen, J, Lombard, CJ, Bourne, LT. Urbanisation and the risk for chronic diseases of lifestyle in the black population of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. J.Cardiovasc. Risk 1997; 4: 135–42.
26Walker, ARP. Urbanisation of developing populations: bearing of rise in privilege and the prevalence of diseases of nutritional deficiency and excess. In: Chaves, A, Bourges, H, Basta, S, eds. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Nutrition, Mexico. Basel: Karger, 1972; 26–31.
27Steyn, K, Bourne, LT, Jooste, PL, Fourie, J, Rossouw, K, Lombard, C. Anthropometric profile of a black population of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa. East Afr. Med. J. 1998; 75: 35–40.
28Mollentze, WF, Moore, AJ, Steyn, AF, Joubert, G, Steyn, K, Oosthuizen, GM. Coronary heart disease risk factors in a rural and urban Orange Free State population. S. Afr. Med. J. 1995; 85: 90–6.
29Puoane, T, Steyn, K, Bradshaw, D, Lambert, EV, Fourie, J, Laubscher, JA. Anthropometry and obesity in South Africa – the National Demographic and Health Survey, 1998. Int. J. Obes. [in press]. Personal correspondence.
30World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva: WHO, 3–5 June 1997.
31Steyn, K, Jooste, PL, Bourne, L, Fourie, JM, Badenhorst, CJ, Bourne, DE. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in the black population of the Cape Peninsula. S. Afr. Med. J. 1991; 79: 480–5.
32Levitt, NS,Katzenellenbogen, JM, Bradshaw, D, Hoffman, MN, Bonnici, F. The prevalence and risk factors for NIDDM in urban Africans in Cape Town, South Africa. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 601–7.
33Levitt, NS, Steyn, K, Lambert, EV, Fourie, JM, Rossouw, K. Modifiable risk factors for Type 1 diabetes mellitus in a periurban community in South Africa. Diabet. Med. 1999; 16: 1–5.
34Kruger, HS, Venter, CS, Vorster, HH, et al. Physical inactivity is an important contributing factor to obesity in black women in the North West. S. Afr. Med. J. 1999; 89(4): 463.
35Kolbe, TL, Lambert, EV, Charlton, K, Noakes, TD. Effectiveness of a low intensity, community-based exercise program for older South Africans from previously disadvantaged communities. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1999; 31(Suppl. 5): S185.
36Steyn, K, Gaziano, TA, Bradshaw, D, Laubscher, JA. Hypertension in South African adults: results from the Demographic and Health Survey. J. Hypertens. [in press].
37Guidelines Subcommittee 1999. World Health Organisation/International Society of Hypertension guidelines for management of hypertension. J. Hypertens. 1999; 17: 151–83.
38Burt, VL, Whelton, P, Rocella, EJ, Brown, C, Cutler, JA, Higgins, M. Prevalence of hypertension in the US adult population. Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991. Hypertension 1995; 25: 305–13.
39Fuentes, R, Illmaniemi, N, Laurikainen, E, Tuomilehto, J, Nissinen, A. Hypertension in developing economies: a review of population based studies carried out from 1980–1988. J. Hypertens. 2000; 18: 521–9.
40McLarty, DG, Pollitt, C, Swai, ABM. Diabetes in South Africa. Diabet. Med. 1990; 7: 670–84.
41Goldberg, MD, Marine, N, Ribeiro, F. Prevalence of glycosuria and diabetes among Indians and Bantu. S. Afr. Med. J. 1969; 43: 733–8.
42Omar, MAK, Seedat, MA, Motala, AA, Dyer, RB, Becker, P. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a group of urban South African blacks. S. Afr. Med. J. 1993; 83: 641–3.