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Vitamin D deficiency prevalence and risk factors among pregnant Chinese women

  • Chunfeng Yun (a1), Jing Chen (a1), Yuna He (a2), Deqian Mao (a1), Rui Wang (a1), Yu Zhang (a1), Chun Yang (a1), Jianhua Piao (a1) and Xiaoguang Yang (a1)...

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate vitamin D deficiency prevalence and risk factors among pregnant Chinese women.

Design

A descriptive cross-sectional analysis.

Setting

China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) 2010–2013.

Subjects

A total of 1985 healthy pregnant women participated. Possible predictors of vitamin D deficiency were evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses.

Results

The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 15·5 (interquartile range 11·9–20·0, range 3·0–51·5) ng/ml, with 74·9 (95 % CI 73·0, 76·7) % of participants being vitamin D deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D <20 ng/ml). According to the multivariate logistic regression analyses, vitamin D deficiency was positively correlated with Hui ethnicity (P=0·016), lack of vitamin D supplement use (P=0·021) and low ambient UVB level (P<0·001). In the autumn months, vitamin D deficiency was related to Hui ethnicity (P=0·012) and low ambient UVB level (P<0·001). In the winter months, vitamin D deficiency was correlated with younger age (P=0·050), later gestational age (P=0·035), higher pre-pregnancy BMI (P=0·019), low ambient UVB level (P<0·001) and lack of vitamin D supplement use (P=0·007).

Conclusions

Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among pregnant Chinese women. Residing in areas with low ambient UVB levels increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, especially for women experiencing advanced stages of gestation, for younger pregnant women and for women of Hui ethnicity; therefore, vitamin D supplementation and sensible sun exposure should be encouraged, especially in the winter months. Further studies must determine optimal vitamin D intake and sun exposure levels for maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels in pregnant Chinese women.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email xgyangcdc@vip.sina.com

Footnotes

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C. Yun and J. Chen contributed equally to this work and should be regarded as co-first authors.

Footnotes

References

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