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Vitamin D sufficiency in young Brazilian children: associated factors and relationship with vitamin A corrected for inflammatory status

  • Bárbara H Lourenço (a1), Lara LS Silva (a1) (a2), Wafaie W Fawzi (a3), Marly A Cardoso (a1) and for the ENFAC Working Group (a1) (a2) (a3)...



To assess sociodemographic, nutritional and health conditions associated with vitamin D sufficiency among young Brazilian children living at different latitudes.


Cross-sectional analysis with a four-level model of inflammation to correct micronutrient concentrations. Prevalence ratios (PR; 95 % CI) were estimated for factors associated with vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/l), adjusting for child’s sex, age, skin colour, stunting and vitamin A+D supplementation.


Primary health-care units in four Brazilian cities located at lower (7°59′26·9016″S and 9°58′31·3864″S) and higher latitudes (16°41′12·7752″S and 30°2′4·7292″S).


In total 468 children aged 11–15 months were included in the analysis.


Only 31·8 % of children were vitamin D sufficient (concentration <30 nmol/l and <50 nmol/l among 32·9 and 68·2 %, respectively). Living at higher latitudes was associated with reduced prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency compared with lower latitudes (PR = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·85). Maternal education ≥9 years positively influenced a sufficient vitamin D status in children. After correction for inflammatory status, each increase of 1 µmol/l in vitamin A concentration was associated with a 1·38-fold higher prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency (95 % CI 1·18, 1·61). Progressive decline in the prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency was associated with marginal and deficient status of vitamin A (Ptrend = 0·001).


Lower latitude, higher maternal education and vitamin A concentration were positively associated with vitamin D sufficiency in young Brazilian children. These findings are relevant for planning public health strategies for improving vitamin D status starting in early infancy.


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Members of the ENFAC Working Group are listed in the Appendix.



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Vitamin D sufficiency in young Brazilian children: associated factors and relationship with vitamin A corrected for inflammatory status

  • Bárbara H Lourenço (a1), Lara LS Silva (a1) (a2), Wafaie W Fawzi (a3), Marly A Cardoso (a1) and for the ENFAC Working Group (a1) (a2) (a3)...


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